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The implementation of Natura 2000 in forests: A trans- and interdisciplinary assessment of challenges and choices.
Winkel, G. ; Blondet, M. ; Borrass, L. ; Frei, T. ; Geitzenauer, M. ; Gruppe, A. ; Jump, A. ; Koning, J. de; Sotirov, M. ; Weiss, G. ; Winter, S. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2015
Environmental Science & Policy 52 (2015). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 23 - 32.
climate-change - biodiversity conservation - european-union - management - science - policy - network - stand
Natura 2000 is the core of the EU's biodiversity conservation policy. 50% of the overall protected area under Natura 2000 is forest. Yet, comparatively little is known about the implementation of the policy in forests. Building on a rich set of social and natural science data, and an inter- and transdisciplinary discussion process involving scientists from different disciplines as well as EU, national and local stakeholders, this paper identifies five important challenges related to the implementation of Natura 2000 in forests: (1) the balancing of biodiversity conservation and timber production, (2) the integration of conservation (science) and local stakeholders’ demands, (3) climate change, (4) lacking and less effective funding, and (5) conflicts related to other sectoral policies. Subsequently, five possible pathways to tackle these challenges are proposed: (1) a learning approach through better communication and transparency, (2) a pathway emphasizing the role of conservation science in developing management strategies and responding to climate change, (3) an approach of better integrating Europe's citizens in the design and implementation of the policy, (4) an approach highlighting the necessity of an effective funding strategy, and (5) the vision to work towards an integrated European land use and conservation policy. In conclusion, we emphasize, on one hand, the distinct character of the five pathways but, on the other hand, underline that probably all of them need to be followed in order to make the implementation of Natura 2000 in Europe's forests a success story.
Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands
Reidsma, P. ; Wolf, J. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Schaap, B.F. ; Mandryk, M. ; Verhagen, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2015
Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1748-9326
european-union - crop yields - agriculture - responses - models - wheat - variability - improvement - strategies - scenarios
Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semiquantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.
Handling adaptation policy choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands
Massey, E. ; Huitema, D. ; Garrelts, H. ; Grecksch, K. ; Mees, H. ; Rayner, T. ; Storbjörk, S. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Winges, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 9 - 24.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - milieubeleid - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - zweden - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - nederland - climate adaptation - regional planning - environmental policy - international comparisons - sweden - germany - uk - netherlands - climate-change adaptation - european-union - scales - interplay
Attention is increasing in academia towards the governance of adaptation, specifically how state and non-state actors are defining the adaptation ‘problematique’ and crafting public policies to address it. Adaptation is the ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’. The challenge for governments is taking this rather vague concept and turning it into viable and implementable public policies. This implies that they have to make choices as to the types of polices to create, the sectors they should cover, ministerial jurisdictions and funding. This article contributes to the discussion on the adaptation governance by presenting a conceptual framework that outlines policy choices governors need to make, by applying this framework to a number of countries, and starting the debate on which choice or choices were particularly instrumental in shaping adaptation policy in particular countries as a whole. It focuses on four countries traditionally seen to be adaptation leaders: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues
Bock, B.B. - \ 2015
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 22 (2015)5. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 731 - 745.
european-union - mobilities - areas - state - work - eu - challenges - migration - politics - family
This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy documents demonstrates that few rural development plans address gender issues, and generally only by including some separate projects for women. Little is done to address the systemic features of gender inequality and to realise inclusive developments that address the needs of all social groups. The de-politicisation of rural gender issues results in policy makers ticking the obligatory gender box without envisioning any real change in the agenda or process of rural development policy making. I argue that a more fruitful way to go forward is to re-politicise gender in rural development and to tease out at the local level how changing gender relations and rural development coincide.
Farming systems in two less favoured areas in portugal: their development from 1989 to 2009 and the implications for sustainable land management
Jones, N.M. ; Graaff, J. de; Duarte, F. ; Rodrigo, I. ; Poortinga, A. - \ 2014
Land Degradation and Development 25 (2014)1. - ISSN 1085-3278 - p. 29 - 44.
agricultural soil conservation - policy measures - european-union - consequences - degradation - typology - spain - ndvi
Since the late 1980s, sustainable land management is one of the objectives of the European Commission in Less Favoured Areas. In this paper, we investigate the economic and environmental sustainability of farming systems in two less favoured areas in Centro and Alentejo areas of Portugal. The specific objectives were the following: (i) to characterise the farming systems; (ii) to analyse their development over a 20-year period (1989-2009); and (iii) to investigate to what extent these farming systems contribute to sustainable land management. The diversity of the farming systems was identified through a survey and cluster analysis and compared with the Farm Accountancy Data Network classification on types of farming. Indicators on the economic and environmental sustainability were estimated, namely, farm net income, return to labour and rotation management, on the basis of a survey, Farm Accountancy Data Network database and Landsat imagery, respectively. Results indicate an increased focus on livestock in the past 20years (1989-2009). In Centro, rotation management was not affected. The small ruminant farms have been able to retain a positive farm net income but that was only possible with a below average return to labour. In Alentejo, the increased focus on livestock, cattle in particular, led to an intensification of fodder production on certain plots. Mixed crop-livestock farms show a negative farm net income since 1995 and depend heavily on subsidies to remain viable. As other studies in southern Europe have shown, farm strategies have often been directed towards lowering labour inputs, lowering forage deficits through on-farm produced resources and acquiring subsidies. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A technical investigation on tools and concepts for sustainable management of the subsurface in The Netherlands.
Griffioen, J. ; Wensem, J. van; Oomes, J.L. ; Barends, F. ; Breunese, J. ; Bruining, H. ; Olsthoorn, T. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Stoel, A.E. van der - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 485-486 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 810 - 819.
risk-assessment - groundwater sustainability - resources management - decision-making - mining-industry - european-union - water - storage - policy - framework
In response to increasing use of the subsurface, there is a need to modernise policies on sustainable use of the subsurface. This holds in particular for the densely populated Netherlands. We aimed to analyse current practice of subsurface management and the associated pressure points and to establish a conceptual overview of the technical issues related to sustainable management of the subsurface. Case studies on the exploitation of subsurface resources (including spatial use of the subsurface) were analysed, examining social relevance, environmental impact, pressure points and management solutions. The case studies ranged from constructing underground garages to geothermal exploitation. The following issues were identified for the technological/scientific aspects: site investigation, suitability, risk assessment, monitoring and measures in the event of failure. Additionally, the following general issues were identified for the administrative aspects: spatial planning, option assessment, precaution, transparency, responsibility and liability. These issues were explored on their technological implications within the framework of sustainable management of the subsurface. This resulted into the following key aspects: (1) sustainability assessment, (2) dealing with uncertainty and (3) policy instruments and governance. For all three aspects, different options were identified which might have a legal, economic or ethical background. The technological implications of these backgrounds have been identified. A set of recommendations for sustainable management of the subsurface resources (incl. space) was established: (1) management should be driven by scarcity, (2) always implement closed loop monitoring when the subsurface activities are high-risk, (3) when dealing with unknown features and heterogeneity, apply the precautionary principle, (4) responsibility and liability for damage must be set out in legislation and (5) sustainability should be incorporated in all relevant legislation and not only in environmental legislation. Other aspects to be considered are the reversibility of the impacts from subsurface activities and the abandonment of installations.
From climate research to climate compatible development: experiences and progess in the Netherlands
Veraart, J.A. ; Nieuwaal, K. van; Driessen, P.P.J. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)2. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 851 - 863.
joint knowledge production - change adaptation - judicious management - regional climate - decision-making - european-union - policy - models - science - impacts
Over the past decades, significant experience has been gained in demand-driven research on climate change in many countries. In the Netherlands, a competitive call for proposals for large research programmes at the interface between policy, science and private sector was issued in 2001. Members of the Dutch climate research community proved they were able to develop two large research programme proposals which were funded: ‘Climate changes Spatial Planning’ and its successor ‘Knowledge for Climate’. The programmes ran from 2004 to 2012 and from 2008 to 2014, respectively. Both programmes can be considered as a 10-year research programme experiment to develop knowledge about both the climate system and climate compatible development by crossing disciplines, institutions and national research funding strategies. Within this 10-year period, a trend can be observed in which a ‘top-down’ climate impact assessment approach is increasingly combined with a ‘bottom-up’ approach. Based on the 15 articles presented in this special issue (and others), we argue that this development has enriched both fundamental and applied research on climate adaptation. Despite the predominantly Dutch-oriented scope of the presented research, we believe that such experiences can be of international interest. Climate adaptation research finds itself in between global systems knowledge on the one hand and practical needs and experiences at the local, regional and national level on the other. This demands the utmost from all actors involved to enable an efficient and constructive flow and use of knowledge and expertise.
Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have grater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood
Lhachimi, S.K. ; Nusselder, W.J. ; Lobstein, T.J. ; Smit, H.A. ; Baili, P. ; Bennett, K. ; Kulik, M.C. ; Jackson-Leach, R. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Mackenbach, J.P. - \ 2013
Obesity Reviews 14 (2013)7. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 523 - 531.
european-union - health - overweight - disease - trends - burden - policy
A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the prevalence of obesity when entering adulthood; (ii) reducing the risk of becoming obese throughout adult life; and (iii) combinations of both approaches. We found that, while all approaches reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases and improve life expectancy, a given percentage reduction in obesity prevalence achieved during childhood had a smaller effect than the same percentage reduction in the risk of becoming obese applied throughout adulthood. A small increase in the probability of becoming obese during adulthood offsets a substantial reduction in prevalence of overweight/obesity achieved during childhood, with the gains from a 50% reduction in child obesity prevalence offset by a 10% increase in the probability of becoming obese in adulthood. We conclude that both policy approaches can improve the health profile throughout the life course of a cohort, but they are not equivalent, and a large reduction in child obesity prevalence may be reversed by a small increase in the risk of becoming overweight or obese in adulthood.
Participation of Italian farmers in rural development policy
Pascucci, S. ; Magistris, T. de; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2013
European Review of Agricultural Economics 40 (2013)4. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 605 - 631.
agri-environmental contracts - transaction costs - european-union - design - conservation - perspective - information - services - schemes - choice
The aim of this paper is to study farmers' participation in rural development policy (RDP) measures. We investigate to what extent regional RDP priorities are driven by regional characteristics and moreover, whether regional-level policy priorities help to explain farmers' participation in RDP measures. We estimate a multilevel binary choice model that includes both farm-level and regional-level explanatory variables. We conclude that regional governments select RDP priorities based on the specific features of their region. Regional policy priorities play an important role in explaining farmers' participation in agri-environmental schemes but not in measures aimed at improving farmer competitiveness.
Comprehensive analysis of B-Lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems in poultry muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Gerritsen, H.W. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Lameris, S.L. ; Sebille, R. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013)24. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 7859 - 7874.
beta-lactamase - quantitative-analysis - ceftiofur resistance - escherichia-coli - european-union - bovine muscle - kidney tissue - enterobacteriaceae - salmonella - mechanisms
A comprehensive method for the quantitative residue analysis of trace levels of 22 ß-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, in poultry muscle by liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric detection is reported. The samples analyzed for ß-lactam residues are hydrolyzed using piperidine in order to improve compound stability and to include the total residue content of the cephalosporin ceftifour. The reaction procedure was optimized using a full experimental design. Following detailed isotope labeling, tandem mass spectrometry studies and exact mass measurements using high-resolution mass spectrometry reaction schemes could be proposed for all ß-lactams studied. The main reaction occurring is the hydrolysis of the ß-lactam ring under formation of the piperidine substituted amide. For some ß-lactams, multiple isobaric hydrolysis reaction products are obtained, in accordance with expectations, but this did not hamper quantitative analysis. The final method was fully validated as a quantitative confirmatory residue analysis method according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and showed satisfactory quantitative performance for all compounds with trueness between 80 and 110 % and within-laboratory reproducibility below 22 % at target level, except for biapenem. For biapenem, the method proved to be suitable for qualitative analysis only.
Comparing apples and oranges: the dependent variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies
Dupuis, J. ; Biesbroek, G.R. - \ 2013
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 23 (2013)6. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 1476 - 1487.
social-ecological systems - adaptive capacity - disaster risk - comparative politics - european-union - public-policy - vulnerability - governance - level - institutions
An increasing number of studies have compared climate change adaptation policies within and between different countries. In this paper we show that these comparative studies suffer from what is known as the ‘‘dependent variable problem’ – the indistinctness of the phenomenon that is being measured, and disagreement on its scope and boundaries. This problem has been signaled in other scientific fields where it proved to hamper meaningful comparisons and policy evaluations, transnational learning, and policy transfer. This paper aims to raise consciousness of the dependent variable problem in comparative studies on climate change adaptation policy by exploring its origins and proposes ways to deal with it. Three main sources of the problem are discussed: (1) conceptual indistinctness of adaptation policy and the heterogeneity and lack of consistency of what is being compared between cases. (2) Inadequate research designs to compare cases. (3) Unclear indicators and explanatory variables to compare across cases. We propose a way to operationalize the concept of adaptation policy, provide a narrower description of the research designs for policy change or outcomes analysis, and finally discuss possible measurements concepts
The role of principles for allocating governance levels in the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. - \ 2013
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 13 (2013)4. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 441 - 459.
european-union - environmental governance - subsidiarity - institutions - politics - wto
The global deliberations on sustainable development took another step in their more than 20-year history at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. A recurrent dimension of these negotiations is the allocation of governance to one or more specific levels in the outcome document. This allocation reflects the international consensus on who at what level should do what in sustainable development, and it has implications for both the effectiveness and legitimacy of sustainable development governance. This paper investigates the negotiation process and outcome of the conference preceding Rio ? 20, the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, analysing the extent to which normative principles played a role in the allocation of governance to specific levels. This was done through qualitative and quantitative analyses of the different drafts of the outcome document. The results show that, although there were clearly limited explicit discussions on principles, it was possible to infer elements of several normative principles for allocating governance in the arguments and outcome of the negotiations. Most prominent among these principles were national sovereignty, but both the principles of substantive and procedural subsidiarity could be detected as well as the principles of fit, culpability and capacity.
How to turn the tide: Developing legitimate marine governance arrangements at the level of the regional seas
Tatenhove, J. van - \ 2013
Ocean & Coastal Management 71 (2013). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 296 - 304.
fisheries management - ocean governance - european-union - institutionalism - framework - governability - perspectives - ecosystems - coastal - systems
Competing spatial claims and conflicts between maritime economic activities and biodiversity in Europe's seas continue to challenge governments and non-governmental actors. Responses to these problems have resulted in a fragmented patchwork of EU policies, private initiatives, and regulations on different levels. It is clear that the different sets of problems in each sea and the existing institutional arrangements (often created in an ad hoc fashion) require different responses and that a regional approach to marine governance is more flexible than a pan-European one. This paper explores whether and how it is possible to develop integrated maritime governance arrangements for Europe's regional seas. It explores the sui generis institutional setting of the EU – a fragmented system in constant flux – and the roles of the Regional Sea Commissions, Member States and other stakeholders. This, together with Wallace's concept of the swinging pendulum of governance, provides us with the basis to identify the conditions for more effective and legitimate EU marine governance arrangements and examine whether it is possible to turn the tide of marine governance to the level of the regional sea? Using concepts from institutional theory, such as institutional ambiguity, institutional layering and conversion and institutional capacity building, this paper develops six building blocks that could help to turn the tide, help to develop legitimate regional-level marine governance arrangements and strengthen the capacity of marine institutions and governance.
Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade
Hop, G.E. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Slager, R. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Saatkamp, H.W. - \ 2013
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 109 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 278 - 292.
animal products - european-union - traceability - requirements
Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually. Farmers would experience the greatest savings (99%), and most savings resulted from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to poultry (48%), mainly slaughter broilers (GER), and pigs (48%), mainly slaughter pigs (NL). In particular, the trade in slaughter animals (dead-end hosts) is subject to measures, such as veterinary checks on both sides of the border that might not contribute to preventing contagious livestock diseases. Therefore, this study concludes that there are several possibilities for reducing the costs of additional cross-border measures in both countries.
Democratic Legitimacy in the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands: Towards Participatory and Deliberative Norms?
Behagel, J.H. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2011
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 13 (2011)3. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 297 - 316.
waterkwaliteit - kaderrichtlijn water - democratie - governance - participatie - eu regelingen - nederland - politieke processen - water quality - water framework directive - democracy - participation - eu regulations - netherlands - political processes - natural-resource management - global governance - european-union - state
The European Union (EU) increasingly shapes environmental policy in its member states. By including public participation requirements in environmental directives, the European Commission aims to open up the policy-making process and move from an administrative to a more participatory approach. Participation is considered to contribute to democratic governance, but has been associated with democratic problems as well, as the bases of democratic legitimacy do not automatically change when a participatory approach is implemented. This article uses a discourse-theoretical approach to analyze how participation in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands took shape and what the implications were for the construction of democratic legitimacy. Our findings show how market and agricultural groups succeeded in dominating the debate by articulating a hegemonic discourse that marginalized environmental demands. Environmental groups did not succeed in turning the debate around, as the participatory and deliberative norms that they ascribed to were not taken up. The case study demonstrates that although the administrative policy-making process was opened up, political dynamics limited the scope for participation. The article concludes by reflecting on the potential of EU governance to promote democratic legitimacy and fulfil participatory and deliberative norms.
Methods and tools for integrated assessment of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries
Reidsma, P. ; König, H. ; Feng, S. ; Bezlepkina, I. ; Nesheim, I. ; Bonin, M. ; Sghaier, M. ; Purushothaman, S. ; Sieber, S. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Brouwer, F.M. - \ 2011
Land Use Policy 28 (2011)3. - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 604 - 617.
nutrient management - zhejiang province - cropping systems - european-union - farm models - lake region - taihu lake - rice - china - asia
For stimulating sustainable development in developing countries, land use patterns and land use changes are considered critical, and therefore effective and efficient land use policies are needed. In this paper we present a methodological framework that has been developed in a joint European and developing countries project (LUPIS – Land Use Policies and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries), to assess the impact of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries. An illustrative application is presented for a case study in China, where water pollution due to agriculture in Taihu Basin is a major problem. We argue that an integrated assessment is required, considering multiple drivers and indicators that determine the objectives and constraints of the stakeholders involved. Therefore, the sustainability impact assessment (SIA) is based on the concept of Land Use Functions (LUFs), and impacts on these LUFs are discussed with stakeholders based on a multi-criteria analysis. LUFs comprise economic, environmental and social indicators relevant for stakeholders at multiple scales. Instead of focusing only on the indicators that determine the problem (e.g., nutrient leaching in the Chinese case study), we take a broader perspective (considering also social, economic and institutional objectives and constraints), such that feasible policy options can be recommended. Stakeholders have a large role in discussing the selection of indicators and policies (pre-modelling), evaluating the impacts on indicators (modelling), and the weighing of indicators and LUFs (post-modelling). For the assessment of impacts on indicators (modelling), quantitative and qualitative approaches are combined. We present and discuss an impact assessment of policy options in Taihu Basin, for the current situation and towards 2015. The methodological framework as presented here proved to be useful to guide a sustainability impact assessment in China and six other case study regions.
Policy relevance of three integrated assessment tools - A comparison with specific reference to agricultural policies
Uthes, S. ; Fricke, K. ; Konig, H. ; Zander, P. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Sieber, S. ; Helming, K. ; Piorr, A. ; Muller, K. - \ 2010
Ecological Modelling 221 (2010)18. - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 2136 - 2152.
land-use change - european-union - farm models - impact - biodiversity - uncertainty - netherlands - scenarios - countries - framework
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a system of market support instruments, direct income transfers, and rural development measures, has been put through an ongoing reform process in recent decades. This paper introduces three policy impact assessment tools (SIAT, SEAMLESS-IF, MEA-Scope tool) and analyses how these tools have responded to a number of challenges for integrated assessment modelling as reported in the international literature. Significant progress has been made with regard to modelling linkages whereas other challenges, particularly those related to issues of scale and uncertainty management, require further efforts. It is also analysed which CAP instruments are represented and what kinds of effects can be analysed at different scales. Market instruments and direct payments are comparatively well represented, while the ability to model rural development measures is mostly beyond the scope of these tools. Because each tool has found a different solution for coping with the common challenges of integrated assessment modelling, the choice of one of the tools for a particular application depends strongly on the policy questions being asked. The SIAT provides the big picture via its ability to represent broad changes in policy instruments with EU-wide cross-sector impacts. The most comprehensive analysis of agricultural policy instruments can be obtained with SEAMLESS-IF. The MEA-Scope tool complements the other two approaches with detailed regional profiles
Survival of classical swine fever virus at various temperatures in faeces and urine derived from experimentally infected pigs
Weesendorp, E. ; Stegeman, A. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. - \ 2008
Veterinary Microbiology 132 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 249 - 259.
hog-cholera virus - aujeszkys-disease - european-union - epidemiology - transmission - inactivation - netherlands - pathogenesis - diagnosis - outbreak
Indirect transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can occur through contact with mechanical vectors, like clothing and footwear or transport vehicles, contaminated with the secretions or excretions of infected pigs. A prerequisite for indirect transmission is survival of the virus on the mechanical vector. Consequently, to obtain more insight into these transmission routes, it is important to know how long the virus remains viable outside the host. In this study we examined the survival of classical swine fever virus in faeces and urine derived from pigs intranasally inoculated with a highly or moderately virulent CSFV strain. Faeces and urine were collected between days 5 and 36 post-inoculation, and stored at 5, 12, 20, and 30 °C. Next, the virus titres were determined in the samples by virus titration, and a random selection of these samples was also analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) to determine the viral RNA decay. Survival curves were generated, and it was shown that the inactivation rate was inversely related to the storage temperature. Average half-life values were between 2 and 4 days at 5 °C, and between 1 and 3 h at 30 °C. Significant differences were observed in survival between virus strains in faeces, however, not in urine. The reduction in viral RNA during the entire study period was limited. This study provided detailed information on survival of CSFV in excretions of infected pigs, which can be used to improve control measures or risk-analysis models
Alternative approaches can greatly reduce the number of fish used for acute toxicity testing
Hoekzema, C.C. ; Murk, A.J. ; Waart, B.J. van de; Hoeven, J.C.M. van der; Roode, D.F. de - \ 2006
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25 (2006)5. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1322 - 1325.
toxiciteit - chemicaliën - tests - toxicologie - testen - vissen - toxicity - chemicals - toxicology - testing - fishes - european-union - ecotoxicity - strategy - daphnia - embryo - algae
We first examined the uptake kinetics of Cd and Zn in the juvenile marine black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) over a wide range of ambient Cd and Zn concentrations, and the relationships with metal accumulation (uptake rate and amount of nonexchangeable surface binding) were established for different fish tissues. Both Cd and Zn accumulation in the body increased linearly with exposure time after the initial metal surface binding. The dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rate constants were 2.64 and 6.50 L/kg/d, respectively, and the kinetics followed a first-order process. No evidence of biphasic transport was found, in contrast to the situation in freshwater fish. Viscera were the most important sites of metal uptake, and gills were the second most important sites. The black sea breams were then acclimated at different Cd or Zn concentrations from either waterborne or dietary source for one week, and the alteration of metal uptake kinetics or subcellular distribution and metallothionein (MT) induction were further quantified. The Cd body burden was enhanced up to 8.6- and 49-fold after waterborne and dietary Cd pre-exposure, respectively. Cadmium pre-exposure also altered the tissue-specific subcellular Cd distribution and significantly elevated tissue MT levels. In contrast, the black sea breams were able to regulate Zn accumulation, and waterborne or dietary Zn pre-exposure had only weak influences on Zn body burden and redistribution. Both Cd and Zn pre-exposures enhanced the metal uptake rate constants, whereas the nonexchangeable surface bindings were less impacted by these pre-exposures. We demonstrated a positive relationship between the Cd uptake rate and Cd or MT concentration in the fish. Pre-exposure to metals may substantially modify the kinetics of metal uptake.