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Making expertise fit: On the use of certified versus experiential knowledge in becoming an informed patient
Versteeg, Wytske ; Molder, Hedwig te - \ 2019
Journal of Health Psychology (2019). - ISSN 1359-1053
chronic illness - communication - coping - epistemology - experience - information - norms - self-presentation - social interaction - social media
This article reports a discursive psychological study of online conversations among patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on what constitutes an “informed patient.” Being informed means different things for different patient groups. Whether patients prioritize experiential or certified expert knowledge is not indicative of patients’ preferences per se but depends on how they give meaning to the responsibilities particular to their disease. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients hold each other accountable for demonstrating the seriousness of their disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients use expert information to orient to a norm of thinking positive. Diabetes patients challenge experts to carve out independence from the diabetes regimen.
The effect of product–context appropriateness on emotion associations in evoked eating occasions
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 40 (2015)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 49 - 60.
food choice - consumption contexts - acceptability - responses - experience - situation - ratings - impact - liking - time
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact that perceived product–context appropriateness exerts on elicited emotion associations. The experimental approach consisted in creating eating occasions (as a multi-component entity) varying in appropriateness, which consumers were instructed to vividly imagine while they completed emotion surveys for selected products. Multiple studies were purposefully designed to include different products, contextual dimensions (comprising internal and external conditions) and presentation formats, consumer populations, test locations, and emotion survey formats. The results from 1336 consumers consistently revealed an effect of appropriateness on the emotion associations toward food products and eating occasions. The frequency and intensity of positive emotion terms was generally higher with more appropriate contexts, decreasing with the appropriateness ratings (and vice versa for the negative emotion terms). In addition, the impact of perceived appropriateness was asymmetrical, having a stronger impact on positive than on negative emotion terms. These insights support the idea that emotion responses are subject to a large number of contextual influences, and make a robust case for including appropriateness measures in context and emotion research.
The impact of the means of context evocation on consumers' emotion associations towards eating occasions
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 37 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 61 - 70.
evoked consumption contexts - imagery - appropriateness - responses - questionnaires - satisfaction - attributes - experience - validity - ratings
The joint investigation of the product, the consumer, and the consumption context is necessary for furthering the understanding of eating occasions (snacks and main meals), including their construction and enjoyment. The study of people’s experience of eating occasions is less advanced than the understanding of acceptability, preference, and choice of individual food/beverage items and/or their combination in meals. The current research contributes to narrowing this gap by focusing on emotions as a dimension of eating experiences and enjoyment. Under evoked consumption contexts (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner), the emotion associations for several products (potato crisps, chocolate brownie, and kiwifruit) were obtained from consumers (n = 399) using a questionnaire method. Emotion associations were explored in relation to: (1) the way in which the food stimulus was evaluated by participants (tasting food vs. seeing a food image); (2) the serving presentation of the food stimulus (image of food shown in isolation vs. image of food served on a plate with cutlery); and (3) the means in which the consumption context was evoked (written vs. written and pictorial). Consumers’ product emotion associations when tasting a food stimulus vs. seeing an image of the same food were highly similar. There was some evidence that more specific means of presenting the food stimuli (with tableware vs. without tableware) and consumption contexts (written and pictorially vs. written only) influenced perceived appropriateness of the product in the focal consumption context. This resulted, for example, in a higher frequency of use of negative emotion terms in the less appropriate consumption contexts. Overall, through the use of evoked consumption contexts this research has contributed new understanding of product-specific emotional associations during eating occasions from a methodological approach. In addition to the aforementioned results a more general finding was the apparent reliance by participants on past product experiences when completing the emotion questionnaire.
Emotion responses under evoked consumption contexts: A focus on the consumers’ frequency of product consumption and the stability of responses
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 35 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 24 - 31.
food acceptability - choice - appropriateness - questionnaires - preferences - experience - ratings
Previous research has demonstrated that the context in which a certain food is consumed (even if imagined) can affect consumers’ associative emotional responses to that product. In three separate studies we extended this line of research by: (1) replicating these previous findings with consumers from another country and another product category; (2) investigating the impact of participants’ product consumption frequency on their associative emotional responses; and (3) examining whether the emotional associations involved in eating certain products in evoked contexts are stable through time. The results of this work support previous findings demonstrating the impact of the consumption context (and its perceived appropriateness) on consumers’ reported emotional associations with a food product, and that this result is generalizable across nationalities. We also confirm that the associative emotion profiles of more emotion-laden product categories (in comparison with more neutral ones; e.g. chocolate vs. fruit) are more variable between contexts. In addition, the emotional associative profiles obtained from two groups of participants that were either high or low frequent consumers of the food stimuli did not differ to any significant extent. Finally, the emotion responses provided under evoked consumption contexts seemed to be consistent (stable) across time. Taken together, this study strengthens the rationale for evoking consumption contexts during emotion-related tasks, demonstrating that this methodology provides repeatable results and insights that go beyond the product and the consumer. Keywords Emotion responses; Consumption context; Appropriateness; Consumer research; Stability; Frequency of consumption
Temporal dominance of emotions: Measuring dynamics of food-related emotions during consumption
Jager, G. ; Schlich, P. ; Tijssen, I.O.J.M. ; Yao, Y.J. ; Visalli, M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 37 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 99.
time-intensity - mood - experience - perception - chocolate - profile - liking - memory
Mapping food-evoked emotions in addition to sensory profiling is topical. In sensory profiling, the Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS) method focuses on the assessment of the temporal evolution of dominant sensory attributes over time. We hypothesize that food-evoked emotions also show temporal dynamics that can be related to dynamic sensory perception. This study assessed temporal dynamics of sensory and emotional attributes during chocolate tasting. We used TDS to determine dynamic sensory properties of dark chocolates providing a list of 10 sensory attributes. Comparably, Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE) was assessed by replacing the sensory attributes with 10 emotional attributes. Sixty-two participants assessed TDS and TDE of five commercially available dark chocolates (plain and flavoured). Multivariate comparisons (Hotelling test) showed significant differences between products based on the dominance duration of sensory (p <0.05) and emotional attributes (p <0.05). TDS difference curves revealed products to differ based on their dominant sensory attributes, with different attributes peaking at different time moments. TDE difference curves showed that products also differed in the temporal distribution of dominant emotional attributes. Comparing the average dominance rates between plain dark and flavoured dark chocolates revealed that for flavoured dark chocolates mainly flavour attributes and positive/active emotions were perceived as salient whereas for plain dark chocolates textural as well as taste attributes were dominant accompanied by more negative/non-energetic emotions. A joint CVA plot on the duration of dominance for sensory and emotional attributes per product revealed that temporal evolution of sensory – and emotional attributes was related. This suggests a mutual reciprocity between those two entities (sensory and emotional attributes) resulting in more complex, richer product characterization. In conclusion, these findings show TDE to be a promising new venue in characterising food-evoked emotions in relation to sensory profiling.
Effects of previous intrusion pressure on territorial responses in nightingales
Sprau, P. ; Roth, T. ; Amrhrein, V. ; Naguib, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Ornithology 155 (2014)1. - ISSN 2193-7192 - p. 111 - 119.
vocal interactions - luscinia-megarhynchos - challenge hypothesis - pairing success - communication - information - experience - behavior - tits - testosterone
In territorial animals, establishing and defending a territory against rivals is commonly a prerequisite for successful reproduction. Yet, often, non-territorial males that are seeking to establish their own territory may intrude into occupied territories and persistently challenge residents in order to test their resource-holding potential. Such challenges may have long-term consequences for the territorial behaviour of the residents. Here, we tested whether territorial Nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) use information on the intrusion pressure of rivals in territory defence. Using multi-loudspeaker playback experiments, we simulated rivals that either sang from different song perches within occupied territories (persisting intruders) or that immediately left territories after previous intrusions (retreating intruders). In a final playback 1 h later, we then simulated the same rivals singing from a different location at the territory boundary. During this final playback, residents approached the loudspeaker closer, changed their song perches more often, sang more songs in close proximity to the loudspeaker, and sang more trills when rivals were previously simulated as having stayed in their territory without retreating. Our findings show that songbirds can integrate the level of threat from rivals differing in their intrusion behaviours in subsequent territorial encounters. This study emphasises the importance of considering how territorial defence is affected by previous intrusion pressure from rivals.
Feeling at home in public: diasporic Moroccan women negotiating leisure in Morocco and the Netherlands
Wagner, L.B. ; Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2014
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 21 (2014)4. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 415 - 430.
gender - space - constraints - experience - power - city - fear
Muslim women are often cited as subject to restriction in their mobility through public space, especially in European contexts, in comparison with non-Muslim community members. Yet any woman might face restriction in her access to leisure outside the home through geographies of risk and fear, as well as geographies of care and responsibility. In this article, we describe the ways in which Moroccan Muslim women resident in Europe negotiate access to leisure outside the home, in both Europe and Morocco, demonstrating that they practice mobilities framed by safety, risk and responsibility combined with individual volition to be participants in public spaces. Using examples from interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we discuss a notion of ‘viscosity’ as safe public space that acts as an extension of the home, where women feel comfortable enacting their daily lives and engaging in leisure practices. By comparing data from the Netherlands and Morocco, we highlight the role of Muslim-dominant and Christian-dominant public spheres in these negotiations of leisure. The ways women inhabit such spaces reflect individual concerns about personal safety, as well as maintaining respectful relations with family and being protected from unknown dangers, in ways that reflect not only religious beliefs but also geographies of risk related to other factors. Inhabiting such spaces implicates how they become part of the community at large, as visibly present participants, by negotiating many factors beyond religious beliefs as part of their access to public leisure spaces
Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage
Xiao, H.W. ; Zhang, S.L. ; Zhai, J. ; He, Q. ; Mels, A.R. ; Ning, K.J. ; Liu, J. - \ 2013
Water Science and Technology 67 (2013)10. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2257 - 2264.
afvalwaterbehandeling - helofytenfilters - zware metalen - verontreinigde sedimenten - plantenweefsels - waste water treatment - artificial wetlands - heavy metals - contaminated sediments - plant tissues - waste-water treatment - acid-mine drainage - heavy-metals - removal - performance - experience - decades - china
This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments, and plant tissues in the hybrid CW were analysed. The removal of heavy metals from the water stream in the monitoring period was not statistically significant. Metal concentrations in the sediments generally decreased along the wastewater treatment process. The reductive anaerobic condition in the VBFW may promote the sulphate reduction and form highly insoluble Cu, Pb, and Zn sulphides, resulting in the higher concentration of the bivalent cations in the VBFW sediments than the corresponding values in the HSSF; however, the aerobic and anoxic environments in the HSSF enhanced the removal of Cr with the co-precipitation of iron and manganese oxides, and their hydroxides. Metal concentrations in plant tissues were not significantly influenced by the concentrations in sediments, while roots contained statistically higher metal concentrations than stems and leaves. The sediments stored 94.01, 86.31, 95.85, and 89.51% of the total Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn retained in the hybrid CW system, respectively, while only small fractions (
Effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance at the beginning of weaning
Barends, C. ; Vries, J. de; Mojet, J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 29 (2013)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 157 - 165.
developmental-changes - food preferences - variety - children - life - experience - formula
This study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on an infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance during the first 18 days of weaning. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to a type of vegetable or fruit, would increase its intake. Furthermore, we expected that being exclusively weaned with vegetables would result in a higher acceptance of vegetables than being exclusively weaned with fruits. To investigate this, a 19-day intervention study was conducted in 101 healthy infants, aged 4-6 months. Infants were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Two groups received exclusively vegetable purees as targets every other day for 18 consecutive days; green beans was the target for one group and artichoke for the other group. The other two groups received exclusively fruit purees including either apple or plums as the target fruit. On day 19, the vegetable groups consumed their first fruit pur e and the fruit groups their first vegetable pur e. At the beginning of the study on days 1 and 2 and at the end on days 17, 18 and 19, the infants were fed fruit or vegetable pur e in our laboratory. On days 3-16, the parents fed their infants the fruit or vegetable purees at home. Outcome variables were vegetable and fruit intake over time. Mean vegetable intake in the vegetable group increased significantly from 24 28 g (mean +/- SD) on days 1 and 2 to 45 +/- 44 g on days 17 and 18. Fruit intake in the fruit group increased significantly from 46 +/- 40 to 66 +/- 42 g. Fruit intake was significantly higher than vegetable intake from the start. Repeated exposure to fruit had no effect on the vegetable intake. The first intake of green beans in the fruit groups at day 19, was 24 +/- 29 g and on average as low as the green beans intake in the vegetable groups at the 1st exposure on days 1 or 2. Similarly, the first apple intake in the fruit groups on days 1 or 2 of 47 +/- 48 g did on average not differ from the first apple intake of 45 +/- 49 g in the vegetable groups on day 19. The mean intake of green beans and plums increased significantly after repeated exposure. The intake of the target food artichoke stayed low and the intake of apple only increased slightly. These findings confirm that at the first exposure fruit acceptance is higher than vegetable acceptance. Weaning with vegetables, but not with fruits, may promote vegetable acceptance in infants. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Does expertise matter? An in-depth understanding of people’s structure of thoughts on nature and its management implications
Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2013
Biological Conservation 168 (2013). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 184 - 191.
biodiversity conservation - policy - representations - landscape - participation - netherlands - experience - attitudes - conflicts - europe
Understanding people’s way of thoughts on the natural environment may improve communication and collaboration between professionals and stakeholders from the general public. Focusing on similarities and differences between professionals and the public, this study investigates the relation between people’s way of thoughts and actual attitudes towards conservation measures. Based on an innovative hybrid of quantitative and qualitative research methods, we show that people’s thoughts on nature and landscape have a specific structure, consisting of clusters of normative (how we value it), experiential (how we experience it emotionally) and descriptive (how we define it) meanings. Although professionals and the public use similar structure of thoughts, the specific content and relevance of these thoughts differ significantly. Professionals referred to normative meanings four times more often than the public. Because analysis showed people’s general thoughts on nature informed concrete attitudes on conservation measures, these results have clear management implications. For example, we found important differences in the preferred conservation focus. Contrary to the professional focus on species, habitats and ecosystem health, the public tended to evaluate conservation measures on their effects on individual animals and trees and their consequences for scenic quality. Results may help practitioners to find common ground for discussing with critical groups in society. Expanding communication from predominantly normative arguments to include also the emotional connotations of nature may contribute to a shared emotional connection with the public that can be a powerful tool to overcome resistance and build shared visions on conservation issues.
Energy consumption in membrane capacitive deionization for different water recoveries and flow rates, and comparison with reverse osmosis
Zhao, R. ; Porada, S. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2013
Desalination 330 (2013)2. - ISSN 0011-9164 - p. 35 - 41.
ion-exchange membranes - brackish-water - porous-electrodes - desalination - carbon - plant - optimization - performance - electrochemistry - experience
Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a non-faradaic, capacitive technique for desalinating brackish water by adsorbing ions in charged porous electrodes. To compete with reverse osmosis, the specific energy consumption of MCDI needs to be reduced to less than 1 kWh per m3 of freshwater produced. In order to investigate the energy consumption of MCDI, we present here the energy consumption, and the fraction of energy that can be recovered during the ion desorption step of MCDI, as a function of influent concentration, water flow rate and water recovery. Furthermore, the energy consumption of MCDI based on experimental data of our lab-scale system is compared with literature data of reverse osmosis. Comparing with literature data for energy consumption in reverse osmosis, we find that for feed water with salinity lower than 60 mM, to obtain freshwater of ~ 1 g TDS/L, MCDI can be more energy efficient.
Overcoming the “club dilemma” of village-scale bioenergy projects—The case of India
Bluemling, B. ; Visser, I. - \ 2013
Energy Policy 63 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 18 - 25.
rural electrification - biomass gasification - sustainable energy - renewable energy - power-plant - experience - provision - china - goods
Small scale, decentralised electricity generation at village level, based on locally available biomass, is a promising solution for providing electricity access in remote rural areas, as it can supply villages with an independent, reliable, high quality and environmentally friendly energy source. However, despite such systems' technological feasibility, they are often discontinued. Research so far has not studied the reasons for discontinuation. This article analyses a case of biomass based gasification in India, by studying the type of goods the village system provides, and the distribution of benefits within the system. In this case, the infrastructural and social system provide electricity as a “club good”. Given fluctuating numbers of service users, the club faced the decision to either expand the system to new members, or to reduce the services provided. The focus on the village community hampered the extension of “the club”. A reduction in the quality and quantity of services however decreased the comfort provided by the system. The system faced what here is called a “club dilemma”. To avoid the “club dilemma” and for a sustained energy provision, policy needs to find means to secure feedstock, i.e. by the means of subsidies or collaboration with agricultural departments.
Identifying key performance indicators in food technology contract R&D
Flipse, S.M. ; Sanden, M.C.A. van der; Velden, T. van der; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Osseweijer, P. - \ 2013
Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0923-4748 - p. 72 - 94.
biotechnology firms - innovation - industry - perspectives - experience - success - future - model - news
Innovating companies increasingly rely on outsourcing to Contract Research Organisations (CROs) for their Research and Development (R&D), which are largely understudied. This paper presents the outcome of a case study in the field of food technology contract research, identifying context specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for a CRO. KPIs were identified with a modified version of the Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool, with which 72 finished successful and less successful projects were analysed. We developed a benchmarking tool to evaluate starting or running innovation project quality, which allows for direct, in situ project improvements by project leaders at CROs.
Effect of substrate during early rearing on floor- and feather fecking behaviour in young and adult laying hens
Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Rommers, J.M. ; Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2013
Archiv für Geflügelkunde 77 (2013)1. - ISSN 0003-9098 - p. 15 - 22.
gallus-gallus-domesticus - burmese red junglefowl - ground pecking - wood-shavings - cannibalism - chicks - fowl - experience - quality
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that providing adequate substrate to laying hens during early rearing stimulates pecking to the floor and reduces featherpecking when adult. Laying hens were either provided withwood shavings or sand from day 1 onwards or from day 21 onwards. Chicks without substrate were either reared on mesh matting or chick paper until day 21. Behaviour was observed during rearing and the production period. Moreover, feather damage was scored at the end of rearing and at 40 weeks of age. Results showed that providing substratein early rearing indeed stimulated floor pecking. At four weeks of age, more gentle feather pecking was observed when previously housed on chick paper or mesh matting as compared to continuous housing on sand or wood shavings. However, initial differences in floor- and feather peckingdisappeared with age and only some minor effects were observed at the end of rearing and during production. Atthe end of the rearing period, only the groups that were firsthoused on mesh matting and from three weeks of agehoused on sand, showed significantly more feather damage.No differences in feather damage between the treatmentswere found at 40 weeks of age. This experiment showed thatfloor pecking was stimulated in early rearing when providing substrate. Although the absence of substrate at an early age seems to stimulate gentle feather pecking in early rearing, these effects were not clearly visible at a later age. It is suggested that hens may redirect their early pecking preferenceswhen adequate pecking substrate is provided atthree weeks of age.
The role of novelty detection in food memory
Morin-Audebrand, L. ; Mojet, J. ; Chabanet, C. ; Issanchou, S. ; Moeller, P. ; Koester, E. ; Sulmont-Rossé, C. - \ 2012
Acta Psychologica 139 (2012)1. - ISSN 0001-6918 - p. 233 - 238.
incidental-learning experiment - recognition memory - odor recognition - semantic factors - flavor memory - age - young - consistency - familiarity - experience
Memory plays a central role in food choice. Recent studies focusing on food memory in everyday eating and drinking behaviour used a paradigm based on incidental learning of target foods and unexpected memory testing, demanding recognition of the target among distractors, which deviate slightly from the target. Results question the traditional view of memory as reactivation of previous experiences. Comparison of data from several experiments shows that in incidentally learned memory, distractors are rejected, while original targets are not recognised better than by chance guessing. Food memory is tuned at detecting novelty and change, rather than at recognising a previously encountered food.
Modeling the sensitivity of agricultural water use to price variability and climate change - An application to Swiss maize production
Finger, R. - \ 2012
Agricultural Water Management 109 (2012)June. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 135 - 143.
simulation-model - irrigation - risk - markets - uncertainty - switzerland - strategies - experience - grassland - cropsyst
We analyze the sensitivity of crop management under current and future climate scenarios to changes in economic boundary conditions. In particular, we focus on the effects of changing price risks. We combine a bio-economic modeling approach and a crop growth model CropSyst with an economic model that represents the decision making process of a risk-averse farmer. We apply the models to irrigated maize production in Switzerland. To analyze the sensitivity of optimal water and nitrogen use to likely future states of several economic variables, we conduct sensitivity analyses with respect to changes in price variability, the price–yield correlation, water and maize prices as well as farmers’ risk preferences. Results show that climate change leads to a strong increase in optimal water use for irrigation, with consequent increases in maize yields. However, our analysis also reveals that the consideration of economic drivers for farmers’ irrigation decisions is indispensable. Strong effects on optimal water use are found for changes in crop (positive) and water (negative) prices. We also find strong implications of risk aversion and price variability on irrigation decisions. A doubling of price variability, which would represent a shift from the current Swiss situation to price variability levels in its neighboring countries, could reduce optimal water use by up to 40%. We conclude that investigations of water demand should consider, beyond expectations on output and input price levels, also the variability of prices.
Experimental study of a novel hybrid constructed wetland for water reuse and its application in Southern China
Zhai, J. ; Xiao, H.W. ; Kujawa, K. ; He, Q. ; Kerstens, S.M. - \ 2011
Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)11. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2177 - 2184.
horizontal subsurface-flow - waste-water - landfill leachate - performance - experience - plant
A new type of hybrid constructed wetland (CW), consisting of both vertical-baffled flow wetland (VBFW) and horizontal subsurface flow wetland (HSFW), has been deployed in Southern China to naturally accelerate the removal of organic matter and nitrogen. The hybrid CW system is characterised by a combination of continuous baffled flow vertical wetland and 'S' pattern horizontal subsurface flow wetland with natural aeration ditches to increase the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the HSFW bed. An internal circulatory system from the HSFW effluent back to the VBFW may optionally be operated to enhance the biological denitrification effect. Cyperus alternifolius is the main macrophyte in the wetland bed. The performance of the hybrid CW was studied with a pilot-scale system and three full-scale systems for municipal sewage treatment in Southern China. The results suggest that this new hybrid CW can achieve removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus of better than 83.6, 95.0, 71.7, 64.5 and 68.1% respectively, with a specific wetland bed area of 0.70-0.93 m(2) PE(-1). The mean effluent concentrations of these parameters would meet the regulatory discharge limits for wastewater treatment systems (GB18918, 2002) and reuse in the context of agricultural irrigation solutions in China.
Science-Policy Interactions in MPA Site Selection in the Dutch Part of the North Sea
Haastrecht, E.K. van; Toonen, H.M. - \ 2011
Environmental Management 47 (2011)4. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 656 - 670.
biodiversity loss - management - experience - fisheries
At the 7th conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD-COP7, Kuala Lumpur, 2004) it was agreed to establish a global network of marine and coastal protected areas by 2012. The defined objectives of this MPA-network are based on the ecosystem approach: to protect biodiversity and other ecological values, and to ensure sustainable use. The (inter)national policy guidelines state that the selection of MPAs should be based on scientific information and ecological criteria only. As a signatory to the Convention, the Netherlands is now faced with meeting this obligation, and the process of designating the first Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Dutch part of the North Sea is currently in progress. We focus on the science-policy interactions that are part of this Dutch MPA selection process. By taking a closer look at the contemporary site selection process as well as its historical background, we show that ecological, socio-economic and political considerations cannot always be easily separated. Uncertainty is high and the ultimate selection and delimitation of candidate sites rather seems to be the result of a balancing act between ecological, socio-economic and political interests, in which scientific and policy guiding procedures blend with ad-hoc political decision making, and with expert judgment in cases where data is lacking. As such, this paper presents an example of present-day environmental policy making in action.
Incidental learning and memory for food varied in sweet taste in children
Laureati, M. ; Pagliarini, E. ; Mojet, J. ; Köster, E.P. - \ 2011
Food Quality and Preference 22 (2011)3. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 264 - 270.
recognition memory - flavor memory - odor memory - age - recollection - experience - texture - infants - novelty - young
This experiment investigated incidental learning and memory in children (age 7–10 years) for three different foods (fruit juice, fruit purée and biscuit), varied in sweetness. Children (N = 286) were exposed to three target foods and 24 h later their incidental learning was tested for one of the foods by asking them to recognize the target among distractors varying in sweetness. Children were also asked to rate their liking for the products. Overall, the children showed incidental learning for the food eaten the previous day, but recognition was not equal for all stimuli: a memory effect was found for fruit purée but not for biscuit and fruit juice. Memory was based on the correct rejection of the distractors rather than on target recognition. Hedonic scores were high, but lowest for fruit purée. Memory was not related to liking, but it is likely that other factors like novelty and familiarity may have been influential.
Bank Efficiency and Foreign Ownership: Do good Institutions Matter?
Lensink, B.W. ; Meester, A. ; Naaborg, I. - \ 2008
Journal of Banking and Finance 32 (2008)5. - ISSN 0378-4266 - p. 834 - 844.
financial institutions - transition - experience - economies - countries - industry - cost
This paper contributes to the literature on foreign ownership and bank efficiency by examining whether the efficiency of foreign banks depends on the institutional quality of the host country and on institutional differences between the home and host country. Using stochastic frontier analysis for a sample of 2095 commercial banks in 105 countries for the years 1998¿2003, we find that foreign ownership negatively affects bank efficiency. However, in countries with good governance this negative effect is less pronounced. We also find that higher quality of the institutions in the home country and higher similarity between home and host country institutional quality reduce foreign bank inefficiency.