Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Advancement of farming by facilitating collaboration : reference architectures and models for farm software ecosystems
Kruize, Jan Willem - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Adrie Beulens, co-promotor(en): Huub Scholten; Sjaak Wolfert. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579668 - 242
farming - information technology - computer software - farms - models - farm management - information systems - landbouw bedrijven - informatietechnologie - landbouwbedrijven - modellen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - informatiesystemen

Since time began, mankind has been threatened by the combination of growing populations and diminishing resources. Present-day, this threat is very pertinent as mankind is challenged by a growing world population that is expected to exceed 10 billion in 2050, while resources diminish. Simultaneously, increase of food production should be accomplished in a sustainable manner as consumers require food to be produced environmentally-friendly. Moreover, consumers require safe food produced in transparent agri-food supply chain networks. Farm enterprises can contribute by advancing their management to increase food production in a sustainable, safe and transparent manner. A well-known advanced farm management style, which is knowledge and information intensive, is precision agriculture. Precision agriculture increases the profitability of crop production, while simultaneously reducing the negative environmental impact by tight monitoring and control, in which applications rates of agricultural inputs are adjusted to local needs. Such advanced farm management requires integrated farm information systems as it is knowledge and information intensive. However, advancement is hindered because of interoperability issues between software systems of multiple vendors. An integrated farm information system, containing components of multiple vendors, is required as single organisations cannot develop all technical solutions and ICT Components (e.g. tractors, implements, FMIS, decision support tools) that farmers require. A global overarching system, developed by a single vendor, that can support all business functions of farmers is therefore neither a feasible nor, from a competitive point of view, a desirable solution in agriculture. To realize farm enterprise integration we combine the approaches ICT Mass Customisation with Best-of-Breed. ICT mass customisation combines advantages of standard and customised software by enabling on-demand configuration of information systems from standard components with standardised interfaces. These ICT components can be supplied by different software vendors, which allow Best-of-Breed solutions. By realization of these approaches farm enterprise integration can improve. A farm enterprise can be an arable farm, livestock farm or horticultural farm. In this thesis we focus on arable farm enterprises.

To enable farm enterprise integration we have developed six artefacts that are presented in this thesis which are:

The Reference Architecture of Agricultural Enterprises (RAAgE) 1.0 that can describe farm enterprise architectures in a uniform and efficient manner;

A problem description, which is a case specific instantiation of RAAgE 1.0 generalized to a generic problem description;

An ontology that supports communication between collaborating actors and components;

Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems that defines generic relationships between actors and components;

RAAgE 2.0 that is a technical reference model to support configuration of business processes and ICT components, which is based on RAAgE 1.0;

Prototype software that serves as a proof of concept substantiating that all previous components will provide a solution for integration problems at farm enterprises.

RAAgE 1.0 supports designing enterprise architectures in a uniform and efficient manner. The reference model is described in a standard modelling language, named ArchiMate, and shows the interrelations between the business, application and technology layers of farm enterprises. The reference model includes an ontology to provide a concise and precise, formal specification of the object system. This is required to have a shared understanding and effective communication between researchers, farmers, software developers and other stakeholders involved. This ontology is used and extended in other parts of our research. The architectural descriptions can depict the relations between farm business processes and the ICT Components used. The model is validated by two experts that have experience in developing reference architectures and models.

A detailed problem description is created using RAAgE 1.0 to gain insight in the cause and nature of integration problems at farm enterprises. To find these problems a method was developed and applied in a case study research including three arable farm enterprises producing potatoes. These farm enterprises focused on improving their management and invested in new technologies for innovation. Within multiple steps of the method the architectural descriptions developed with RAAgE 1.0 facilitated communication and provided insight into problems of farm enterprises to achieve more advanced farm management. The case specific problems, described by instantiating RAAgE 1.0, have been analysed and formulated as more generic problems for farm enterprise integration. These generic problem descriptions have been validated with national and international experts. Based on this research we found that the cause and nature of current integration problems in farming are that ICT components used within the same farm enterprise:

have partly overlapping and partly unique application services, functions and interfaces (that are non-standard);

are missing required application services, functions and interfaces,

have disjoint data repositories;

have inadequate and incomplete data exchange as semantics are not unambiguously defined;

are hard to configure while this configuration is not supported by an actors and tools.

A design, addressing these problems is expected to solve current integration bottlenecks. First, this design must enable smooth data handling and seamless data exchange between ICT Components to solve inadequate and incomplete data exchange and enable integration of data repositories of multiple vendors. Second, it must include a configuration approach to link ICT Components to each other in a meaningful and coherent way. This should be supported by actors that are willing to configure ICT Component of multiple vendors into an integrated solution. Third, the design must enable the formation of a software enterprise to address the previous points and to organize collaboration between actors involved. This software enterprise should focus both on improving interoperability to contribute in solving problems with partly overlapping and partly unique application services, functions and interfaces as well as on organizing the development of missing application services, functions and interfaces.

To address these integration challenges a Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems and RAAgE 2.0 were developed, focusing on both technical and organizational aspects.

From literature we found that collaboration can take place within Software Ecosystems. Software Ecosystems are defined as the interaction of a set of actors on top of a common technological platform that results in a coherent set of ICT components or Services. They can provide an effective way to construct large software systems on top of a software platform by combining components, developed by actors that are part of different organisations. To support instantiation of Software Ecosystems for farming, a Reference Architecture was developed. This Reference Architecture describes how software developers, farmers and other stakeholders can collaborate to enable development, configuration and instantiation of integrated software solutions. More specifically, it can be used to map, assess, design and implement Farm Software Ecosystems to help to decrease current integration problems. The reference architecture comprises five main components:

Actors, which are basically app developers, business architects/software developers and end-users, i.e. farmers that finally use the configured ICT components and services;

Platform that enables configuration of Atomic Application Components into integrated information systems for farmers;

Open software enterprise that manages the relation between the actors and the platform;

Business services that support software configuration, development and hosting;

ICT Components that are configured application components from multiple vendors allowing seamless data exchange based on standards

After the design the reference architecture was first verified based on the requirements. Second, semi-structured interviews were held with experts to validate the model. Moreover, the assessment and mapping functionally was validated by using the reference architecture in a case study, in which two existing farm software ecosystems were assessed and mapped.

The Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems mainly addresses the organizational part of this research question. The technical part on the configuration of different ICT components into integrated solutions was not yet sufficiently covered in the Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems. Therefore we designed RAAgE 2.0 to improve the integrating capabilities of ICT Components, focussing on configuration and ICT Mass Customisation. In this research RAAgE 1.0 was extended into RAAgE 2.0 supporting technical aspects related to configuration of ICT Components by providing a hierarchical configuration methodology. This methodology divides configuration in two steps (i) business process configuration and (ii) software configuration. To enable business process configuration the model comprises three reference models, i.e. on products, processes and resources. The dependencies between these models are defined in rules that define possible combinations of products, processes and resources and that constrain the configuration of farm-specific models i.e. instances. The reference model also includes a configuration tree and templates. Templates describe a set of pre-configured product, process and resource models for typical cases. Variety in farm business processes can be modelled with business process variants. Such a variant realizes a similar kind of business services (e.g. basic fertilization, precision fertilization). Each variant has partly overlapping business processes and resources and unique ones. RAAgE 2.0 provides insight into these specific and generic parts. The other part of the methodology, software configuration, is divided in two additional sub-steps. The first sub-step is to create configuration templates that describe the required (generic) application services (capability types) to support specific business process variants. These configuration templates describe the interactions between the capability types. This sub step is typically performed by a business architect in close collaboration with software developers. The second sub-step is the selection and configuration of the specific capability of a capability type. Capabilities can be offered by atomic application components of multiple vendors that need to be selected. This second sub-step is performed by a business architect, in close collaboration with a farmer. With this extension RAAgE 2.0 supports (i) development of ICT components that fit within an ICT Mass Customisation and Best-of-Breed approach, (ii) selection of ICT components based on business processes that they should support and (iii) getting insight into configuration of different ICT components into an integrated farm information system.

To substantiate that our artefacts contribute to realizing ICT Mass Customisation in combination with Best-of-Breed in arable agriculture a proof of concept was developed. A proof of concept is defined as a phase in development, in which experimental hardware or software is constructed and tested to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept. Realizing ICT Mass Customisation requires: (i) software modularity, (ii) an information integration platform, (iii) component availability, (iv) configuration support and (v) reference information models. To fulfil these requirements a design was developed and instantiated for a specific use case on late blight protection in potato growing for a specific farmer in The Netherlands. For that purpose we:

configured the business processes that are involved in late blight protection using RAAgE 2.0 to identify which advanced ICT components are needed to support this process for this farmer;

developed the required advanced ICT components that were identified in the previous step using the FIspace platform. These components were provided by different app developers from 5 different European countries;

configured a composite application component within the FIspace platform using the configuration framework of RAAgE 2.0. This included involvement of 5 different European organizations;

instantiated and executed the application component within the FIspace platform for this specific farmer.

This resulted in prototype software that showed how we can configure business processes and multi-vendor atomic application components into a composite component to support late blight protection in potatoes for a specific farmer. It was made plausible that this approach is also applicable to other cases to create software able to support other business processes in agriculture.

Within this research we developed artefacts and substantiated that they facilitate collaboration between the actors involved and can help to develop ICT Components that improve farm enterprise integration. Still, to make ICT Mass Customisation and Best-of-Breed a more common practice, future research is required. In this research we recommend to focus on:

Development of business models to gain insight into the motives of software developers to become part of Farm Software Ecosystems. Insight into these motives can enhance the adoption of Software Ecosystems for agriculture, which makes the concept of ICT Mass Customisation more feasible.

Improving configuration of atomic application components and supporting tools as this is currently still cumbersome. We recommend focussing on one specific case to dig into all details of the case. Such a detailed description will be re-usable for many other farm business processes such as fertilization, other types of crop protection, seeding and harvesting.

Although, there are still hurdles to take we recommend continuing this research line as it can result in improved farm enterprise integration and adoption of advanced farm management styles by famers. This can enable farm enterprises to increase food production, while producing in a sustainable, safe and transparent manner.

Afstand tussen veehouderij en woningen : een onderzoek naar aantallen veehouderijen en woningen op minder dan 250 meter van elkaar
Os, J. van; Smidt, R.A. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2658) - 51
veehouderij - landbouwbedrijven - woningen - milieu - milieufactoren - nederland - livestock farming - farms - dwellings - environment - environmental factors - netherlands
Ter voorbereiding op een debat in de Tweede Kamer op 15 september 2014 heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken aan Alterra gevraagd om te bepalen hoeveel veehouderijen er liggen op een afstand van 250 m of minder van burgerwoningen, niet zijnde agrarische bedrijfswoningen. Achtergrond van deze vraag is de mogelijke negatieve beïnvloeding van de omgevingskwaliteit van woningen door veehouderijen. Naar aanleiding van het debat en het eerste gepubliceerde document heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken Alterra gevraagd om een actualisatie en nadere detaillering te maken van de eerste resultaten. Met behulp van GIS heeft Alterra daarop zowel voor de jaren 2011 en 2013 bepaald dat ca. 70-90% van de veehouderijen op minder dan 250 m van een woning ligt. Andersom geredeneerd ligt ca. 30-40% van de woningen in het buitengebied op minder dan 250 m van een veehouderij; voor woningen in bevolkingskernen is dat 3%. Binnen Nederland zijn er aanzienlijke verschillen tussen regio’s, vooral veroorzaakt door verschillen in dichtheid van veehouderijen en woningen.
Landelijk gebied en Leegstand : aard, omvang en oplossingsrichtingen van huidige en toekomstige leegstand agrarischvastgoed in Nederland
Gies, T.J.A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Naeff, H.S.D. ; Vleemingh, I. ; Paulissen, M. ; Ros, Peter ; Heijmerink, Jeroen ; Ronden, Michel ; Dijkstra, Karin - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2755) - 63
landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - sloop (afbraak) - erfgoed - plattelandsbeleid - nederland - farms - farm closures - demolish - heritage areas - rural policy - netherlands
Jaarlijks stoppen veel agrarische bedrijven. Afgelopen decennia werden deze boerderijen, vaak nog kleinschalig, via erftransities omgebouwd tot woonboerderijen of werden de bedrijfsgebouwen voor andere functies gebruikt. Sinds de jaren zeventig zijn er door schaalvergroting in de sector grote schuren en grote ligboxstallen bijgekomen die komende jaren vrij zullen komen. In Nederland staat momenteel ca. 10 miljoen m2 agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen leeg. De prognose voor de toekomst is dat de omvang nog groter wordt en er tot 2030 bijna 16 miljoen m2 lege agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen bijkomen. Ingeschat wordt dat ca. 3-8% daarvan historische boerderijen zijn die behoren tot het cultureel erfgoed. Voor die grote schuren die leeg komen te staan, wordt het moeilijk om een goede nieuwe economische bestemming te vinden. De grote, te verwachten leegstand vraagt om indringende aandacht van beleidsmakers, bestuurders, ondernemers en gebruikers. Verslechtering van de vitaliteit en ruimtelijke kwaliteit in het landelijk gebied ligt op de loer. Innovatieve oplossingen voor zowel herbestemmen als sloop zijn naast de nu al gebruikelijke oplossingen hard nodig.
Geografisch informatiesysteem voor de emissieregistratie van landbouwbedrijven; : GIABplus-bestand 2013 – Status A
Os, J. van; Jeurissen, L.J.J. ; Naeff, H.S.D. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 66) - 65 p.
landbouwbedrijven, bedrijfslocaties, emissies, Landbouwtelling, veehouderij, rundvee, varkens, pluimvee, schapen, geiten, kippen - landbouwbedrijven - veehouderij - emissie - registratie - landbouwtellingen - geografische informatiesystemen - nederland - farms - livestock farming - emission - registration - agricultural censuses - geographical information systems - netherlands
Voor de nationale emissieregistratie van het RIVM is het nodig om een goed beeld te hebben van de bedrijfslocaties van veehouderijbedrijven in Nederland. Vanaf 2009 is daarvoor niet alleen gebruik gemaakt van de jaarlijkse Landbouwtelling, maar ook van bedrijfslocaties die bekend zijn via dierregistraties voor dier- en volksgezondheid. Daarmee wordt het zogenaamde GIABplus-bestand gemaakt: Geografische Informatie Agrarische Bedrijven, waarbij de dieraantallen van de Landbouwtelling zijn herverdeeld over veehouderijlocaties vanuit de dierregistraties en gekoppeld aan de staltypen die in de Landbouwtelling bekend zijn. Dit rapport geeft aan hoe het GIABplus-bestand 2013 is samengesteld en wat de gebruiksmogelijkheden zijn. Behalve voor het lokaliseren van emissies uit de veehouderij is het bestand ook toepasbaar in regionale onderzoeken naar de landbouwstructuur en onderzoek naar verspreiding van dierziekten.
Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit op landbouwbedrijven aangemeld voor derogatie in 2014
Lukács, S. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Prins, H. ; Vrijhoef, A. ; Boumans, L.J.M. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. - \ 2016
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM rapport 2016-0052) - 118 p.
dierlijke meststoffen - graslanden - nitraten - grondwaterkwaliteit - monitoring - eu regelingen - mest - waterkwaliteit - landbouwbedrijven - animal manures - grasslands - nitrates - groundwater quality - eu regulations - manures - water quality - farms
De Europese Nitraatrichtlijn verplicht lidstaten om het gebruik van dierlijke mest te beperken tot 170 kg stikstof per hectare. Landbouwbedrijven in Nederland met ten minste 70 procent grasland mochten onder bepaalde voorwaarden van deze norm afwijken en in 2013 250 kilogram per hectare gebruiken (derogatie). Nederland is verplicht om op 300 bedrijven die derogatie inzetten de bedrijfsvoering en waterkwaliteit te meten en deze resultaten jaarlijks aan de EU te rapporteren. LEI Wageningen UR en het RIVM stellen jaarlijks deze rapportage op. Dit rapport beschrijft de situatie in 2013 en de trends voor de periode tussen 2006 en 2014. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat de nitraatconcentratie in het grondwater in deze periode, afhankelijk van de regio, is gedaald of gelijk is gebleven.
Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali
Falconnier, G.N. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Katrien Descheemaeker; T.A. van Mourik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577596 - 209 p.
agriculture - agricultural development - farms - classification - self sufficiency - food - income - intensification - farming systems - intensive production - mali - landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwbedrijven - classificatie - zelfvoorziening - voedsel - inkomen - intensivering - bedrijfssystemen - intensieve productie

Key words: longitudinal study, farm typology, food self-sufficiency, income, legumes, ex-ante analysis, participatory research, scenario.

Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints, variable rainfall and unstable institutional support. This study integrates a diversity of approaches (household typology and understanding of farm trajectories, on-farm trials, participatory ex-ante trade-off analysis) to design innovative farming systems to confront these challenges. We explored farm trajectories during two decades (1994 to 2010) in the Koutiala district in southern Mali, an area experiencing the land constraints that exert pressure in many other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We classified farms into four types differing in land and labour productivity and food self-sufficiency status. During the past two decades, 17% of the farms stepped up to a farm type with greater productivity, while 70% of the farms remained in the same type, and only 13% of the farms experienced deteriorating farming conditions. Crop yields did not change significantly over time for any farm type and labour productivity decreased. Together with 132 farmers in the Koutiala district, we tested a range of options for sustainable intensification, including intensification of cereal (maize and sorghum) and legume (groundnut, soyabean and cowpea) sole crops and cereal-legume intercropping over three years and cropping seasons (2012-2014) through on-farm trials. Experiments were located across three soil types that farmers identified – namely black, sandy and gravelly soils. Enhanced agronomic performance was achieved when targeting legumes to a given soil type and/or place in the rotation: the biomass production of the cowpea fodder variety was doubled on black soils compared with gravelly soils and the additive maize/cowpea intercropping option after cotton or maize resulted in no maize grain penalty, and 1.38 t ha−1 more cowpea fodder production compared with sole maize. Farm systems were re-designed together with the farmers involved in the trials. A cyclical learning model combining the on-farm testing and participatory ex-ante analysis was used during four years (2012-2015). In the first cycle of 2012-2014, farmers were disappointed by the results of the ex-ante trade-off analysis, i.e marginal improvement in gross margin when replacing sorghum with soybean and food self-sufficiency trade-offs when intercropping maize with cowpea. In a second cycle in 2014-2015 the farm systems were re-designed using the niche-specific (soil type/previous crop combinations) information on yield and gross margin, which solved the concerns voiced by farmers during the first cycle. Farmers highlighted the saliency of the niches and the re-designed farm systems that increased farm gross margin by 9 to 29% (depending on farm type and options considered) without compromising food self-sufficiency. The involvement of farmers in the co-learning cycles allowed establishment of legitimate, credible and salient farm reconfiguration guidelines that could be scaled-out to other communities within the “old cotton basin”. Five medium-term contrasting socio-economic scenarios were built towards the year 2027, including hypothetical trends in policy interventions and change towards agricultural intensification. A simulation framework was built to account for household demographic dynamics and crop/livestock production variability. In the current situation, 45% of the 99 households of the study village were food self-sufficient and above the 1.25 US$ day-1 poverty line. Without change in farmer practices and additional policy intervention, only 16% of the farms would be both food self-sufficient and above the poverty line in 2027. In the case of diversification with legumes combined with intensification of livestock production and support to the milk sector, 27% of farms would be food self-sufficient and above the poverty line. Additional broader policy interventions to favour out-migration would be needed to lift 69% of the farms out of poverty. Other additional subsidies to favour yield gap narrowing of the main crops would lift 92% of the farm population out of poverty. Whilst sustainable intensification of farming clearly has a key role to play in ensuring food self-sufficiency, and is of great interest to local farmers, in the face of increasing population pressure other approaches are required to address rural poverty. These require strategic and multi-sectoral approaches that address employment within and beyond agriculture, in both rural and urban areas.

Pachtnormen 2016 : berekening hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor los land, agrarische bedrijfsgebouwenen agrarische woningen
Silvis, H.J. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-053) - 25 p.
pachtrecht - pachtstelsel - agrarische economie - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - landbouwondernemingen - landbouwgrond - grondprijzen - prijzen - nederland - landbouwbedrijven - boerderijen - tenants' rights - tenure systems - agricultural economics - farm buildings - farm enterprises - agricultural land - land prices - prices - netherlands - farms - farm dwellings
In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft LEI Wageningen UR de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor 2016 berekend conform de uitgangspunten van het Pachtprijzenbesluit 2007. In de meeste pachtprijsgebieden gaan de pachtnormen vrij sterk omhoog ten opzichte van de pachtnormen 2015. Dit wordt verklaard doordat de gemiddelde grondbeloning in de periode 2010- 2014 beduidend hoger is dan de gemiddelde grondbeloning over de periode 2009-2013.
An uncertain climate : the value of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in environmental impact assessment of food
Groen, E.A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; R. Heijungs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577558 - 239 p.
environment - environmental impact - climatic change - uncertainty analysis - screening - sensitivity analysis - modeling - greenhouse gases - farms - dairy farms - food production - correlation analysis - milieu - milieueffect - klimaatverandering - onzekerheidsanalyse - screenen - gevoeligheidsanalyse - modelleren - broeikasgassen - landbouwbedrijven - melkveebedrijven - voedselproductie - correlatieanalyse

ABSTRACT

Production of food contributes to climate change and other forms of environmental impact. Input data used in environmental impact assessment models, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and nutrient balance (NB) analysis, may vary due to seasonal changes, geographical conditions or socio-economic factors (i.e. natural variability). Moreover, input data may be uncertain, due to measurement errors and observational errors that exist around modelling of emissions and technical parameters (i.e. epistemic uncertainty). Although agricultural activities required for food production are prone to natural variability and epistemic uncertainty, very few case studies in LCA and NB analysis made a thorough examination of the effects of variability and uncertainty. This thesis aimed to enhance understanding the effects of variability and uncertainty on the results, by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Uncertainty analysis refers to the estimation of the uncertainty attribute of a model output using the uncertainty attributes of the model in- puts. There are three types of sensitivity analyses: (I) a local sensitivity analysis addresses what happens to the output when input parameters are changed, i.e. the intrinsic model behaviour of a parameter; (II) a screening analysis addresses what happens to the output based on the un- certainty range of the different input parameters; and (III) a global sensitivity analysis addresses how much the uncertainty around each input parameter contributes to the output variance. Both the screening analysis and the global sensitivity analysis combine the intrinsic model behaviour with the information of uncertainty around input parameters. Applying uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis can help to reduce the efforts for data collection, support the development of mitigation strategies and improve overall reliability, leading to more informed decision making in environmental impact assessment models. Including uncertainty in environmental impact assessment models showed that: (1) the type of uncertainty analysis or sensitivity analysis applied depends on the question to be addressed and the available information; (2) in some cases it is no longer possible to benchmark environmental performance if epistemic uncertainty is included; (3) including correlations between input parameters during uncertainty propagation will either increase or decrease output variance, which can be predicted beforehand; (4) under specific characteristics of the input parameters, ignoring correlation has a minimal effect on the model outcome. Systematically combining a local and global sensitivity analysis in environmental impact assessment models: (1) resulted in more parameters than found previously in similar studies (for the case studies discussed in this thesis); (2) allowed finding mitigation options, either based on innovations (derived from the local sensitivity analysis) or on management strategies (derived from the global sensitivity analysis); (3) showed for which parameters reliability should be improved by increasing data quality; (4) showed that reducing the (epistemic) uncertainty of the most important parameters can affect the comparison of the environmental performance.

Leegstand agrarisch vastgoed Noord-Brabant : aard, omvang en oplossingsrichtingen van huidige en toekomstige leegstand agrarisch vastgoed in provincie Noord-Brabant
Gies, T.J.A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Naeff, H.S.D. ; Och, R.A.F. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2713) - 56 p.
bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - economie - noord-brabant - farm closures - farms - farm buildings - economics
Jaarlijks stoppen veel agrarische bedrijven. Afgelopen decennia werden deze boerderijen, vaak nog kleinschalig, via erftransities omgebouwd tot woonboerderijen of werden de bedrijfsgebouwen voor andere functies gebruikt. Sinds de jaren zeventig zijn er door schaalvergroting in de sector grote schuren en grote ligboxstallen bijgekomen die komende jaren vrij zullen komen. Voor die grote schuren die leeg komen te staan, wordt het moeilijk om een goede nieuwe economische bestemming te vinden. In de provincie Noord-Brabant staan momenteel ca. 2 miljoen m2 agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen leeg. Dit is 10% van de huidige omvang van agrarische gebouwen. De prognose voor de toekomst is dat de omvang nog groter wordt en er tot 2030 bijna 4 miljoen m2 lege agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen bijkomen in Noord-Brabant. De grote, te verwachten leegstand vraagt om indringende aandacht van beleidsmakers, bestuurders, ondernemers en gebruikers. Verslechtering van de vitaliteit en ruimtelijke kwaliteit in het landelijk gebied ligt op de loer. Innovatieve oplossingen voor zowel herbestemmen als sloop zijn naast de nu al gebruikelijke oplossingen hard nodig.
Innovatie in de land- en tuinbouw 2014
Meer, R.W. van der; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-140) - ISBN 9789086157235 - 22 p.
landbouwbedrijven - tuinbouwbedrijven - innovaties - landbouwsector - monitoring - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - agrarische economie - farms - market gardens - innovations - agricultural sector - management information systems - agricultural economics
Het percentage vernieuwende bedrijven (innovatoren en volgers) in de land- en tuinbouw was in 2013 ruim 14%. Dit is ongeveer gelijk aan het jaar ervoor. Daarmee is de doelstelling van het ministerie van Economische Zaken van 15% vernieuwende bedrijven in 2013 net niet gehaald. In de melkveehouderij nam het aandeel vernieuwers het sterkst toe. Dit blijkt uit de Innovatiemonitor, onderdeel van het Bedrijveninformatienet van LEI Wageningen UR.
Wettelijke normen ten aanzien van bodem en gewas in relatie tot de KringloopWijze
Schroder, J.J. ; Aarts, H.F.M. ; Oenema, J. ; Reijs, J.W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 623) - 16 p.
melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - modellen - normen - mestbeleid - prestatieniveau - milieuwetgeving - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzaam bodemgebruik - kringlopen - landbouwbedrijven - nederland - dairy farming - arable farming - models - standards - manure policy - performance - environmental legislation - farm management - sustainable land use - cycling - farms - netherlands
Om landbouwkundige en milieukundige prestaties van bedrijven te beoordelen, kan het nuttig zijn om prestaties te spiegelen aan normen. Eén van de normen die hiervoor gebruikt kan worden, zijn de normen (opbrengsten, afvoeren, bodemoverschotten, benuttingen) die behoren bij een bedrijf dat de wettelijke toegestane (kunst)mestgiften (‘gebruiksnormen’) maximaal opvult. Dit type normen kan modelmatig geschat worden. Een voorbeeld van een daarvoor geschikt model is het WOD-model. Dit model beschrijft relaties zoals die in proeven gevonden zijn en is geijkt met gegevens uit het BIN uit de periode 1998-2006.
NSO-typering 2010-2012 : typering van agrarische bedrijven in Nederland
Everdingen, W.H. van - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI nota 2015-153) - 34 p.
normen - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouwstatistieken - standaardisering - nederland - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - productiestructuur - landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - landbouw - standards - farm size - farm management - agricultural statistics - standardization - netherlands - farm structure - production structure - farms - farming systems - agriculture
Binnen de agrarische sector komen zeer uiteenlopende productiestructuren en bedrijfssystemen voor. Om de structurele kenmerken en de economische resultaten gemakkelijker te kunnen beschrijven en analyseren, is een eenduidige, homogene classificatie van landbouwbedrijven noodzakelijk. Deze classificatie, gebaseerd op economische normen, is in Europees verband in de jaren tachtig ontwikkeld en sindsdien enkele malen aangepast. De actuele documentatie van de Europese Commissie is opgenomen in het Typology Handbook (RI/CC 1500 rev.).1 Het onderhoud van de typering en de normen in Nederland wordt gecoördineerd door het Centrum voor Economische Informatievoorziening (CEI). Bij elk van de aanpassingen is door Nederland gekozen om een eigen variant te gebruiken waarin meer recht wordt gedaan aan specifiek Nederlandse agrarische producten, zoals zetmeelaardappelen, bloembollen en blank kalfsvlees. Tot en met 2009 werd voor de Nederlandse variant het brutostandaardsaldo (bss), de Nederlandse grootte-eenheid (nge) en de NEG-typering gebruikt. In 2010 zijn die criteria vervangen door de Standaardopbrengst (SO) en de Nederlandse standaardopbrengst (NSO)-typering. In 2014 is voor de Nederlandse variant een nieuw kengetal geïntroduceerd: de Standaard Verdiencapaciteit (SVC) van bedrijven. Dat kengetal is ontwikkeld vanwege verschillen in marge tussen de sectoren. Met de SVC is de bedrijfsgrootte van bedrijven over bedrijfstypen heen meer gerelateerd aan arbeidsinzet en resultaat dan bij de SO het geval is.
Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study
Broek, J.A. van den; Subedi, A. ; Jongeleen, F. ; Naing Lin Oo, - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-018) - 74
seed production - varieties - seeds - farmers - rural development - markets - farms - agricultural policy - myanmar - south east asia - asia - zaadproductie - rassen (planten) - zaden - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbeleid - zuidoost-azië - azië
The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an analysis of three seed value-chains and Myanmar’s seed farm system; as well as business opportunities for the private sector. The report concludes with a number of pathways for developing a vibrant seed sector in which quality seed of superior varieties can be accessed by farmers.
Geografisch Informatiesysteem Agrarische Bedrijven (GIAB) : gebruikershandleiding 2010
Gies, T.J.A. ; Os, J. van; Smidt, R.A. ; Naeff, H.S.D. ; Vos, E.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 40) - 86
geografische informatiesystemen - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwtellingen - landgebruik - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nederland - geographical information systems - farms - agricultural censuses - land use - farm management - netherlands
In ruimtelijk onderzoek is informatie over verschillende grondgebruiksfuncties een belangrijke basis om effecten van beleidsmaatregelen te analyseren of om nieuwe ontwerpen te maken. Voor landbouw is daartoe het Geografisch Informatiesysteem Agrarische Bedrijven (GIAB) ontwikkeld. Hierin zijn gegevens opgenomen van landbouwbedrijven in Nederland die meedoen aan de jaarlijkse landbouwtelling van het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek en de Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland. De gegevens zijn gekoppeld aan de locatie van de hoofdvestiging van het landbouwbedrijf. Het bestand wordt onder andere gebruikt bij onderzoek naar dierziekten, landbouwstructuur-analyses, effecten van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid, en bij onderzoek naar emissies van geur, ammoniak en fijn stof. De eerste versie bevat de gegevens van 1998. In sommige jaren zijn ook gegevens van de Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren toegevoegd aan het GIAB. Belangrijke variabelen zijn: het bedrijfstype, de bedrijfsomvang (in een economische maat), arealen per gewas, aantallen per diergroep, gegevens over bedrijfshoofd, aantal arbeidskrachten en opvolgingssituatie.
An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system
Filgueira, R. ; Byron, C.J. ; Comeau, L.A. ; Jansen, H.M. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2015
Marine Ecology Progress Series 518 (2015). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 281 - 287.
mussel mytilus-edulis - coastal embayment - carrying-capacity - light limitation - oyster reefs - aquaculture - culture - dynamics - growth - farms
The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities, e.g. the impact on phytoplankton dynamics and benthic-pelagic coupling, which can significantly contribute to the CO2 cycle. Therefore, an ecosystem approach that accounts for the trophic interactions of bivalve aquaculture, including dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon cycling, is needed to provide a rigorous assessment of the role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle. On the other hand, the discussion about the inclusion of shells of cultured bivalves into the carbon trading system should be framed within the context of ecosystem goods and services. Humans culture bivalves with the aim of producing food, not sequestering CO2 in their shells, therefore the main ecosystem good provided by bivalve aquaculture is meat production, and shells should be considered as by-products of this human activity. This reasoning provides justification for dividing up respired CO2 between meat and shell when constructing a specific bivalve CO2 budget for potential use of bivalve shells in the carbon trading system. Thus, an integrated ecosystem approach, as well as an understanding of the ecosystems goods and services of bivalve aquaculture, are 2 essential requisites for providing a reliable assessment of the role of bivalve shells in the CO2 cycle.
Offshore wind park monitoring programmes, lessons learned and recommendations for the future
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Degraer, S. ; Dannheim, J. ; Gill, A.B. ; Wilhelmsson, D. - \ 2015
Hydrobiologia 756 (2015)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 169 - 180.
renewable energy development - north-sea - communities - impacts - benthos - farms - power - biodiversity - assemblages - management
Over a decade of monitoring offshore wind park environmental impact triggered a reflection on the overall objectives and how to best continue with the monitoring programmes. Essentially, basic monitoring has to be rationalised at the level of the likelihood of impact detection, the meaningfulness of impact size and representativeness of the findings. Targeted monitoring is crucial and should continue to be applied to disentangle processes behind observed impacts, for instance the overarching artificial reef effect caused by wind parks. The major challenge, however, remains to achieve a reliable assessment of the cumulative impacts. A continuous international consultation and collaboration with marine scientists, managers, government officials and industry will be needed to ensure an optimisation of the future monitoring programmes.
Agrarische jongeren: ambitieus en veelzijdig
Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Matser, I. ; Remery, Ch. ; Terluin, I.J. ; Bouma, J. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2015-054) - 45
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsopvolging in de landbouw - jongvolwassenen - landbouwbedrijven - nevenactiviteiten - familiebedrijven, landbouw - farm management - farm succession - young adults - farms - ancillary enterprises - family farms
In deze studie wordt de positie van jongeren op agrarische bedrijven in Nederland belicht. Naast werk op het agrarische bedrijf heeft ruim 40% van de agrarische jongeren werk buiten het bedrijf. De jongeren zijn hoog opgeleid en vaak bestuurlijk actief. Het merendeel wil het agrarische bedrijf overnemen of heeft dat al gedaan. Binnen het gezin verloopt de communicatie over de bedrijfsovername niet altijd vlekkeloos.
5 jaar Wageningen Potato Centre (WPC)
Brouwer, T.A. ; Tramper, M. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
akkerbouw - aardappelen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - landbouwbedrijven - proefbedrijven - kennisoverdracht - verbetering - arable farming - potatoes - scientific research - farms - pilot farms - knowledge transfer - improvement
Het kennisplatform Wageningen Potato Centre (WPC) is een initiatief van Wageningen UR om een brug te slaan tussen wetenschap en bedrijfsleven. Strategisch en fundamenteel wordt toegankelijk én toepasbaar gemaakt voor de partners van WPC.
Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) Year Report 2014
Nijhoff, G.H. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2015
Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 48
agribusiness - agricultural development - agriculture - policy - agricultural policy - farms - farming - east africa - africa - landbouwindustrie - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - beleid - landbouwbeleid - landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven - oost-afrika - afrika
The Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) supports African SME agrifood companies in growing their business. An AAA member companies can enhance knowledge, skills and expertise, and get support in accessing finance and markets. By the end of 2014, AAA had 200 members in five countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda. These members are in the business of sourcing from or supplying to farmers. AAA’s goal is that by stimulating business growth of the SMEs it indirectly supports business growth of the farmers that are linked to these companies.
Dark green electricity comes from the sea: Capitalizing on ecological merits of offshore wind power?
Toonen, H.M. ; Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2015
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015). - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 1023 - 1033.
sustainable fisheries - energy - policy - farms - governance - management - strategies - responses - impacts - germany
European consumers are willing to pay more for “green” electricity, as they highly value renewable energy sources for the contribution to combating climate change. There is a push for getting higher levels of sustainability, leading to a differentiation of Europe‘s electricity market. In this differentiation, the large potential of wind energy is recognized. More specifically, North Sea countries prefer to plan wind arrays (far) out at sea. This article offers a review of the main arguments for offshore wind energy, described in comparison with its onshore counterpart. It is stated that offshore wind farms (OWFs) generate “dark green” electricity as they mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the protection of (some) marine life. Applying an informational governance framework, this article further assesses whether this dark green message has been exploited through further differentiation of the electricity market, and provides an analysis of why this is not (yet) the case. It is concluded that the dominant discourse in onshore wind power development hinders a favorable ecological differentiation toward offshore wind power.
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