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Staff Publications

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Praktijkproef onderwaterdrains Wormer- en Jisperveld
Akker, Jan van den; Diggelen, J.M.H. van; Houwelingen, Karel van; Kleef, Jan van; Pleijter, Matheijs ; Smolders, A.J.P. ; Turlings, L.G. ; Wielen, S. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2765) - 67
drainage - grondwaterstand - bodemdaling - veengronden - emissie - evapotranspiratie - noord-holland - groundwater level - subsidence - peat soils - emission - evapotranspiration
Due to grassland evapotranspiration groundwater levels can be lowered decimeters below ditch water
level. Use of submerged drains reduces the lowering of groundwater levels and so peat oxidation and
subsidence and CO2 and N2O emissions. Submerged drains proved to increase the bearing capacity,
however, also the penetration resistance for a meadowbird beak increased. The capacity to capture
rain shower events increased. Groundwater and ditch water quality slightly improved. The infiltration
of ditch water increased considerably, however, was less than expected. Probably this is caused by a
hindered infiltration into the drain by sludge in the ditch. The use of a collector drain to regulate the
inlet is recommended.
Hoe klimaatrobuust is de gewasfactormethode van het Nationaal Hydrologisch Instrumentarium?
Walsum, P.E.V. van; Bolt, F.J.E. van der; Veldhuizen, A.A. - \ 2013
Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 19 (2013)3/4. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 127 - 133.
grondwaterstand - evapotranspiratie - waterbehoefte - gewassen - modellen - groundwater level - evapotranspiration - water requirements - crops - models
Artikel naar aanleiding van het artikel “Metingen en proceskennis vereist voor nauwkeurige verdampingsberekening in grondwatermodellen”, van Bartholomeus e.a. in Stromingen, vol 19, #2 (2013). De SWAP-methode wordt in bovengenoemd artikel gebruikt als substituut voor werkelijke metingen om illustratieve berekeningen uit te voeren. Dat de getoetste ‘enkelvoudige’ gewasfactormethoden in dat opzicht tekort te schieten komt doordat er 1) in die methoden geen expliciet onderscheid wordt gemaakt tussen de verschillende verdampingstermen, en 2) de gewasfactor een versimpelde voorstelling vormt van (onder andere) de aerodynamische ruwheid; die kan de effecten van variaties in windsnelheid daarom niet volgen.
Hoe met remote sensing via de vegetatie bodem en water kunnen worden gekarteerd
Roelofsen, H.D. ; Amerongen, J. van; Kooistra, L. ; Runhaar, J. ; Witte, J.P. - \ 2013
Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 19 (2013)2. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 107 - 120.
remote sensing - ecohydrologie - vegetatietypen - evapotranspiratie - grondwaterstand - monitoring - ecohydrology - vegetation types - evapotranspiration - groundwater level
Remote sensing is de verzamelterm voor diverse vormen van aardobservatie. Zoals observaties van het aardoppervlak door satellieten (spaceborne remote sensing). Observaties vanuit vliegtuigen (airborne remote sensing) zijn eveneens mogelijk. De vraag wat remote sensing kan betekenen voor hydrologische toepassingen stond centraal tijdens de NHV voorjaarsbijeenkomst, in mei 2012. Daar betoogden wij dat diverse hydrologische grootheden afgeleid kunnen worden van remote sensing beelden. Dit artikel is een verdere uitwerking van dit betoog. We willen met deze bijdrage aantonen dat de natuurlijke vegetatie een nuttige vertaalsleutel kan vormen tussen remote sensing observaties enerzijds en eigenschappen van de ondergrond anderzijds.
Market outlook for satellite-based RE index insurance in agribusiness
Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI memorandum 13-085) - 34
evapotranspiratie - meteorologie - remote sensing - satellieten - afrika - evapotranspiration - meteorology - satellites - africa
In the current report a market outlook for satellite-based RE index insurance is elaborated on. Special thanks for the contributions of Andries Rosema of EARS Earth Environment Monitoring BV and Erik Klaassens of ECORYS Nederland BV. Also the views of experts who were consulted are acknowledged (see for the list of experts Appendix I).
Ontwikkeling emissiemanagementsysteem grondgebonden teelt; de lysimeter en drainmeter
Voogt, W. ; Zwinkels, F. ; Balendonck, J. ; Dorland, H. van; Winkel, A. van; Heinen, M. - \ 2012
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1190) - 52
cultuurmethoden - glastuinbouw - lysimeters - instrumenten (meters) - waterstroming - emissie - drainage - evapotranspiratie - drainagesystemen - cultural methods - greenhouse horticulture - instruments - water flow - emission - evapotranspiration - drainage systems
Het hoofddoel van het project ‘Glastuinbouw Waterproof, grondgebonden’ was het ontwikkelen van een aantal middelen voor telers van grondgebonden teelten, waarmee zij emissiedoelstellingen kunnen halen. De leidende gedachte hierbij is dat een gesloten waterkringloop zoals toegepast bij substraatteelten onhaalbaar is. Emissiereductie zal vooral via het waterspoor behaald moeten worden en daarom is een brongerichte aanpak, de irrigatie afgestemd op de evapotranspiratie, het meest effectief. Het project omvatte in de eerste plaats het ontwikkelen en combineren van een aantal technische hulpmiddelen en in de tweede plaats het installeren en testen in de praktijk. In dit rapport worden de lysimeter en de bijbehorende drainmeter besproken.
Reference evapotranspiration with radiation-based and temperature-based method - impact on hydrological drought using WATCH Forcing Data
Melsen, L.A. ; Wanders, N. ; Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van; Weedon, G.P. - \ 2011
Brussel : European Commission (Technical report / WATCH no. 39) - 67
evapotranspiratie - hydrologie - hydrologische gegevens - droogte - evapotranspiration - hydrology - hydrological data - drought
Seasonal evaluation of the land surface sheme HTESSEL against remote sensing derived energy fluxes of the Transdanubian regions in Hungary
Wipfler, E.L. ; Metselaar, K. ; Dam, J.C. van; Feddes, R.A. ; Meijgaard, E. van; Ulft, L.H. van; Hurk, B. van den; Zwart, S.J. ; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M. - \ 2011
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15 (2011)4. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1257 - 1271.
aardoppervlak - evapotranspiratie - remote sensing - klimaatverandering - modellen - hongarije - land surface - evapotranspiration - climatic change - models - hungary - terrestrial water storage - era-40 reanalysis - balance closure - climate models - field - atmosphere - hydrology - impact - basin
The skill of the land surface model HTESSEL is assessed to reproduce evaporation in response to land surface characteristics and atmospheric forcing, both being spatially variable. Evaporation estimates for the 2005 growing season are inferred from satellite observations of the Western part of Hungary and compared to model outcomes. Atmospheric forcings are obtained from a hindcast run with the Regional Climate Model RACMO2. Although HTESSEL slightly underpredicts the seasonal evaporative fraction as compared to satellite estimates, the mean, 10th and 90th percentile of this variable are of the same magnitude as the satellite observations. The initial water as stored in the soil and snow layer does not have a significant effect on the statistical properties of the evaporative fraction. However, the spatial distribution of the initial soil and snow water significantly affects the spatial distribution of the calculated evaporative fraction and the models ability to reproduce evaporation correctly in low precipitation areas in the considered region. HTESSEL performs weaker in dryer areas. In Western Hungary these areas are situated in the Danube valley, which is partly covered by irrigated cropland and which also may be affected by shallow groundwater. Incorporating (lateral) groundwater flow and irrigation, processes that are not included now, may improve HTESSELs ability to predict evaporation correctly. Evaluation of the model skills using other test areas and larger evaluation periods is needed to confirm the results.
Soil water regime and evapotranspiration of sites with trees and lawn in Moscow
Bondarenko, V. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; O.V. Makarova-Kormilitsyna, co-promotor(en): A.J. Koolen. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047674 - 171
tilia cordata - bodemwater - evapotranspiratie - gazon - straatbomen - stedelijke gebieden - rusland - soil water - evapotranspiration - lawns and turf - street trees - urban areas - russia
Keywords: Urban vegetation, Tilia cordata, linden, lawn, grass, Leaf Area Index, LAI, digital image processing, evapotranspiration, water stress, electric conductivity, salinity stress, Makkink’s radiation model, deep percolation, water infiltration, runoff, modelling

Situations where tree groups of the species Tilia cordata grow together with lawn grass (trees overlapping grass) were studied on five locations in Moscow, Russia, during six periods of the growing season of 2004. The measurements included: detailed descriptions of the soil profiles, tree and lawn dimensions, and, for each period, leaf area index (LAI), soil water content, and soil electric conductivity (EC). LAI was determined through taking photos with a digital camera and processing the photos with a digital image processing program. Using weather and LAI data and vegetation dimensions, the values of potential evapotranspiration of the vegetation combinations were calculated. These calculations followed FAO guidelines for computing crop water requirements. The reference evapotranspiration was also calculated according to Makkink’s radiation model. The results resembled the values of the FAO reference. The measured values of soil water content were used to identify sites and periods with reduced evapotranspiration due to water stress. It appeared that incidence of water stress was very common. The measured soil water content values were transformed into ratios of actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration: so-called water stress factors. Using these factors, the actual evapotranspiration was calculated from the potential evapotranspiration values. The water regimes of each object and period were analysed. Deep percolation occurred in early spring and late autumn. The possibilities for rainwater to infiltrate the soil were very limited, due to degeneration of soil structure. The water balance of the root zones indicated that the root-zone volumes were smaller than in average forest conditions, and that runoff was extremely high.

Evaluation of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) applied to ASTER imagery with flux-measurements at the SPARC 2004 site (Barrac, Spain)
Kwast, J. van der; Timmermans, W. ; Gieske, A. ; Su, Z. ; Olioso, A. ; Jia, L. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Karssenberg, D. ; Jong, S. de - \ 2009
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 6 (2009)1. - ISSN 1812-2108 - p. 1165 - 1196.
evapotranspiratie - aardoppervlak - energiebalans - warmtestroming - remote sensing - evapotranspiration - land surface - energy balance - heat flow
Accurate quantification of the amount and spatial variation of evapotranspiration is important in a wide range of disciplines. Remote sensing based surface energy balance models have been developed to estimate turbulent surface energy fluxes at different scales. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model on a landscape scale, using tower-based flux measurements at different land cover units during an overpass of the ASTER sensor over the SPARC 2004 experimental site in Barrax (Spain). Additionally, the effect of replacement of empirical roughness functions in the model by field estimates or literature values is investigated. Modelled fluxes correspond better with flux measurements over uniform land cover compared to cases where different land covers are mixed in the measurement footprint. Furthermore SEBS underestimates sensible heat flux, which is common in one source models
Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil
Castro Teixeira, A.H. de - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): W.G.M. Bastiaanssen; M.G. Bos. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049814 - 239
evapotranspiratie - meting - modellen - stroomgebieden - landgebruik - landbouw - brazilië - evapotranspiration - measurement - models - watersheds - land use - agriculture - brazil
Effects of rising atmospheric CO2 on evapotranspiration and soil moisture: A practical approach for the Netherlands
Kruijt, B. ; Witte, J.P.M. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Kroon, T. - \ 2008
Journal of Hydrology 349 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 257 - 267.
broeikasgassen - vegetatietypen - bodemwater - evapotranspiratie - greenhouse gases - vegetation types - soil water - evapotranspiration - water-use efficiency - elevated co2 - carbon-dioxide - regional transpiration - stomatal control - gas-exchange - climate - photosynthesis - responses - leaf
The extent to which climate change will affect evapotranspiration and water deficits is still uncertain. Temperature increase was recently shown to lead to enhanced drought in the Netherlands. In contrast, experimental evidence shows that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations tend to reduce stomatal opening in plants. This leads to lower transpiration rates, although models of atmospheric and soil water feedback show that reductions may be smaller than expected from stomatal closure. We combined the various effects and feedbacks. First, we inferred partial corrections on `crop factors¿ used in simple evaporation equations such as Makkink¿s, for a range of crops and vegetation types in the Netherlands. Second, we applied these corrected factors to infer the likely effects on water deficits in the Netherlands, using a coupled set of hydrological models and national climate scenarios. The combined effects of CO2 on evapotranspiration are generally modest, between a reduction of a few percent for short crops to about 15% for tall, rough vegetation. These reductions are, however, of comparable but opposite magnitude to predicted temperature-induced increases in evapotranspiration. We show that, if combined within the coupled hydrological model, the CO2-effect would lead to a much-reduced desiccating effect of climate change. In general, it is argued that, especially for sub-regional spatial scales and seasonal time-scales, CO2 is likely to be a significant factor in the water balance even of relatively wet regions.
Reconstructie van de historische hydrologie
Gaast, J.W.J. van der; Massop, H.T.L. - \ 2007
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling (2007)7. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 36 - 40.
waterbalans - hydrologie - afvoer - evapotranspiratie - bodemwatergehalte - bodemwaterbalans - computersimulatie - klimaatverandering - grondwaterstand - neerslag - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - geschiedenis - kwel - geohydrologie - water balance - hydrology - discharge - evapotranspiration - soil water content - soil water balance - computer simulation - climatic change - groundwater level - precipitation - catchment hydrology - history - seepage - geohydrology
De WB21-studie heeft geleid tot wateropgaven waarbij de trits vasthouden-bergen-afvoeren de voorkeursvolgorde geeft voor het reduceren van piekafvoeren. In het verleden is het watersysteem echter ook aangepast, wat invloed heeft gehad op de werking van het watersysteem. Om te kunnen leren uit het verleden is bij Alterra een onderzoek uitgevoerd waarbij de historische hydrologische situatie voor een stroomgebied in het zandgebied van Nederland modelmatig is gereconstrueerd. Uit de vergelijking tussen de historische en de huidige situatie blijkt dat bij extreme neerslag, die gemiddeld vaker dan éénmaal per jaar voorkomt, de afvoer vroeger duidelijk minder was, omdat veel meer water tijdelijk op het maaiveld werd geborgen. Het is echter de vraag in hoeverre we nog terug kunnen naar die omstandigheden
Gewas met beleid activeren
Dieleman, J.A. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2007
Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 8 (2007). - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 20 - 21.
klimaatregeling - kasgewassen - groeivertraging - evapotranspiratie - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - kassen - energiebehoud - lage-energie teelt - energiegebruik - air conditioning - greenhouse crops - growth retardation - evapotranspiration - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - greenhouses - energy conservation - low energy cultivation - energy consumption
In Nederland is het weer erg wisselvallig en daarom proberen telers hun planten bij donker weer te activeren door gewasverdamping te stimuleren. Er is echter niet veel bekend over het nut van het activeren van planten in kassen. Het energieverbruik is met zo'n 10 procent te verminderen door op donkeren dagen minder of minder vaak maatregelen te nemen die gewasverdamping stimuleren. Deze besparing gaat echter wel ten koste van de CO2-produktie. Dit betekent dat CO2 uit alternatieve bronnen nodig is om de productie op niveau te houden. Zo blijkt dat het gebruik van een minimumbuis om de gewasverdamping te stimuleren, niet leidt tot veel meer verdamping of meer productie, maar wel veel extra energie kost. In het artikel worden een aantal conclusies van het bureauonderzoek van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw gepresenteerd
The value of rain
Snellen, W.B. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1325) - 41
watervoorraden - hydrologie - evapotranspiratie - regen - irrigatie - landgebruik - taxatie - water resources - hydrology - evapotranspiration - rain - irrigation - land use - valuation
This paper explores the gains that can be made by shifting the focus of water resources management from the water towards the rain. This causes also a shift in perception of what is the largest user of water: instead of irrigation it is the evapotranspiration
Verdamping planten vermindert door toename atmosferische kooldioxide
Witte, J.P. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kroon, T. ; Maas, K. - \ 2006
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 39 (2006)5. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 27 - 29.
plant-water relaties - temperatuur - evapotranspiratie - klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - transpiratie - broeikasgassen - verdroging - plant water relations - temperature - evapotranspiration - climatic change - carbon dioxide - transpiration - greenhouse gases - desiccation
Door verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen neemt de koolzuurgasconcentratie in de atmosfeer toe, waardoor de temperatuur op aarde zal stijgen. Het KNMI heeft onlangs berekend hoeveel de verdamping in 2050 zal zijn toegenomen door deze temperatuurstijging. Toename van het kooldioxidegehalte heeft echter ook tot gevolg dat planten hun huidmondjes minder ver hoeven te openen of minder huidmondjes hoeven aan te maken om in hun koolstofbehoefte te voorzien. Hierdoor daalt de verdamping juist. Dit effect van een hogere kooldioxideconcentratie is nu gekwantificeerd: hydrologen dienen de verdamping door de vegetatie voortaan naar beneden bij te stellen en Nederland wordt minder droog dan op grond van alleen de temperatuurstijging wordt verwacht
Verdamping zorgt voor afkoeling en opname en transport van nutrienten
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2005
Onder Glas 2 (2005)11. - p. 20 - 21.
plantenfysiologie - voedingsstoffenopname (planten) - evapotranspiratie - transpiratie - temperatuur - cultuurmethoden - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - glastuinbouw - plant physiology - nutrient uptake - evapotranspiration - transpiration - temperature - cultural methods - farm management - greenhouse horticulture
De verdamping in een plant heeft twee belangrijke functies: de opname en het transport van nutriënten en afkoeling. Voor het functioneren van de plant is dus altijd een zekere verdamping nodig. Het teveel stimuleren van de verdamping kost veel energie. Daarom kan het lonend zijn een hogere luchtvochtigheid te accepteren
The surface energy balance over drying semi-arid terrain in West Africa
Schüttemeyer, D. - \ 2005
University. Promotor(en): Bert Holtslag, co-promotor(en): Arnold Moene; H.A.R. Debruin. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085041929 - 154
atmosfeer - land - evapotranspiratie - energiebalans - ghana - grenslaag - atmosphere - evapotranspiration - energy balance - boundary layer
Analysing the space-time distribution of soil water storage of a forest ecosystem using spatio-temporal kriging
Jost, G. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Papritz, A. - \ 2005
Geoderma 128 (2005)3/4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 258 - 273.
bodemwaterbalans - soortendiversiteit - evapotranspiratie - kriging - bossen - picea abies - fagus sylvatica - oostenrijk - geostatistiek - soil water balance - species diversity - evapotranspiration - forests - austria - geostatistics - moisture - field - variability - patterns - models - future - states
In forest the soil water balance is strongly influenced by tree species composition. For example, differences in transpiration rate lead to differences in soil water storage (SWS) and differences in canopy interception cause differences in infiltration. To analyse the influence of tree species composition on SWS at the scale of a forest stand, we compare spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation and SWS. Geostatistical space¿time models provide a probabilistic framework for mapping SWS from point observations. The accuracy of these models may be improved by incorporating knowledge about the process of evapotranspiration. In this paper we combine a physical-deterministic evapotranspiration model with space¿time geostatistical interpolation to predict soil water storage in the upper 30 cm of soil (SWS30) for a 0.5 ha plot in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Kreisbach, Lower Austria. Soil water storage was measured at 198 locations by permanently installed wave guides. This was repeated 28 times, about every two weeks during the growing seasons of 2000 and 2001. Incorporation of a process-based model in space¿time prediction of SWS30 reduced the effect of precipitation on SWS30 predictions prior to precipitation. Spatial patterns of SWS30 between the permanent wilting point and field capacity depend on the precipitation and drying history, which is affected by vegetation. Early in the growing season spruce starts to transpire markedly, which is common for coniferous trees. During dry periods, spruce reduces transpiration earlier than beech. Overall beech transpires more than spruce during the growing season. The greater transpiration rates of beech are compensated for by greater soil water recharge after precipitation because less rainfall is intercepted. At low water contents near the permanent wilting point SWS30 was spatially quite uniform. This was also the case at water contents nearfield capacity, probably because the soil physical parameters varied little. Space¿time interpolation of SWS30 and the prediction of soil water discharge and soil water recharge during periods of drying and rewetting demonstrate the important role of vegetation on the spatial patterns of SWS30.
Using the depleted fraction to manage the groundwater table in irrigated areas
Bos, M.G. - \ 2004
Irrigation and Drainage Systems 18 (2004)3. - ISSN 0168-6291 - p. 201 - 209.
landbouw met irrigatie - irrigatie - waterbalans - evapotranspiratie - bodemwater - drainage - irrigated farming - irrigation - water balance - evapotranspiration - soil water
The depleted fraction, defined as the ratio of ETactual over total inflow (P Vc), relates parameters of the water balance of an irrigated area with each other in such a way that the (water) manager obtains information on the rate of change of water stored in the area (soil moisture and groundwater). If the annual average of the depleted fraction equals about 0.6 water storage in the area is stable, while water is stored for lower values of the depleted fraction. If the value of the depleted fraction exceeds about 0.6, the volume of water stored in the area decreases. This decrease is partly due to natural drainage and partly due to capillary rise into the root zone of the irrigated crop. Despite this capillary rise, the actual evapo-transpiration drops below the potential ET-value. For most crops, a decrease of ET by about 25 percent would result in a higher productivity in terms of yield per cubic meter water. However, the yield per hectare (and thus farm income) would decrease. Management of an irrigation system is recommended in such a way that the monthly values of the depleted fraction range is between 0.5 and 0.8. Such a management rule would provide sufficient water for leaching (at the 0.5 side of the range) and provide high crop yield per unit water consumed (at the 0.8 side).
Verdamping en productie: geen onafscheidelijk duo
Heuvelink, E. ; Stanghellini, C. - \ 2004
Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 32 (2004). - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 24 - 25.
plantenfysiologie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - relatieve vochtigheid - transpiratie - evapotranspiratie - vruchten - glastuinbouw - plant physiology - tomatoes - relative humidity - transpiration - evapotranspiration - fruits - greenhouse horticulture
Onderzoek naar de relatie tussen luchtvochtigheid, gewasverdamping en productie bij een tomatenplant onder glas
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