Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==feed formulation
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The evaluation of energy in fish feed
Haidar, Mahmoud - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Johan Schrama. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438049 - 155
oreochromis niloticus - fish feeding - feed formulation - digestible energy - dietary protein - dietary fat - carbohydrates - growth - feed evaluation - fish culture - aquaculture - visvoeding - voersamenstelling - verteerbare energie - voedingseiwit - voedingsvet - koolhydraten - groei - voederwaardering - visteelt - aquacultuur

New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the dietary macronutrients composition, especially the carbohydrates fraction. Appropriate formulation of the energy component in fish feeds requires information on nutrient digestibility, energy requirements for maintenance, and the efficiency of utilization of digestible energy for growth (kgDE). In fish feed formulation, the energy evaluation is based on digestible energy (DE) basis. The main assumptions of this DE system are that maintenance requirements and kgDE are independent of dietary factors. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate and improve the DE system for Nile tilapia. Data showed that, opposite to what is assumed in literature and irrespective of the feeding level applied, an optimal digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (DP/DE) for young Nile tilapia could not be detected. In addition, it was expected that Nile tilapia would show a maximal protein deposition in relation to a wide range of DP/DE ratios, however, this was either observed. Further investigations showed that different body compartments/organs responded differently in terms of protein and fat composition as a result of changes in the dietary DP/DE ratio. In tilapia, viscera and the “rest” fraction (head, skin, fins and bones) were the main site for fat retention. In addition, protein content of fillets seems to be constant (about 17%) and not affected by dietary factors in Nile tilapia. In addition, the effect of using new plant ingredients in Nile tilapia diets was also investigated. The results showed that the ingredients composition had an effect on the maintenance requirements of Nile tilapia. Further, changes in the ratio of starch vs non starch carbohydrates revealed that energy retention was lower when more dietary fibers were included. In addition, the net energy retention differed also when the levels of digestible protein, fat and carbohydrates changed in the diets. The latter results proved that kgDE was not constant and was dependent on diet composition. All aforementioned results led us to calculate the energetic efficiencies of digestible protein, fat and carbohydrates for net energy retention. These estimated efficiencies were used to propose a net energy evaluation system being feasible for Nile tilapia.

FeedOmics, an approach to evaluate the functional properties of protein containing feed ingredients
Kar, Soumya K. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Mari Smits; Jerry Wells, co-promotor(en): Alfons Jansman; Dirkjan Schokker. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434461 - 254
compound feeds - ingredients - protein sources - proteins - functional properties - metabolism - feed formulation - protein digestion - proteomics - digestive tract - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - livestock feeding - mengvoer - ingrediënten - eiwitbronnen - eiwitten - functionele eigenschappen - metabolisme - voersamenstelling - eiwitvertering - eiwitexpressieanalyse - spijsverteringskanaal - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - veevoeding

This thesis presents FeedOmics approach as a toolkit, to evaluate (novel) protein containing feed ingredients of different origin considering both their nutritional and functional value in terms of their capacity to support or modify nutrient supply, the animal’s physiology, tissue development and functioning. Such knowledge may contribute to introduce novel and/or alternative protein containing feed ingredients in the diet of livestock, thus creating a sustainable food supply for growing human population.

A field trial on the effects of algae addition to calf feed. Project T2014
Elissen, H.J.H. ; Berg, W. van den; Kootstra, A.M.J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR, PPO/Acrres (Rapport / PPO-AGV 662) - 41 p.
calves - calf feeding - feed formulation - feeds - veal calves - liveweight - animal health - feed conversion - algae - kalveren - kalvervoeding - voersamenstelling - voer - vleeskalveren - levend gewicht - diergezondheid - voederconversie - algen
This report describes a field trial that took place between 1 July and 2 October 2015 at a Dutch rose veal farm in which a group of 30 calves was fed with formula milk of which 2% of the dry matter was substituted with concentrated freshwater algae. The control group consisted of 25 calves. The farm owners collected the data, which were statistically analyzed and reported at ACRRES. During the trial the following parameters were monitored: calf weight, amounts of formula milk, water, solid feeds, feed additions and medication, deviations in manure structure, and disease incidence. Individual calf weights were determined at arrival and four weighing dates. The main conclusion of this field trial is that the addition of algae to the formula milk of rose veal calves during a period of 44 to 51 days did not have a statistically significant effect on calf weight increase up to 13 weeks after the start of the trial.
IAG ring test feed composition 2015
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Rhee, N.E. van de; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2015
RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2015.017) - 25 p.
feed formulation - pig feeding - ring test - microscopy - voersamenstelling - varkensvoeding - ringtest - microscopie
A ring test was organized for the microscopic determination of botanic composition in animal feed in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the ring test was RIKILT Wageningen UR, The Netherlands. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the method for composition analysis of feed.
Microalgae diets for landbased aquaculture of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: impacts of dietary fatty acids on growth
Reis Batista, I.C. dos - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Aad Smaal, co-promotor(en): Johan Kamermans; Rene Wijffels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575875 - 132
schaaldieren - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - algen - voedering - voersamenstelling - diëten - vetzuren - groei - tanks - plassen - aquacultuur - shellfish - shellfish culture - algae - feeding - feed formulation - diets - fatty acids - growth - ponds - aquaculture

Land-based shellfish culture as a part of a multi-trophic aquaculture systems has yet to be implemented in Europe. Recently the pilot project Zeeuwse Tong (The Netherlands) evaluated the feasibility of a system of fish (Dover sole), ragworms, phytoplankton and bivalves. This thesis focused on the dietary fatty acids impact on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juveniles (shell length >5mm) of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule, for land-based culture.

Dietary fatty acids were chosen as the main nutritional research subject given the existing literature indicating their importance for reproduction, and growth and survival of larvae, post-larvae, spat and seed of most bivalves. However, since grow-out of juvenile cockles in land-based aquaculture is not common, no information is available on the dietary fatty acid requirements of juveniles. To determine if the presence of specific fatty acids is more important for growth and survival of juvenile cockles than the total amount of dietary fatty acids supplied, least cost linear programming was used to design live microalgae diets. Monocultures of indigenous algae were grown under controlled conditions and sampled to determine their quality in terms of dry weight, organic matter, lipid and fatty acids composition. These differences in biochemical composition of the microalgae were used in a least-cost programming software, and allowed the formulation of three diets with different fatty acid contents, but similar dry weight, organic matter, lipid and total fatty acid content. The formulated diets were then used to determine the importance of dietary fatty acids for growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Juvenile cockles (6.24±0.04 mm) were constantly fed live microalgal diets with similar lipid, organic matter and total fatty acid contents but different individual fatty acid concentrations: high-EPA, no-DHA and low-ARA diets. Growth was positively affected by high-EPA and low-ARA diets, whereas no significant growth was observed for the no-DHA diet. However, high mortality of cockles fed no-DHA diet and the low absorption efficiency and clearance rate of this diet indicate that this diet is unsuitable for juvenile cockles. In balanced diets with EPA and DHA, lower concentrations of ARA did not limit growth. The combination of EPA and DHA in a live microalgae diet was beneficial for the growth and survival of juvenile cockles, but no conclusion on the importance of supplying only EPA could be made. To address this, an additional growth experiment was designed. Growth and fatty acid profiles of juveniles cockles were determined after 28 days of feeding diets:1) with EPA 2) with DHA; 3) with EPA and DHA from a mixture of a diatom with a green algae; 4) with EPA and DHA from a mixture of the two green algae and 5) without long-chain (>C20) fatty acids. Significantly higher growth rate was observed with the treatment rich in EPA, while the lowest growth rates were found in without EPA. These results indicate that EPA is necessary for the short-term growth of cockles. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the polar lipids confirmed that, like most marine invertebrates, juvenile C. edule are not able to biosynthesize EPA and DHA from 18:3n-3 but are capable of biosynthesizing diene and triene NMI fatty acids. The occurrence of the NMI fatty acids was diet related, thus refuting the possibility of production of NMI as replacement for EPA and DHA.

Furthermore, in order to develop land-based culture of cockles it is crucial to have a supply of high quality live microalgal diets produced with minimum effort. Therefore, the use of simplified microalgae media, with different nitrogen sources (nitrate or ammonium) and molar N:P ratio, phosphorus, silica, iron, manganese and vitamins were also investigated. Chaetoceros muelleri, a marine diatom that was chosen given its robustness and quality as food for juvenile cockles, reacted positively to all simplified media. At the exponential phase, all cultures had reached similar cellular concentrations and dry weight productions. Cultures grown on ammonium media had a longer cultivation period, 20 days. Considering dry-weight production, culture duration, nutrient efficiency and lipid composition, the simplified media containing ammonium, phosphorus, silica, iron, manganese and vitamins proved to be a viable choice for batch culture of C. muelleri. The choice between these two media depends on the final purpose of the microalgae cultures and whether lipid contents (NH49:1), dry weight biomass (NH425:1) or nitrogen input and output (NH49:1) are more important.

In this thesis it was demonstrated that mono-algal diets with high EPA, as well as mixed live microalgae diets with high EPA and DHA contents proved to be suitable diets for C. edule juveniles. In addition, a positive relation between growth and the amount fed was found. The growth rates of the cultured cockles in this thesis are in accordance with the rates observed under natural conditions. The use of the simplified microalgae culture medium tested represents a significant decrease in the cost and preparation of the medium, as well as longer production and harvest periods, while maintaining microalgae quality. These results indicate that land-based aquaculture of cockles and microalgae is therefore a promising venture, with potential for expansion.

Opportunities of algae as ingedrient for animal feed
Weide, Rommie van der - \ 2015
livestock feeding - algae - feed formulation - nutritive value - biobased economy - composition
Fosforgehalte in legvoeders kan omlaag
Star, L. van der; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2015
De Pluimveehouderij 45 (2015)5. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 20 - 21.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - fosfor - hennen - voersamenstelling - poultry farming - poultry feeding - phosphorus - hens - feed formulation
Onderzoek naar de fosforbehoefte van leghennen is gedateerd. Daarom hebben Schothorst Feed Research en Wageningen UR Livestock Research de P-behoefte van huidige leghennen onderzocht. De uitkomst van de literatuurstudie zijn eerder beschreven. In dit artikel staan de resultaten van het bijbehorende dierexperiment.
Kansen voor veevoer met algen : samenvatting presentaties kennismiddag 7 november 2014
Weide, R.Y. van der; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
Lelystad : ACRRES - 32
voer - diervoeding - algen - voersamenstelling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - conferenties - biobased economy - feeds - animal nutrition - algae - feed formulation - sustainability - conferences
ACRRES-WageningenUR organiseert in samenwerking met Nevedi en Natuur & Milieu een kennisbijeenkomst over de kansen voor algen in veevoer. Na een excursie naar de algenteeltsystemen van ACRRES volgt de inhoud. Diverse experts delen hun kennis over verbeterde groei van de veestapel, de antibacteriële en antivirale eigenschappen en ervaring over de verwaarding van algen in veevoer. Deze bijeenkomst, primair gericht op de producenten en leveranciers van veevoeders, sluit af met een discussie.
Smediger kaas door juiste voer
Hettinga, K.A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
De zelfkazer 66 (2014)6. - ISSN 0166-4549 - p. 10 - 11.
kazen - smaak - eiwitgehalte - vetgehalte - voersamenstelling - onverzadigde vetten - vetzuren - melk - melkvet - cheeses - taste - protein content - fat content - feed formulation - unsaturated fats - fatty acids - milk - milk fat
Veel kaasmakers willen smedige (zachte, smeuïge) kaas maken, want de gemiddelde consument vindt die kaas het lekkerst. Kasper Hettinga en Jan Dijkstra van Wageningen Universiteit vertellen hoe de smedigheid van kaas kan worden beïnvloed door de samenstelling van het veevoer.
Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock
Rurangwa, E. ; Vuuren, A.M. van; Poelman, M. - \ 2014
Yerseke : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C135/14) - 57
vissilage - voersamenstelling - veevoeding - visvoeding - eiwitbronnen - oost-afrika - visverwerking - vercommercialisering - fish silage - feed formulation - livestock feeding - fish feeding - protein sources - east africa - fish processing - commercialization
The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.
Kansen voor algen in veevoer
Weide, R.Y. van der; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV
diervoeding - voer - algen - samenstelling - plantensamenstelling - voersamenstelling - voedingswaarde - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - haalbaarheidsstudies - animal nutrition - feeds - algae - composition - plant composition - feed formulation - nutritive value - sustainability - feasibility studies
Deze brochure geeft meer informatie over de kansen voor toepassing van algen in veevoer, maar ook de uitdagingen om dit te realiseren.
IAG ring test feed composition 2014
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.010) - 21
voersamenstelling - pluimveevoeding - ringtest - microanalyse - microscopie - kippen - feed formulation - poultry feeding - ring test - microanalysis - microscopy - fowls
A ring test was organized for the microscopic determination of composition in animal feed in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG – International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the method for composition analysis of feed.
Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed
Adamse, P. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2013.009) - 41
diervoeding - organische chloorverbindingen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voersamenstelling - polychloorbifenylen - voederkwaliteit - voederveiligheid - diergezondheid - animal nutrition - organochlorine compounds - organochlorine pesticides - feed formulation - polychlorinated biphenyls - forage quality - feed safety - animal health
In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in the trend analysis reports about dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the future. This analysis was performed on request of the NVWA (Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority). The results of these analyses will enable the NVWA to develop a risk-directed sampling strategy for the National Feed Monitoring program. More than 5000 feed samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds in the period 2001-2011. The materials in these samples originate from all over the world, but were sampled in the Netherlands. Samples were taken by the NVWA for the Netherlands National Feed Monitoring program and by the feed industry.
Advies houdt stand
Emous, R.A. van; Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)3. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 26 - 27.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - diergezondheid - vleeskuikenouderdieren - energiegehalte - voersamenstelling - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - poultry feeding - animal health - broiler breeders - energy content - feed formulation - animal behaviour - animal welfare
Livestock Research bekeek de effecten van een lager en hoger energieniveau in foktoom 1-voer ten opzichte van het huidige advies in de eerste legfase van vleeskuikenouderdieren.
Effect van verschillende energie/eiwit verhoudingen in het voer tijdens de opfok- en legperiode op lichaamssamenstelling, productie, bevedering, gedrag en nakomelingen van vleeskuikenouderdieren = Effect of different energy/protein ratios of the diet during rearing and laying on body composition, performance, feather cover, behaviour, and offspring of broilers breeders
Emous, R.A. van; Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 754) - 66
pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikenouderdieren - pluimveevoeding - voersamenstelling - energiegehalte - ontwikkelingsstadia - poultry farming - broiler breeders - poultry feeding - feed formulation - energy content - developmental stages
In this study the effect of different energy/protein ratios of the diet during the different phases of Ross 308 broiler breeders was investigated. Applying an increased energy/protein ratio during the rearing phase results in positive effects on body composition, behavior, reproduction and profit. The standard energy/protein ratio during the 1st phase shows the best results, while a higher ratio during the 2nd phase shows the best incubation results and profit.
P-Requirement in modern laying hens - a literature review
Lambert, W. ; Lange, L. de; Krimpen, M.M. van; Klis, J.D. van der; Star, L. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Schothorst Feed Research (Report / Schothorst Feed Research 1326) - 89
pluimveehouderij - hennen - eierproductie - pluimveevoeding - voersamenstelling - fosfor - voedingsbehoeften - poultry farming - hens - egg production - poultry feeding - feed formulation - phosphorus - feed requirements
Fosfor is een belangrijke voedingsstof voor leghennen, onder andere voor botontwikkeling en eivorming, maar speelt ook een grote rol bij milieubelasting. Onderzoek naar de fosforbehoefte van leghennen is gedateerd. Daarom is een onderzoek gestart naar de fosforbehoefte van de huidige leghennen. De moderne leghen met een hoge productie en goede legpersistentie heeft waarschijnlijk een andere fosforbehoefte dan de hennen van 20 à 30 jaar geleden. Daarnaast hebben leghennen in alternatieve huisvestingssystemen een betere botontwikkeling, waardoor ze mogelijk toe kunnen met een lagere fosforvoorziening via het voer. Vaststellen van de fosforbehoefte, -benutting en -uitscheiding is noodzakelijk ter onderbouwing van de forfaitaire fosfaatuitscheiding en om de fosforvoorziening verantwoord te kunnen verlagen. De uitkomst van een literatuurstudie wordt hier toegelicht. De resultaten van het bijbehorende dierexperiment zullen later volgen.
Sturen op Broeikasgassen
Vegte, Zwier van der - \ 2013
livestock farming - dairy farming - sheep farming - animal manures - ammonia emission - greenhouse gases - reduction - livestock feeding - fodder - feed formulation - fertilizer application
Proficiency test for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fats
Elbers, I.J.W. ; Traag, W.A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (RIKILT-report 2013.017) - 113
diervoeding - veevoeder - plantaardige vetten - dioxinen - polychloorbifenylen - voederveiligheid - tests - verontreinigende stoffen - toxische stoffen - voersamenstelling - animal nutrition - fodder - plant fats - dioxins - polychlorinated biphenyls - feed safety - pollutants - toxic substances - feed formulation
The test provides an evaluation of the methods applied for quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fat by the laboratories. The proficiency test was organised according to ISO 17043. For this test, four samples were prepared: - sunflower oil spiked with dioxins and PCBs; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated fish oil; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated chicken fat and spiked with 2,3,7,8-PCDF; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated chicken fat and spiked with non-dioxin like PCBs.
Stikstofverliezen beter inschatten
Spek, J.W. ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2013
Veeteelt 30 (2013)17. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 20 - 22.
melkveehouderij - stikstofverliezen - excretie - melksamenstelling - ureum - melkveevoeding - voersamenstelling - eiwitgehalte - dairy farming - nitrogen losses - excretion - milk composition - urea - dairy cattle nutrition - feed formulation - protein content
Hoe kan het melkureumgehalte beter worden benut als maat voor stikstofverliezen in de urine? Onderzoekers van WUR concluderen dat stikstofverliezen in de urine beter zijn in te schatten met een combinatie van factoren, zoals het melkureumgehalte en het zout- en eiwitgehalte in het rantsoen.
Bedrijfsspecifieke fosfaatgebruiksnorm vraagt goed management
Oenema, J. ; Hilhorst, G.J. - \ 2013
V-focus 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 34 - 35.
melkveehouderij - dierlijke meststoffen - fosfaat - gebruik - normen - mestbeleid - voersamenstelling - mineralenboekhouding - dairy farming - animal manures - phosphate - usage - standards - manure policy - feed formulation - nutrient accounting system
De fosfaatgebruiksnormen worden de komende jaren de bottleneck voor melkveebedrijven. De verwachte aanscherping van deze generieke normen in 2015 leidt tot meer kosten door een hogere afvoer van mest. Een systeem van een bedrijfseigen fosfaatgebruiksnorm doet meer recht aan de werkelijkheid en stimuleert melkveehouders hun gewasproductie te verbeteren. Alleen een hogere gewasopbrengst dan gemiddeld levert met dit systeem voor de boer voordelen op.
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