Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Effect of energy source in calf milk replacer on performance, digestibility, and gut permeability in rearing calves
Amado, L. ; Berends, H. ; Leal, L.N. ; Wilms, J. ; Laar, H. Van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Martín-Tereso, J. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3994 - 4001.
calf milk replacer - fat - gut permeability - lactose

Current calf milk replacer (CMR) compositions significantly differ from whole milk in their levels of energy, protein, and minerals. Energy source is one of the major differences, as CMR contains high levels of lactose, whereas whole milk contains higher levels of fat. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of partially exchanging lactose for fat on performance, digestibility, and gut permeability in calves fed twice daily on a high feeding plane. Lactose and fat were exchanged in the CMR formulation on a weight–weight basis. The CMR were isonitrogenous but not isoenergetic. A total of 60 male Holstein-Friesian calves were assigned to 1 of 30 blocks based on serum IgG, body weight, and date of collection after birth. Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: high fat and high lactose. The CMR was provided twice daily until 49 d of age, followed by a gradual weaning period of 14 d. Starter, straw, and water were available ad libitum throughout the complete study. Exchanging lactose for fat did not affect growth; intakes of starter, straw, water, crude protein, or total energy; or apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients. Gastrointestinal permeability was assessed by measuring the recovery of lactulose and Cr in 24-h urine and the Cr concentration and lactulose:D-mannitol ratio in serum following an oral pulse dose. Urinary recoveries of Cr and lactulose were generally low in both treatments but were higher in calves fed the high-fat CMR. Accordingly, the serum lactulose:D-mannitol ratio and serum Cr concentrations were higher in calves fed the high-fat CMR. In wk 1 and during the weaning transition, calves fed the high-fat CMR had significantly fewer abnormal fecal scores. In conclusion, exchanging lactose for fat in the CMR did not affect growth performance, total feed intake, or nutrient digestibility. The high-fat CMR was associated with an increase in permeability markers but positively influenced fecal scores in calves.

The TeRiFiQ project : Combining technologies to achieve significant binary reductions in sodium, fat and sugar content in everyday foods whilst optimising their nutritional quality
Salles, C. ; Kerjean, J.R. ; Veiseth-Kent, E. ; Stieger, M. ; Wilde, P. ; Cotillon, C. - \ 2017
Nutrition Bulletin 42 (2017)4. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 361 - 368.
consumer - fat - food - perception - sodium - sugar
Most developed countries are confronted with rising rates of diseases related to unhealthy eating habits, particularly the excessive consumption of salt, saturated fat and free sugars. However, fat, sugars and salt in food influence not only its nutritional qualities but also its sensory properties, safety (e.g. shelf life) and affordability. The main challenge is to formulate healthier foods that are acceptable to consumers. In this context, the overall objective of TeRiFiQ was to achieve significant binary reductions in the salt-fat and sugar-fat contents of frequently consumed food products around Europe, while, at the same time, ensuring the products’ nutritional and sensorial qualities, safety and affordability for both industry and consumers was not compromised. TeRiFiQ addressed four major food categories: cheeses, processed meat, bakery and sauce products. Different strategies adapted to each food category were used to reduce the target ingredients. Significant reductions in the salt-fat and fat-sugar contents of a number of cheese, processed meat, bakery and sauce products were achieved, and these changes were found to be acceptable to consumers. The most promising reformulated food products were developed at the industrial scale.
Double emulsions as fat replacers : linking emulsion design to stability and sensory perception
Oppermann, Anika - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; Elke Scholten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430722 - 186
fats - fat - sensory sciences - sensory evaluation - emulsions - perception - gelation - vetten - vet - sensorische wetenschappen - sensorische evaluatie - emulsies - perceptie - gelering

The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have to be achieved, (2) double emulsions have to be stable against conditions encountered during processing and storage, and (3) the mouthfeel and sensory perception have to be similar to that of full-fat equivalents. With the present work, significant progress was made in understanding the complex relations between double emulsion design, achievable levels of fat reduction, emulsion stability and sensory perception. We show that through careful emulsion design, stable double emulsions with high levels of fat reduction (up to 50%) can be obtained while maintaining fat-related sensory properties, making double emulsions a promising approach for the development of fat-reduced food products.

The fatter the better : selecting microalgae cells for outdoor lipid production
Dominguez Teles, I. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene Wijffels, co-promotor(en): Maria Barbosa; Dorinde Kleinegris. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578821 - 164
algae - chlorococcum - lipids - lipogenesis - fat - production - phenotypes - inoculum - diameter - cells - sorting - algen - lipiden - lipogenese - vet - productie - fenotypen - entstof - cellen - sorteren

In chapter 1 we introduce microalgae, photosynthetic microorganisms with potential to replace commodities (such as food, feed, chemicals and fuels). Production costs are still high, reason why microalgae are still only economically feasible for niche markets. We suggest to borrow the concept of plant domestication to select industrial microalgae cells. Two approaches can be successfully used to domesticate microalgae: adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) and fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS). ALE takes advantage of the natural adaptability of microorganisms to different environments, while FACS actually select cells with specific phenotypes. This thesis aimed to select cells of Chlorococcum littorale with improved phenotypes, assuming that these cells could establish new populations with increased industrial performance.

In Chapter 2 we wanted to know what happened during time to biomass and lipid productivities of Chlorococcum littorale repeatedly subjected to N-starvation. We tested 2 different cycles of N-starvation, short (6 days) and long (12 days). Short cycles didn’t affect lipid productivity, highlighting the potential of C. littorale to be produced in semi-continuous cultivation. Repeated cycles of N-starvation could have caused adaptations of the strain. Hence, we also discussed the implications of using repeated N-starvation for adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments. Chapter 3 introduces a method to detect and to select microalgae cells with increased lipid content. The method requires only the fluorescence dye Bodipy505/515 dissolved in ethanol, and the method was designed to maintain cellular viability so the cells could be used to produce new inoculum. In chapter 4 we evaluated a question that emerged while deciding which criteria to use to sort lipid-rich cells: does cellular size affects lipid productivity of C. littorale? We hypothesized that cells with different diameters have different division rates, which could affect lipid productivity. Therefore, we assessed the influence of cell diameter, as a sorting parameter, on both biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorococcum littorale (comparing populations before and after sorting, based on different diameters). Results showed that the size of vegetative cells doesn’t affect the lipid productivity of C. littorale. In chapter 5 we present a strategy to sort cells of C. littorale with increased TAG productivity using the method developed at chapter 3. Both the original and the sorted population with the highest lipid productivity (namely, S5) were compared under simulated Dutch summer conditions. The results confirmed our data from experiments done under continuous light: S5 showed a double TAG productivity. Our results showed also that the selected phenotype was stable (1.5 year after sorting) and with potential to be used under industrial conditions. In chapter 6 we extrapolated our results (indoor and outdoor) to other climate conditions. We ran simulations changing the light conditions to four different locations worldwide (the Netherlands, Norway, Brazil and Spain) to estimate both biomass and TAG productivities. Results indicated that biomass yields were reduced at locations with higher light intensities (Brazil/Spain) when compared with locations with lower light intensities (Norway/Netherlands). Hence, the choice of location should not be based on light intensity, but on how stable irradiation is. Chapter 7 is the general discussion of the thesis, demonstrating that both ALE and FACS are effective approaches to select industrial microalgae cells. We also present our view on how ALE and FACS could further improve microalgae strains for industry.

Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11
Adamse, P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Schoss, S. ; Jong, J. de; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32 (2015)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1301 - 1311.
toxic equivalency factors - contaminated feed - milk - food - fat - residues - pcdfs - pcdds - eggs
This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.
Gut microbiota facilitates dietary heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation by opening the mucus barrier in colon
IJssennagger, N. ; Belzer, C. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Dekker, J. ; Mil, S.W.C. ; Müller, M.R. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (2015)32. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 10038 - 10043.
colorectal-cancer - red meat - mice - mucin - fat - susceptibility - cytotoxicity - expression - inhibitor - bacterial
Colorectal cancer risk is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of colonic contents and elicits epithelial damage and compensatory hyperproliferation, leading to hyperplasia. Here we explore the possible causal role of the gut microbiota in heme-induced hyperproliferation. To this end, mice were fed a purified control or heme diet (0.5 µmol/g heme) with or without broad-spectrum antibiotics for 14 d. Heme-induced hyperproliferation was shown to depend on the presence of the gut microbiota, because hyperproliferation was completely eliminated by antibiotics, although heme-induced luminal cytotoxicity was sustained in these mice. Colon mucosa transcriptomics revealed that antibiotics block heme-induced differential expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and cell turnover genes, implying that antibiotic treatment prevented the heme-dependent cytotoxic micelles to reach the epithelium. Our results indicate that this occurs because antibiotics reinforce the mucus barrier by eliminating sulfide-producing bacteria and mucin-degrading bacteria (e.g., Akkermansia). Sulfide potently reduces disulfide bonds and can drive mucin denaturation and microbial access to the mucus layer. This reduction results in formation of trisulfides that can be detected in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, trisulfides can serve as a novel marker of colonic mucolysis and thus as a proxy for mucus barrier reduction. In feces, antibiotics drastically decreased trisulfides but increased mucin polymers that can be lysed by sulfide. We conclude that the gut microbiota is required for heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia because of the capacity to reduce mucus barrier function.
Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein: the association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes
Campmans-Kuijpers, M.J.E. ; Sluijs, I. van der; Sluik, D. - \ 2015
Cardiovascular Diabetology 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2840 - 10 p.
randomized controlled-trial - glycemic load values - dietary-protein - european countries - physical-activity - body-weight - index - nutrition - cancer - fat
Background: The health impact of dietary replacement of carbohydrates with protein for patients with type 2 diabetes is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary substitution of carbohydrates with (animal and plant) protein and 5-year weight change, and all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study included 6,107 diabetes patients from 15 European cohorts. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded. At recruitment, validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires were used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariable adjusted linear regression was used to examine the associations between dietary carbohydrate substitution with protein and 5-year weight change, and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for (CVD) mortality. Results: Annual weight loss of patients with type 2 diabetes was 0.17 (SD 1.24) kg. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 (SD 2.3)y, 787 (13%) participants had died, of which 266 (4%) deaths were due to CVD. Substitution of 10 gram dietary carbohydrate with total (ß = 187 [75;299]g) and animal (ß = 196 [137;254]g) protein was associated with mean 5-year weight gain. Substitution for plant protein was not significantly associated with weight change (ß = 82 [-421;584]g). Substitution with plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.79 [0.64;0.97]), whereas substitution with total or animal protein was not associated with (CVD) mortality risk. Conclusions: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein.
Strategies for individual phenotyping of linoleic and arachidonic Acid metabolism using an oral glucose tolerance test
Saccenti, E. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Jacobs, D.M. ; Smilde, A.K. ; Hoefsloot, H.C. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.
challenges - pathways - biology - models - fat
The ability to restore homeostasis upon environmental challenges has been proposed as a measure for health. Metabolic profiling of plasma samples during the challenge response phase should offer a profound view on the flexibility of a phenotype to cope with daily stressors. Current data modeling approaches, however, struggle to extract biological descriptors from time-resolved metabolite profiles that are able to discriminate between different phenotypes. Thus, for the case of oxylipin responses in plasma upon an oral glucose tolerance test we developed a modeling approach that incorporates a priori biological pathway knowledge. The degradation pathways of arachidonic and linoleic acids were modeled using a regression model based on a pseudo-steady-state approximated model, resulting in a parameter A that summarizes the relative enzymatic activity in these pathways. Analysis of the phenotypic parameters As suggests that different phenotypes can be discriminated according to preferred relative activity of the arachidonic and linoleic pathway. Correlation analysis shows that there is little or no competition between the arachidonic and linoleic acid pathways, although they share the same enzymes
Longer Oral Exposure with Modified Sham Feeding Does Not Slow Down Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Energy-Dense Gastric Loads in Healthy Young Men
Wijlens, G.M. ; Erkner, A. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2015
The Journal of Nutrition 145 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 365 - 371.
food-intake - appetite - stimulation - fat - responses - humans - satiation - ghrelin - liquids - volume
Background: A long oral exposure to food and a high-energy density of food are shown to increase satiety feelings. The effect of energy density is predominantly caused by an inhibition of gastric emptying. It is hypothesized that prolonging oral exposure may have an additional effect on this inhibition of gastric emptying. However, little human data are available to support this hypothesis. Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of oral exposure duration to food on gastric emptying rate of gastric loads (GLs) low and high in energy density and on satiety feelings. Methods: Twenty-six healthy men (22 ± 3 y, 23 ± 1 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover trial with 4 treatments and a control. Treatments consisted of either 1- or 8-min modified sham feeding (MSF) of cake, and a GL of either 100 or 700 kcal infused in the stomach via a nasogastric tube (500 mL, 62.5 mL/min). The control consisted of no MSF and a GL of 500 mL of water. Gastric emptying rate was assessed with a 13C breath test. Breath samples and satiety feelings were collected at fixed time points until 90 min after start of the treatment. Results: Gastric emptying rate and satiety feelings were not affected by duration of MSF (P = 0.27). However, the 700-kcal GL treatments slowed gastric emptying [41% lower area under the curve (AUC)] and increased satiety feelings (22–31% higher AUC) compared with the 100-kcal GL treatments (P <0.001). No interaction between MSF duration and energy density of GL was found (P = 0.44). Conclusions: Higher gastric energy density inhibited gastric emptying and increased satiety feelings in healthy young men. However, prolonging oral exposure to food did not have an additional effect. This study provides more insight in satiety regulation. This trial was registered at as NTR3601.
Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss: the DiOGenes randomized study
Engberink, M.F. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Bakker, S.J.L. ; Larsen, T. - \ 2015
Journal of Human Hypertension 29 (2015). - ISSN 0950-9240 - p. 58 - 63.
risk-factors - controlled-trial - glycemic index - obese women - supplementation - hypertension - overweight - markers - fat
Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss in 420 overweight adults from the Diet, Obesity and Genes study. After an 8-week weight-loss period (>8% BW), subjects (42±6 years) were randomized to either a high-protein diet (23–28 en% protein) or a lower-protein control diet (10–15 en% protein) for 26 weeks. BMI after weight loss was 30.3±4.3¿kg¿m-2, BP was 118/73¿mm¿Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents. Systolic BP during 26 weeks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2¿mm¿Hg less (95% CI: -4.6 to 0.2¿mm¿Hg, P=0.08) in the high-protein group than in the lower-protein control group. In 191 (pre)hypertensive subjects (baseline systolic BP120¿mm¿Hg), a larger difference was observed (-4.2¿mm¿Hg (-7.7, -0.7), P=0.02). The effect was attenuated after adjustment for initial BP (-3.4¿mm¿Hg (-6.9, -0.03), P=0.048), and after additional adjustment for weight change (-2.7¿mm¿Hg (-6.1, 0.4), P=0.11). Adjustment for 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and potassium did not change the results. Diastolic BP yielded similar results. These findings suggest that a BP reduction after weight loss is better maintained when the intake of protein is increased at the expense of carbohydrates. This effect is partly mediated by body weight.
Physical and Sensory Characterizations of Oral Coatings of Oil/Water Emulsions
Camacho, S. ; Riel, V. van; Graaf, C. de; Velde, F. van de; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)25. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 5789 - 5795.
custard desserts - perception - tongue - fat - quantification - difference - retention - papillae - texture - cavity
The physical and sensory properties of oil coatings on the tongue formed by five oil/water emulsions varying in oil content were investigated. A total of 20 subjects processed orally each emulsion for 30 s in triplicate. In vivo fluorescence measurements at the front and back of the anterior tongue were made to quantify the oil fraction deposited at different time points. Calibration lines relating fluorescence intensity to oil fraction were determined using pig tongues at 37.5 °C to mimic oral conditions. The oil fraction on the tongue increased linearly with an increasing oil content of the emulsions. The oil fraction deposited at the back of the anterior tongue was 1.5–2.0× larger than at the front. The intensity of sensory attributes describing after-feel perception was related to the oil fraction by Weber–Fechner’s law. This study uses in vivo fluorescence to study food behavior in the mouth and unravel new insights in after-feel perception of emulsions.
A model for promoting poultry industry development in Togo: feeding improvement, capacity building and extension
Tona, K. ; Kamers, B. ; Teteh, A. ; Agbonon, A. ; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K. ; Simons, P. ; Buyse, J. ; Janssen, G. ; Everaert, N. ; Kemp, B. ; Decuypere, E. ; Gbeassor, M. - \ 2014
Worlds Poultry Science Journal 70 (2014)3. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 607 - 616.
broiler-chickens - dietary-protein - metabolism - components - energy - fat
Although being the main bottlenecks for commercial poultry development in Togo, feeding and management practices retain little attention. Indeed, there is no proficient feed miller unit which can provide high quality feed according to the needs of the farmers. This is due to a lack of information on nutrition and relevant management tools or people trained as poultry farm managers. With the aim to alleviate poverty and hunger in Togo, an inter-university project [Catholic University of Leuven (KUL) and University of Lome (UL)] as a model for poultry development was being run from June 2006 to May 2012. Specific objectives of the project are 1) to provide insights and disseminate guidelines and information on adapted methods to improve poultry production and 2) to focus on development of new technologies in poultry production and implementation of research on better poultry nutrition, feeding and management practices
Thermoneutrality results in prominent diet-induced body weight differences in C57BL/6J mice, not paralleled by diet-induced metabolic differences
Hoevenaars, F.P.M. ; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, M. ; Janssen, R.J.R.J. ; Heil, S.G. ; Bunschoten, A. ; Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Snaas-Alders, S.H. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. - \ 2014
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 58 (2014)4. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 799 - 807.
adipose-tissue - mitochondrial-function - obesity - fat - thermogenesis - models - health - gene - induction - disease
Scope Mice are usually housed at 20–24°C. At thermoneutrality (28°C) larger diet-induced differences in obesity are seen. We tested whether this leads to large differences in metabolic health parameters. Methods and results We performed a 14-wk dietary intervention in C57BL/6J mice at 28°C and assessed adiposity and metabolic health parameters for a semipurified low fat (10 energy%) diet and a moderate high fat (30 energy%) diet. A large and significant diet-induced differential increase in body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, serum leptin level, and, to some extent, cholesterol level was observed. No adipose tissue inflammation was seen. No differential effect of the diets on serum glucose, free fatty acids, triacylglycerides, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, PAI-1, MMP-9, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, IL-6, ApoE, fibrinogen levels, or HOMA index was observed. Also in muscle no differential effect on mitochondrial density, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, or mRNA expression of metabolic genes was found. Finally, in liver no differential effect on weight, triacylglycerides level, aconitase/citrate synthase activity ratio was seen. Conclusion Low fat diet and moderate high fat diet induce prominent body weight differences at thermoneutrality, which is not paralleled by metabolic differences. Our data rather suggest that thermoneutrality alters metabolic homeostasis.
Direct estimate of cocoa powder content in cakes by colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy
Doka, O. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Kulcsar, R. - \ 2014
International Journal of Thermophysics 35 (2014)12. - ISSN 0195-928X - p. 2206 - 2214.
phenolic content - theobroma-cacao - antioxidant - quantification - polyphenols - chocolate - capacity - beans - fat
Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index TeX (brightness) and total color difference
The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation
Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
body-weight regulation - food-intake - feeding-behavior - eating behavior - human amygdala - appetite - humans - satiety - taste - fat
During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation.
Bioactivity screening and mass spectrometric confirmation for the detection of PPAR-delta agonists that increase type 1 muscle fibres
Bovee, T.F.H. ; Blokland, M.H. ; Kersten, A.H. ; Hamers, A.R.M. ; Heskamp, H.H. ; Essers, M.L. ; Nielen, M.W.F. ; Ginkel, L.A. van - \ 2014
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 406 (2014). - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 705 - 713.
human skeletal-muscle - gamma - macrophages - expression - receptors - cells - acid - gene - fat
Sensitive and robust bioassays able to detect nuclear receptor activation are very useful for veterinary and doping control, pharmaceutical industry and environmental scientists. Here, we used bioassays based on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines to detect the ligand-induced activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd). Exposure of U937 cells to the PPARd agonist GW501516 resulted in a marked increase in mRNA expression of the PPARd target gene Angptl4 which was quantified by qRTPCR analysis. Exposure ofHepG2 cells transiently transfected with a PPARd expression plasmid and a PPAR-response element-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PPARd agonists GW501516, GW610742 and L-165041 resulted in clear dose–response curves. Although the qRT-PCR resulted in higher fold inductions, the luciferase assay with transfected HepG2 cells is cheaper and quicker and about ten times more sensitive to GW501516 compared to analysis of Angptl4 mRNA expression in U937 cells by qRT-PCR. The HepG2- based luciferase assay was therefore used to screen GW501516-spiked supplements and feed and water samples. After liquid extraction and clean-up by solid phase extraction using a weak anion exchange column, extracts were screened in the HepG2 bioassay followed by confirmation with a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, using two transitions for each compound, i.e., for GW501516, 454.07>188.15 (collision energy (CE) 46 V) and 454.07>257.08 (CE 30 V); for GW610742, 472.07>206.2 (CE 48 V) and 472.07>275.08 (CE 30 V); and for L-165041, 401.2>193.15 (CE 26 V) and 401.2>343.2 (CE 20 V).
Nutritional Composition of Shea Products and Chemical Properties of Shea Butter: A Review
Honfo, G.F. ; Akissoe, N. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Soumanou, M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 54 (2014)5. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 673 - 686.
vitellaria-paradoxa - african countries - vegetable-oils - fat - extraction - olive - acid - tocopherols - oxidation - catechins
Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea butter. Surveying the literature revealed that the pulp is rich in vitamin C (196.1 mg/100 g); consumption of 50 g covers 332% and 98% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of children (4–8 years old) and pregnant women, respectively. The kernels contain a high level of fat (17.4–59.1 g/100 g dry weight). Fat extraction is mainly done by traditional methods that involve roasting and pressing of the kernels, churning the obtained liquid with water, boiling, sieving, and cooling. The fat (butter) is used in food preparation and medicinal and cosmetics industries. Its biochemical properties indicate some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Large variations are observed in the reported values for the composition of shea products. Recommendations for future research are presented to improve the quality and the shelf-life of the butter. In addition, more attention should be given to the accuracy and precision in experimental analyses to obtain more reliable information about biological variation.
Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A tool to predict pork quality
Marcos, B. ; Gou, P. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Hortos, M. ; Colleo, M. ; Mach Casellas, N. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Keuning, E. ; Kruijt, L. ; Tibau, J. ; Gispert, M. ; Arnau, J. - \ 2013
Meat Science 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 688 - 693.
dry-cured hams - seldi-tof-ms - boar taint - sensory characteristics - meat quality - androstenone - pigs - fat
Expression of water soluble proteins of fresh pork Longissimus thoracis from 4 pure breed pigs (Duroc, Large White, Landrace, and Pietrain) was studied to identify candidate protein markers for meat quality. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to obtain the soluble protein profiles of Longissimus thoracis muscles. The pure breeds showed differences among the studied meat quality traits (pH(u), drip loss, androstenone, marbling, intramuscular fat, texture, and moisture), but no significant differences were detected in sensory analysis. Associations between protein peaks obtained with SELDI-TOF-MS and meat quality traits, mainly water holding capacity, texture and skatole were observed. Of these peaks, a total of 10 peaks from CM10 array and 6 peaks from Q10 array were candidate soluble protein markers for pork loin quality. The developed models explained a limited proportion of the variability, however they point out interesting relationships between protein expression and meat quality. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Combinatory Effects of Texture and Aroma Modification on Taste Perception of Model Gels
Knoop, J.E. ; Sala, G. ; Smit, G. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2013
Chemosensory Perception 6 (2013)2. - ISSN 1936-5802 - p. 60 - 69.
sensory perception - flavor release - solution viscosity - sugar - fat - integration - odor - hydrocolloids - enhancement - preferences
In this study, the effects of texture modification and aroma-induced sweetness enhancement were systematically investigated in apple-flavored semi-solid Na-caseinate gels. Gels containing apple juice as a basic flavor were developed differing in stiffness, brittleness and serum release (texture modification), aroma, and sugar concentration (flavor modification). In a full factorial design (2 x 2 x 2), eight samples were evaluated by a sensory panel on ten attributes (five texture, five flavor). Sweetness was enhanced significantly by modification of texture, aroma, and sugar concentration. Texture modification was found to be by far the greatest contributor to overall sweetness. In comparison to texture modifications, aroma modification and changes of sugar concentration resulted only in small sweetness enhancement. When texture and aroma modifications are combined, a small additive effect of aroma modification on sweetness enhancement was found in addition to the sweetness enhancement caused by texture modification. This suggests that the relationship between texture (modification) and flavor (modification) and sweetness is additive in a nonlinear manner. It can be concluded that texture modification is a valid tool to enhance taste intensity. Hence, texture modification can compensate for a loss of sweet taste intensity induced by sugar reduction, while aroma-induced sweetness enhancement can contribute to further taste enhancement in order to develop healthier products.
Genetic relationship between boar taint compounds, human nose scores, and reproduction traits in pigs
Mathur, P.K. ; Napel, J. ten; Crump, R.E. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 4080 - 4089.
intact male pigs - special emphasis - androstenone - skatole - fat - parameters - responses
A reduction in boar taint, an unpleasant odor arising in pork from some intact males, is desirable if routine castration of piglets needs to be stopped. Commercial slaughter pigs are typically crosses between sire lines mainly selected for finishing traits and dam lines mainly selected for reproduction traits. Previous studies suggest the possibility of reducing boar taint in sire lines due to favorable genetic correlations between boar taint and finishing traits. However, there are indications of unfavorable genetic associations between boar taint and female reproduction traits, but a lack of genetic correlation estimates remain a major roadblock in reducing boar taint in dam lines. This study was conducted to estimate genetic correlations between boar taint traits and female reproduction traits, investigate differences in these genetic relationships among sire and dam lines, and evaluate possible consequences of selection against boar taint in dam lines. The data consisted of 32,549 reproduction records from a Landrace dam line, 23,874 records from a Yorkshire dam line, and 3,745 records from a Pietrain sire line. Androstenone, skatole, and indole were measured on 1,896 carcasses, and human nose scores were recorded on 7,742 carcass samples. In general, the level of boar taint was significantly greater (P <0.05) in the two dam lines than in the sire line. A majority of genetic correlations of boar taint compounds with reproduction traits were either low or nonsignificant, except for those of skatole and indole, with age at first insemination in dam lines that were –0.32 and –0.46, respectively. Genetic correlations also differed (P <0.05) between sire and dam lines. The consequences of selection against boar taint in dam lines were evaluated, using selection indexes based on reproduction traits only, boar taint traits only, and both boar taint and reproduction traits. Selection on an index of only reproduction traits increased the number of carcasses with boar taint from 4 to 7.3% in 5 generations. Selection on a combined index reduced carcasses with boar taint from 4 to
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