Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
Measuring tensions and intentions : mixing methods in the impact evaluation of development support to farmer organisations
Ton, G. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575738 - 295
boerenorganisaties - coöperaties - ontwikkelingseconomie - ontwikkelingshulp - fondsgelden - landbouwproducten - ontwikkelingsprojecten - programma-evaluatie - farmers' associations - cooperatives - development economics - development aid - funding - agricultural products - development projects - program evaluation

Development support must be able to prove its effectiveness. Impact evaluation is a way to generate this information. The thesis is about the design of these impact evaluations and how research methods can be combined to obtain credible evidence on effectiveness. It contrasts two approaches to impact evaluation design, ‘randomistas’ (Does it work?) and ‘realistas’ (For whom does it work, and under what conditions?), and distils seven principles for research design that create synergy between these two approaches. The thesis covers various development interventions. The main research concerns a Bolivian grant fund that supports investments in processing by farmer groups. To assess the effectiveness of this fund it was necessary to develop and test a new tool to measure organisational strength of these groups, called Tension Containment Capacity and apply a new method of data analysis, Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Interestingly, grants to the older, larger and stronger organisations proved particularly unsuccessful.

Networking, social capital and gender roles in the cotton system in Benin
Maboudou Alidou, G. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Jarl Kampen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570634 - 187
katoen - productie - boeren - landbouwhuishoudens - boerenorganisaties - sociaal kapitaal - netwerken - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - benin - cotton - production - farmers - agricultural households - farmers' associations - social capital - networks - gender - livelihood strategies

Cotton production in Benin, West Africa, is intertwined with colonialism, which contributed to the trans­formation of the crop’s production system from traditional to modern. Through­out the years, the importance of the crop for the stakeholders varied. The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in cotton of farmers, businessmen, and the State. From having a marginal status during the seventies and the first half of the eighties, cotton grew in importance during the nineties, both in terms of area covered and income generated, averaging 37 percent of the total cultivated area in the country. Thus, cotton has a critical cash function and plays a key role in Benin’s economic growth, accounting for an important share in the State’s revenues and farm house­holds incomes. Indeed, the share of cotton exports represented 75 percent of the country’s total agricultural exports during the 2000s, and the crop provided up to 80 percent of rural households incomes in the North. Though cotton is grown throughout the country, its production was always concentrated in the North, where it is embedded in a farming system formerly dominated by food crops. Hence, cotton transformed subsistence farming into semi-subsistence farming.

The central position of the crop in the country’s economy, which loomed large at the beginning of the 1990s, led to agricultural and economic policies being greatly influenced by the crop for decades. The Structural Adjustment Program of the early 1990s prescribed the liberalisation of the cotton sector, which had huge effects on the sector. This resulted in an increased importance of cotton farmer organisations that elapsed into the first ever hierarchical network in the country, and the crop being put at the forefront of agricultural development programs. Enduring benefits for farmers, farming communities, private actors, and the State were derived from that evolution. This gained cotton the status of ‘white gold’. The institutional dynamics that followed in the wake of liberalisation and their corollary of actors’ interactions generated never-ending conflicts of various kinds, particularly within the cotton farmers’ networks. These resulted in atomised networks. As a consequence, the benefits attached to cotton then started to wane and cotton production became a dilemma for farmers, as reflected in a steep decline of cotton production.

This thesis aims at understanding the dynamic interactions between the economic activity of cotton production and the structure of social relations from community to household and individual level. It addresses the question of how farmers’ agency affected their organisations, the cotton system, and the collective action that evolved around the crop. The research was aligned along three main axes: the emergence of breakaway networks, the decline of social cohesion and the squeeze of collective action, and the livelihoods reconstruction after the demise of cotton production. The main theoretical perspectives underlying the conceptual framework were an actor-oriented approach, actor-network theory, livelihood theory, and a gender perspective.

The research is based on fieldwork carried out in four provinces in the North of Benin from January 2009 to April 2011. Benin is a country whose employment capacity and economic growth heavily rely on the agricultural sector, in which cotton is a dominant factor. This is still the case for rural areas in the North, where rural households have been heavily dependent on cotton as a critical cash crop for poverty alleviation. Northern Benin supplies more than 75 percent of the cotton yearly produced in the country, thanks to the favourable agro-ecological conditions prevailing there, and because there is less population pressure than in the southern part. The exploratory phase of the research covered four provinces: Borgou, Alibori, Atacora and Donga. Since the provinces of Borgou and Alibori host the heart of the cotton belt, subsequent data collection progressively focussed on these two provinces.

The research adopted a mixed-methods design, applying quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A survey was combined with focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and the life history method, to unveil the dynamic interactions between social actors and their interactions with the material and technical elements of the cotton system. The life history method was used to document the experience of women leaders that had made them exceptions to the rule among women cotton farmers. Apart from cotton farmers and their leaders, other targets groups of the research, like inputs suppliers and executives of cotton bodies, often had to be found beyond the two provinces in other parts of the country. The research covered eight cotton networks in ten villages in the four provinces. Survey interviews and in-depth interviews were conducted with 148 heads of cotton farming households, men as well as women.

About 80 percent of the farmers in the sample were in their 40s or 50s, and more than half of them had no formal education. Educated women represented only 17 percent of their category, suggesting that male cotton farmers are significantly more educated than their female counterparts. The average household size was 16, with about 11 workers in male adult equivalents. While agriculture is the main occupation and often the only source of income in the area, women turned out to rely less on agricultural incomes than men.

With regard to networking, the process of atomisation resulted in about 20 percent of stayers in remnant networks, 51 percent of joiners of operating networks, and about 28 percent of creators of new networks. It was found that more than three quarters of cotton farmers broke away from their original network at least once during their cotton cropping career, and that creators of new networks were more likely to be leaders than stayers or joiners. The results further tell us that more than one in two cotton farmers (ever) had a leadership position. A significant association was found between these three categories of farmers and leadership status. Finally, a greater stock of social capital was correlated with the ability of leading cotton networks.

The research indicates that the liberalisation of an agricultural value-chain can be harmful rather than beneficial when the State fails to play a coherent role during the shift from State monopoly to private interest. Cotton proved to be the lifeline for farmer organisations, and drove collective action in rural areas from the important resources it generated. However, the decline of trust within the networks in conjunction with poor management of cotton resources led to a reversed dynamic that tore networks apart, which resulted in their atomisation. Social relations deteriorated when the financial stakes became higher. As attested by the way the process of network atomisation evolved, cooperation within large groups requires legal sanctions to be sustainable. The qualitative results showed that the process of atomisation was nurtured by ties of friendship, kinship, residence and ethnicity at the start, after which networks extended to include other areas and more general member­­ship. From the survey results it can be inferred that push and pull factors interacted to influence the process of cotton network atomisation. The most influential of these factors were, on the one hand, mismanagement of network resources and manipulation of farmers by outsiders, and, on the other hand, trust in board members, hope for board positions, the expectation of profit, and support from public officials and ethnic or religious connections.

The research further demonstrates that gender myths and stereotypes obstruct women's active involvement in managing organisations, in spite of their key position in the cotton production system at household level. Women were found 21 times less likely to be a leader than men in cotton organisations, and their presence on boards hardly empowered them because they spend their energy struggling to meet practical needs. Women’s admission to cotton boards appears to be instrumental for men and hides men's real motives, judging by the way male board members tend to restrict the power of their female colleagues. However, men are inclined to give more freedom to women when they find their activities benefitting themselves, as was revealed by the data on livelihood adaptation strategies.

The research clearly ascertains that farmers are more rational than often assumed and that they grow a crop as long as it is a source of livelihood and food security. Despite its current low to negative returns, cotton remains part of the livelihood diversification strategies of households because cotton production gives access to fertilisers which can then be used for food crops. However, relying on one source of income puts the livelihood system of rural households at risk. Faced with the cotton problems, households diversified their sources of income, first and primarily on-farm with food crops increasingly gaining a cash function. Additionally, they would deploy beyond-farm alter­native strategies, including migration of youth. It was also found that the decline of cotton production proved to result in more freedom for women. Because of their multiple extra-domestic activities, women are less vulnerable than men when it comes to coping with livelihood shortages. Their contribution to the provision for house­hold needs increased during the decline of cotton production and the ensuing income shortages compared to that of men. The livelihood adaptation strategies showed the decision making about income diversification to move from the centre of the household to its periphery.

Los Nuevos Sujetos del Agua: Organización social y la democratización del agua en los Andes ecuatorianos
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2014
Quito : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad 20) - ISBN 9789942091857 - 251
waterrechten - waterverdeling - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - waterbeheer - sociale verandering - democratisering - boerenorganisaties - ecuador - water rights - water distribution - water policy - water resources - water management - social change - democratization - farmers' associations
Petits producteurs et marchés : la recherche au service des organisations paysannes
Ton, G. ; Proctor, F. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI - ISBN 9789461739681 - 139
boeren - boerenorganisaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsvrouwen - armoede - innovaties - landbouw - farmers - farmers' associations - small farms - rural cooperatives - rural development - rural areas - rural women - poverty - innovations - agriculture
Towards sustainable cocoa: Assessment of Cargill and Solidaridad cocoa farmer support activities in Côte d’Ivoire 2008-2012
Ingram, V.J. ; Waarts, Y.R. ; Vugt, S.M. van; Ge, L. ; Wegner, L. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2013
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI ) - 24
cacao - cacaobonen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - boeren - boerenorganisaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - good practices - ghana - afrika - cocoa - cocoa beans - small farms - farmers - farmers' associations - sustainability - africa
A touch of cocoa; Baseline study of six UTZ-Solidaridad cocoa projects in Ghana
Waarts, Y.R. ; Ge, L. ; Ton, G. ; Mheen-Sluijer, J. van der - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report : Market & chains ) - ISBN 9789086156436 - 183
cacao - cacaobonen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - boeren - boerenorganisaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landarbeiders - good practices - ghana - afrika - cocoa - cocoa beans - small farms - farmers - farmers' associations - sustainability - farm workers - africa
Empowering smallholder farmers in markets. Experiences with farmer-led research for advocacy
Ton, G. ; Proctor, F. - \ 2013
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738912 - 140
boeren - boerenorganisaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsvrouwen - armoede - innovaties - landbouw - farmers - farmers' associations - small farms - rural cooperatives - rural development - rural areas - rural women - poverty - innovations - agriculture
Kwaliteit en professionalisering agrarisch natuurbeheer; waarom, voor wie, hoe?
Melman, Dick - \ 2013
agri-environment schemes - nature conservation policy - farmers' associations - cooperation
Crowd-sourcing organisational intelligence: capturing the rich experiences of farmers’ organisations
Ton, G. - \ 2012
Farming Matters 28 (2012)2. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 20 - 21.
boerenorganisaties - financieren - sponsorschap - handel - coöperaties - ontwikkelingslanden - farmers' associations - financing - sponsorship - trade - cooperatives - developing countries
Although the 2012 UN International Year of Cooperatives is half‑way through, it has already contributed much to showing the importance of farmers’ organisations. Collective action by farmers is very much needed, especially when farms are (or will become) too small to be attractive to trading partners.
Biologische sector komt van zijn stoeptegel af
Anonymous, - \ 2012
Syscope Magazine 2012 (2012)30. - p. 10 - 12.
biologische landbouw - agro-industriële ketens - land- en tuinbouwbonden - boerenorganisaties - organic farming - agro-industrial chains - agricultural trade unions - farmers' associations
De biologische sector heeft sinds mei 2011 een ketenorganisatie: Bionext. Met de gekozen naam drukt de sector uit dat ze een volgende ontwikkelingsfase is ingegaan. ‘Tien jaar lang heeft de overheid ons via beleid en met financiering van organisaties en projecten ondersteund’, zegt Arjan Monteny. ‘Nu gaan we op eigen kracht verder.’ Bavo van den Idsert: ‘De keten moet haar eigen broek gaan ophouden. Dat hoort bij volwassen worden.’
In de voetsporen van de kritische boerin : 25 jaar Landelijke Boerinnen Belangen, 1983-2008
Storm, D. ; Burg, M.P.M. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 278) - 76
plattelandsvrouwen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - positie van de vrouw - agrarische geschiedenis - vrouwenemancipatie - boerenorganisaties - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - vrouw en samenleving - rural women - family farms - woman's status - agricultural history - emancipation of women - farmers' associations - community involvement - woman and society
Het verhaal van 25 jaar Landelijke Boerinnen Belangen (LBB) geeft in een notendop weer hoe kritische boerinnen hun maatschappelijke betrokkenheid vormgaven. Gestimuleerd door de vrouwenbeweging merkten zij in de zeventig jaren van de vorige eeuw dat zij een andere positie hadden dan de meeste vrouwen. Zij waren niet alleen getrouwd met een man die boer van beroep was, maar ook met zijn bedrijf. Niet alleen economisch, maar ook sociaal waren gezin, huishouden en bedrijf zo met elkaar verweven, dat zij hun positie wel in samenhang moesten bekijken. De geschiedenis van LBB toont hun zoektocht naar de tot dan toe onderbelichte positie van vrouwen in de agrarische sector. Deze boerinnen lieten ook zien hoe het landbouwbeleid en de besluitvorming daarover samenhingen met de knelpunten en problemen die zij in de dagelijkse praktijk tegenkwamen. Zij experimenteerden in hun eigen praktijk, vertaalden hun visies naar beleidsalternatieven en brachten die onder de aandacht bij de landbouworganisaties en ministeries. Voor het eerst lieten boerinnen hun stem horen over landbouwzaken waar zij zich toentertijd verre van dienden te houden.
Engaging with farmers as entrepreneurs and partners: experiences with a self-assessment tool for farmer'organisations (FORCE)
Schrader, T. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 19) - ISBN 9789461734723 - 22
boerenorganisaties - beoordeling - ondernemerschap - boeren - farmers' associations - assessment - entrepreneurship - farmers
Governments, donors and companies increasingly perceive small farmers and their organisations as development actors and business partners. A practical self-assessment tool, 'Farmers Organizations Reviewing Capacities and Entrepreneurship' (FORCE), takes up the challenge to translate the recognition of farmers' agency into operational practices. we demonstrate that FORCE is an effective tool to quickly map how farmers perceive their organisation and business relations. Self-assessment results of farmer groups in coastal Kenya illustrate how the tool is applied and how farmers' views are plotted in easily understandable scores and graphs.
Kennissysteem en belangenbehartiging in de agrosector : een toekomstverkenning
Poppe, K.J. ; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Luttik, P. ; Pleijte, M. ; Schepers, H.E. ; Vogelzang, T.A. ; Vries, H.S.M. de - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 2, Sectoren en bedrijven ) - ISBN 9789086153596 - 131
landbouw - agrarisch onderwijs - boerenorganisaties - coöperaties - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kennissystemen - scenario-analyse - toekomst - agriculture - agricultural education - farmers' associations - cooperatives - agricultural research - knowledge systems - scenario analysis - future
De belangenbehartiging en het kennissysteem worden veelal van groot belang geacht voor het functioneren van de land- en tuinbouw en agribusiness in Nederland. In dit rapport wordt die rol in het creëren van waarde beschreven door middel van systeem dynamica en interviews met deskundigen. Op basis daarvan wordt middels een scenarioanalyse de robuustheid van het drieluik bedrijfsleven - belangenbehartiging - kennissysteem onderzocht. This report investigates the developments in the Dutch agri-food innovation system. Main components of the system are agriculture and agribusiness, the promotion of interests in the lobby system and the knowledge system. Each has its own dynamics but they have until now been tied together by institutional arrangements. Based on a historical description a simple business dynamics model is formulated. The robustness of the system is investigated by a scenario analysis. Results have been checked by interviews with experts.
Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline
Sherwood, S.G. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): D.C. Cole. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853169 - 286
landbouwontwikkeling - boeren - boerenorganisaties - leren - innovatie adoptie - innovaties - landbouwhervorming - aardappelen - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecuador - latijns-amerika - landbouwvoorlichting - kennis van boeren - sociaal leren - agricultural development - farmers - farmers' associations - learning - innovation adoption - innovations - agrarian reform - potatoes - integrated pest management - sustainability - latin america - agricultural extension - farmers' knowledge - social learning
Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development experts and the government targeted the region as a model for agricultural modernisation. Following land reform and rapid organisation around industrial era technologies, potato farming in Carchi boomed during the 1970s, evolving to dominate the landscape and become the major source of livelihoods in the province. By the early 1980s, Carchi came to produce nearly half the national potato harvest on less than a quarter of the country’s area dedicated to the crop. In the early1990s, however, production and productivity began to fall off, leading a growing number of rural families in Carchi to fall into debt and abandon potato farming. The research reported here is the outcome of the author’s ten years of research and development practice in Carchi with the International Potato Center, the FAO’s Global IPM Facility, and World Neighbors. It reflects unfolding experience with different phases of hope, discovery, and ambition. Many aspects of the experience have been published elsewhere (see Appendix A). The resulting dissertation is not a case study in the sense of a case that tests a hypothesis. It is a monograph that attempts to produce a single coherent story over seemingly unrelated events, focusing on a second-generation problem: despite a decade of highly rigorous, scientific research on the pathologies of Carchi and multiple public demonstrations of feasible alternatives, little significant change was achieved.
Unlocking the potential of contract farming: lessons from Ghana
Kudadjie-Freeman, C. ; Richards, P. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2008
London : IIED (Gatekeeper series 139) - 20
contractlandbouw - boeren - kleine landbouwbedrijven - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - sorghum - landbouwontwikkeling - boerenorganisaties - kennis - ghana - west-afrika - kennis van boeren - contract farming - farmers - small farms - innovations - innovation adoption - agricultural development - farmers' associations - knowledge - west africa - farmers' knowledge
This paper analyses sorghum contract farming in north-east Ghana in order to explore ways of making such arrangements viable for small farmers. The analysis draws on the convergence of sciences approach, which sees both science and social relations (interactions among the relevant stakeholders) as important for developing small farmer-relevant agricultural innovations (technology, procedures, new forms of organisation). The study reveals that the failure and problems encountered in this particular contracting scheme were both technical and institutional. The technical issues were a combination of pest problems, the environment and the sorghum variety chosen. The institutional issues involved the contractual arrangements and relations between the contracting parties. The authors argue that if contracts are to be fair, they must allow for compensation, contingencies and production risks. But scientific knowledge is required in order to adequately incorporate these elements.
Producer Organisations and Market Chains: Facilitating Trajectories of Change in Developing Countries
Ton, G. ; Bijman, J. ; Oorthuizen, J. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860487 - 317
producentengroepen - markten - verandering - beleid - coöperaties - ontwikkelingslanden - boerenorganisaties - agro-industriële ketens - ketenmanagement - producer groups - markets - change - policy - cooperatives - developing countries - farmers' associations - agro-industrial chains - supply chain management
The role of producer organizations in market chains has received increasing attention in recent years, both from governments and donors. In order to lower transaction costs, markets demand that smallholder farmers operate in an organized manner. However, though the policy openings for support seem promising, smallholder market access through farmer-led economic organisations is not easy. This book presents various approaches to support producer organisations in terms of providing economic services to their members, with a focus on developing countries. Markets are increasingly fragmented in value chains that link farmers with specific processors, retailers and consumer segments. Several contributions in this book analyse these dynamics in specific value chains, such as the fair trade and organic agriculture and their potential to provide market outlets for smallholder farmers. The sixteen contributions in the book are organized in three sections: - organisational support for producer organisations; - value chain development with producer organisations; - changes in the institutional environment for producer organisations. This book is the result of a Dutch partnership between policy makers, researchers and practitioners designed to confront ideas with realities. Organized in a platform called Agri-ProFocus, members aim to provide more and better support to producer organisations in the South. Through so-called expert meetings, staff from donor organisations and knowledge centres, government officials, and business representatives, share their experiences and lessons learned. The experiences presented in this book are not recipes for instant success, but instead, highlight that support processes are often more fragile and slower moving than policy makers realise. This book is essential reading for scholars, practitioners and researchers interested in supporting and facilitating trajectories of change led by producer organisations in developing countries. Library holdings LEEUW ; 217-I/2007-008 ; Out on loan
Bringing farmers together
Zake, J. ; Walaga, C. ; Jager, A. de - \ 2005
LEISA : ILEIA newsletter for low-external-input and sustainable agriculture 21 (2005)2. - ISSN 1569-8424 - p. 26 - 27.
landbouw - voedingsstoffen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - input van landbouwbedrijf - grondbeheer - boerenorganisaties - volksgemeenschappen - samenwerking - coöperatieve diensten - uganda - oost-afrika - agriculture - nutrients - farm management - farm inputs - land management - farmers' associations - peoples' communes - cooperation - cooperative services - east africa
Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) have been used in many countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa as a way to deal with constraints such as crop pests, soil fertility depletion, health issues like HIV/AIDS and the communal management of natural resources. They often work in partnership with local NGOs or Government institutions to develop solutions to complex problems facing farmers. In Lukwanga parish, Wakiso District, FFSs have encouraged the creation of new institutions and led to the development of stronger and more cooperative relationships within the community. This has put farmers in a better position to tackle their financial difficulties and to deal with two major agricultural constraints: environmental degradation and depleted social capacity.
Prescribing Gender Equity? The Case of the Tukucha Nala Irrigation System, Central Nepal
Udas, P.B. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2005
In: Liquid Relations. Contested Water Rights and Legal Complexity / Roth, D., Boelens, R.A., Zwarteveen, M.Z., New Brunswick, New Jersey and London : Rutgers University Press - ISBN 0813536758 - p. 21 - 43.
irrigatie - waterbeheer - participatie - boerenorganisaties - plattelandsvrouwen - nepal - irrigation - water management - participation - farmers' associations - rural women
Farmers Organisation and Water Policy in South India: proceedings of the workshop 1-2 February 2003
Doraiswamy, R. ; Mollinga, P.P. ; Rajagopal, A. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 153
waterbeleid - boerenorganisaties - boeren - india - participatief management - irrigatie - water policy - farmers' associations - farmers - participative management - irrigation
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