Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Data-driven water-efficient production scheduling in the food industry
Pulluru, Sai Jishna ; Akkerman, Renzo - \ 2018
In: 28th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering / Friedl, Anton, Klemeš, Jiří J., Radl, Stefan, Varbanov, Petar S., Wallek, Thomas, Elsevier B.V. (Computer Aided Chemical Engineering ) - ISBN 9780444642356 - p. 1063 - 1068.
data driven approach - food industry - online water quality measurement - real-time scheduling - water efficiency

Reuse and regeneration of water is becoming increasingly important in the food industry. Planning both water reuse and production while at the same time ensuring food safety is a challenge. We propose a novel scheduling methodology to simultaneously plan water reuse and production in food production processes utilizing real time water quality data. We develop a two-stage predictive scheduling and reactive scheduling approach taking into account the dynamic nature of water quality. Overall, our approach can prevent undesired contamination of food products due to reuse of water and achieve higher water efficiency.

Coproducten verwaarden
Keijsers, Edwin ; Duinkerken, Gert van - \ 2016
coproduction - food industry - residual streams - waste utilization - animal feeding - feeds - biobased economy - byproducts
Stel, je bent producent in de levensmiddelenindustrie. Van bijvoorbeeld de aardappels die je gebruikt voor chipsproductie blijft een deel ‘onbruikbaar’ product over. Gooi je het weg? Zonde, deze stromen kunnen interessant zijn voor de diervoederindustrie. In de afgelopen jaren is het gebruik van zogenoemde coproducten licht gestegen.
Exergy analysis in industrial food processing
Zisopoulos, F.K. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578326 - 229
thermodynamics - energy - physical properties - food production - drying - food industry - efficiency - thermodynamica - energie - fysische eigenschappen - voedselproductie - drogen - voedselindustrie - efficiëntie

The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. Three case studies are presented, two on a chain level (industrial bread and mushroom production), and one on a process level (conceptual spray drying of a lactose solution). Furthermore, industrial food production chains are categorized as thermodynamic archetypes and general rules are derived for their sustainable design exergy-wise. Additional methodological aspects related to e.g. the impact of system boundaries, the allocation of exergy values to waste streams, and the influence of the selection of the environment of reference on the outcome of the analysis, are also discussed.

Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives
Bornkessel, S. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Stefanie Broring. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576599 - 129 p.
functional foods - innovations - food industry - non-food industries - pharmacology - functionele voedingsmiddelen - innovaties - voedselindustrie - non-food industrieën - farmacologie

Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

Sabine Bornkessel

The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2003, Ding et al., 2015) is based on the convergence of the food and pharmaceutical sectors (Omta, 2004, Bröring, 2005), since functional foods incorporate a nutritional as well as a health benefit (Spence, 2006, Hasler, 2002). Several studies provide a comprehensive overview of convergence definitions and their different emphases (Bröring, 2005, Curran, 2010, Hacklin, 2008, Preschitschek, 2014), mainly following the common idea summarised by the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development as follows: ‘the blurring of technical and regulatory boundaries between sectors of the economy’ (OECD, 1992). On the one hand, this emerging segment offers a plethora of innovation opportunities. On the other hand, companies focusing on this emerging segment have to employ knowledge and technologies outside of their traditional expertise. The importance of innovation increases, since the emergence of the functional food market implies an intensification of competitive pressure. Due to high failure rates, there is an urgent need to improve the food innovation process (Stewart-Knox and Mitchell, 2003).

The convergence process is considered to follow the consecutive steps of science, technology and market convergence, leading to a complete industry convergence in which companies or whole industry segments fuse (Curran et al., 2010, Hacklin, 2008). Linking these steps to the simplified innovation process, the comparative perspective on the innovation and convergence processes delivers a framework with which to analyse innovation processes in converging industries using different perspectives. Therefore, the present thesis aims

Ø to evaluate convergence processes using different perspectives in order to derive an assessment framework of the innovation process in converging industries.

This study deals with the functional food sector emerging between the food and pharmaceutical industries while using certain functional ingredients as units of analysis.

The present thesis comprises two parts. It first focuses on the procedural perspective of convergence processes in order to deliver a comprehensive analysis of the complete convergence process. This is then complemented in the second part by a focus on the later steps of market and industry convergence.

In the first part, this study delivers quantitative (Chapter 2 – life cycle approach) and qualitative (Chapter 3 – perspective of innovation value chain) measures for the comprehensive analysis of the complete convergence process. While the life cycle approach focuses on the development showing the movement of complete industry sectors, the innovation value chain perspective delivers insights into the underlying strategic cross-industry activities on a company level. Next to the comprehensive analysis of the convergence process, this study delivers two levels with which to analyse the later phases in converging industries: first, the analysis of cross-industry collaborations on a company level (Chapter 4), and second, the analysis of ingredient awareness on a consumer level (Chapter 5). While the analysis on a company level delivers an approach to analyse cross-industry innovation using the resource-based view, the consumer perspective sheds light upon the consumers’ perception of the products delivered in the convergence areas.

In summary, convergence implies a changing competitive environment. The evaluation of this phenomenon is therefore of high importance for researchers and practitioners alike. This thesis enhances the research field of convergence by delivering an overall assessment framework that integrates different perspectives to screen convergence processes and to analyse converging competences. The scope and the unit of analysis, along with the adaptation of theoretical concepts, extend already existing convergence assessment approaches. Besides the analysis of the early phases of convergence processes used to anticipate industrial developments (e.g. Curran et al., 2010), the elaboration of the complete convergence process delivers an approach to face the multifaceted challenges during the innovation process in converging industries. The practical implications of this study is that it provides companies in convergence areas different measures to evaluate convergence processes in order to identify relevant convergence areas. Depending on the phase of the convergence process, the appropriate method or mixture of methods can be used to substantiate strategic corporate decisions such as for instance product positioning.

Reststromen suikerketen
Smit, A.B. ; Janssens, S.R.M. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-013b) - 12 p.
suikerbieten - suikerfabrieksafval - agro-industriële bijproducten - reststromen - agro-industriële ketens - afvalhergebruik - voedselindustrie - voedselproductie - biobased economy - sugarbeet - sugar factory waste - agroindustrial byproducts - residual streams - agro-industrial chains - waste utilization - food industry - food production
De teelt en verwerking van suikerbieten leidt tot producten en diverse reststromen of bijproducten. In deze notitie worden de bestaande bijproducten en reststromen en hun huidige bestemmingen in kaart gebracht. Nagegaan is in hoeverre het geheel (het huidige gebruik) duurzaam is en of er mogelijkheden zijn om het economisch rendement te verbeteren.
Competitiveness of the EU food industry : ex-post assessmentof trade performance embedded in international economic theory
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-018) - ISBN 9789086157358 - 79 p.
food industry - market competition - competitive ability - terms of trade - economic indicators - international trade - world markets - european union - usa - voedselindustrie - marktconcurrentie - concurrerend vermogen - ruilvoet - economische indicatoren - internationale handel - wereldmarkten - europese unie - vs
This study assessed the competitiveness of the EU food industry benchmarked against USA, Australia, Brazil and Canada. This assessment is based on trade indicators (Relative Net trade advantage and export share on the world market) and on economic indicators (value added, labour productivity and share value added in total manufacturing). This study is an update of an earlier study executed in 2007. The overall competitiveness performance of the EU28 (intra-EU trade excluded) remained weak: the three economic indicators weakened and the trade indicators improved in period (2) 2008-2012 compared to period (1) 2003-2007. The position in period 2 was even weaker than the relative weak position in period 1. Brazil remained the strongest and the USA became strong.
Biobased packaging: sustainable, functional and attractive
Molenveld, Karin - \ 2015
food packaging - biobased economy - biobased materials - bioplastics - food industry - packaging materials


Natural Flavors and Fragrances - Plants and Micro-organisms: Our factories of the future
Hall, Robert - \ 2015
Food Quality

The use of flavors and fragrances based on natural plant substances is a growing trend in the food industry. Food manufacturers will soon have access to a digital library detailing thousands of extracts. In a related development, businesses are using micro-organisms tot synthesize flavors and fragrances. The first flavors and aromas made through fermentation are now on the market.

Stakeholder interactions in nuclear emergency response for the Dutch food supply chain
Asselt, E.D. van; Brandhoff, P.N. ; Twenhöfel, C.J.W. - \ 2015
nuclear power stations - disasters - food industry - management - food contamination - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - kernenergiecentrales - rampen - voedselindustrie - bedrijfsvoering - voedselbesmetting - multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking
In the Netherlands, EPAn (Unit Planning and Advice – Nuclear) assesses the radiological situation and advises the national and regional levels on protective actions. This advice is based on radiological and human health expertise provided by the Crisis Expert Team (CET) radiation. At the start of the project, CET lacked insight in the measures taken by food producers in case of a nuclear accident and communication with these stakeholders was limited. Furthermore, experience on recovery measures was primarily focused on the first stage after an incident.
Cities on the GROW : pathways to supporting the sustainable growth of urban food enterprises in London, Reading and Almere : final report
Nunes, Richard ; Meulen, Suzanne ; Mol, G. ; Bailey, Alison - \ 2015
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2688) - 143 p.
food industry - urban environment - urban development - towns - voedselindustrie - stadsomgeving - stadsontwikkeling - steden
Cities on the Grow is a cross-disciplinary project that has been funded by Climate-KIC, an initiative of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. It seeks to support the sustainable growth of urban food enterprises toward the implementation of more commercially viable business practices. It also seeks to secure the social and climate benefits of these enterprises while enhancing their role in city-regional food economies.
Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51 p.
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications
Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2015
London : Academic Press - ISBN 9780128003503 - 416
voedseltechnologie - voedseltechniek - inkapseling in microcapsules - inkapselen - voedselindustrie - food technology - food engineering - microencapsulation - encapsulation - food industry
This book provides an update on the latest developments, challenges, and opportunities in the highly expanding field of microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications, examining the various types of microspheres and microcapsules essential to those who need to develop stable and impermeable products at high acidic conditions.
Benchmark Agrofood : de positie van regio FoodValley in Nederland
Agricola, H.J. ; Kuhlman, T. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2637) - 32
landbouwsector - agro-industriële sector - agro-industriële complexen - landbouwindustrie - voedselindustrie - landbouwproductie - voedselproductie - agro-industriële ketens - werkgelegenheid - gelderse vallei - veehouderij - agricultural sector - agroindustrial sector - agroindustrial complexes - agribusiness - food industry - agricultural production - food production - agro-industrial chains - employment - livestock farming
Gemeente Ede wil meer inzicht krijgen in de economische betekenis van het regionale agrofoodcomplex. Meer specifiek luidt de vraag: hoe verhoudt de bedrijvigheid van de agrofoodsector in de regio FoodValley – in termen van werkgelegenheid en toegevoegde waarde – zich tot andere agrofoodregio’s in Nederland? Om de positie van regio FoodValley en gemeente Ede te duiden, zal een vergelijking worden gemaakt met de deelgebieden Oost-Brabant, Rotterdam Foodcluster en Amsterdam-Zaanstreek.
Voedsel- en diervoederveiligheid van algenproducten : Verkenning van wet- en regelgeving voor voedselveilige productie van algen
Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 631) - 17
algenteelt - humane voeding - veevoeder - wetgeving - iso - erkende regelingen - voedselveiligheid - certificering - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voederveiligheid - algae culture - human feeding - fodder - legislation - approval schemes - food safety - certification - food policy - food industry - food legislation - nutrition labeling - novel foods - feed safety
Het telen van algen als voedsel of diervoeder brengt, net als bij andere voedselproducten, eisen voor voedselveiligheid met zich mee.
Valse romantiek : hoogleraar Tiny van Boekel over de zegeningen van modern voedsel
Boekel, T. van - \ 2015
Chemie Magazine 57 (2015)5. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 22 - 24.
voedselveiligheid - voeding en gezondheid - voedselindustrie - voedseladditieven - biologische voedingsmiddelen - voedseltechnologie - food safety - nutrition and health - food industry - food additives - organic foods - food technology
Kaliumcarbonaat. Mononatriumglutamaat. Calciumdinatriumethyleendiaminetetra- acetaat. Zomaar wat additieven die de voedingsindustrie in ons eten stopt. Volgens Tiny van Boekel, hoogleraar aan de Wageningen University, is daar niks mis mee. Hij verwerpt het idee dat ons eten vroeger beter was en dat ‘natuurlijk’ voedsel gezonder is.
Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector
Berkum, S. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-036) - ISBN 9789086157068 - 42
handelsakkoorden - internationale handel - europese unie - landbouwproducten - landbouwsector - agro-industriële sector - voedselindustrie - nederland - trade agreements - international trade - european union - agricultural products - agricultural sector - agroindustrial sector - food industry - netherlands
This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement would reduce the currently high trade costs related to divergent non-tariff measures, such as pest risk analysis procedures and labelling requirements. Beef and poultry supply from Mercosur is very competitive and is expected to gain from any improved access to EU markets, resulting in more competitive pressure for the Dutch industry on its main markets.
Small-scale farmers, certification schemes and private standards: is there a business case? : costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors
Kuit, M. ; Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA) (Value Chains & Trade ) - ISBN 9789290815686 - 148
certificering - boeren - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - voedselindustrie - voedselproducten - voedselkwaliteit - kleine landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - kosten-batenanalyse - certification - farmers - food marketing - food industry - food products - food quality - small farms - peasant farming - cost benefit analysis
Certification of agricultural products is an increasingly common tool that is expected to contribute to agricultural improvement, farmer well-being, poverty alleviation, reduced environmental impact and food safety. In an increasingly competitive market, processors, manufacturers and retailers use certification to demonstrate their green and sustainable credentials and differentiate their products. In some commodity sectors, such as coffee and cocoa, products certified as sustainable are on track to reach majority market share in important producing and consuming nations. This development poses a major challenge for farmers in general, and small-scale farmers in ACP and other developing countries, in particular. This publication, commissioned by CTA, presents the findings of a study of the impact of certification on farmers in coffee, cocoa, cotton, fruit and vegetables.
Dat smaakt naar meer
Galen, Michiel van - \ 2014
food industry - innovations
De Agrifoodmonitor 2014 : hoe burgers de Agri & Food sector waarderen
Onwezen, M.C. ; Snoek, H.M. ; Reinders, M.J. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-042)
agro-industriële sector - agro-industriële ketens - landbouwsector - maatschappelijk draagvlak - voedselindustrie - veehouderij - tuinbouw - akkerbouw - voedselproductie - agroindustrial sector - agro-industrial chains - agricultural sector - public support - food industry - livestock farming - horticulture - arable farming - food production
In dit rapport wordt de maatschappelijke waardering van de Agri & Food sector en zijn subsectoren gemeten. Ook wordt in kaart gebracht of de waardering van de Agri & Food sector is veranderd ten opzichte van 2012. Ten slotte wordt inzicht gegeven in de factoren die maatschappelijke waardering beïnvloeden en of deze factoren stabiel zijn over de tijd.
Environmental innovation in chains and networks : assessing determinants and performance implications in Dutch food and beverage firms
Grekova, E. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers; Jacques Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572232 - 150
milieubeheer - ketenmanagement - firma's - bedrijven - prestatieniveau - innovaties - voedselindustrie - dranken - nederland - environmental management - supply chain management - firms - businesses - performance - innovations - food industry - beverages - netherlands

Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based view and its spins-offs, this dissertation focuses on environmental innovation and environmental management (EM) that involves supply chain partners as means of promoting sustainable industry growth, using the Dutch food and beverage processors as a subject of the study. In–house environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM have a promising potential to induce sustainable growth in the industry because they are increasingly connected not only to improved environmental but also to an improved economic performance. However, the implications of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM for the firm performance are not clear-cut and require further investigation. Prompted by the promising potential of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM, the current research agenda focuses on their determinants: internal organizational capabilities and external factors (such as the roles of public policies, consumer demand, and other stakeholder pressures). Therefore, the present dissertation aims to investigate determinants of environmental innovation and of supply chain-oriented EM and their impact on firm performance.

Chapter 2 illustrates in a dynamic perspective how changing institutional pressures and internal organizational factors influence the development of chain-oriented EM. Overall, institutional pressures are proven to be an important determinant. However, pressures on different levels vary considerably with respect to their impact. We found that pressures from supply chain partners and increasingly from long-term public–private environmental covenants significantly influence the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Interestingly, regulative institutional pressure from public authorities appeared to have no impact on supply chain-oriented EM. These findings are of particular interest as they suggest that Dutch public policy has chosen to rely on a responsibility culture, initiative, and self-organization, rather than on direct steering. This policy setting seems to work since our data evidence a progress in the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Furthermore, the findings show that food processors with more developed EM systems, associated with the presence of continuous improvement capabilities, are more likely to advance their EM by implementing supply chain-oriented EM. In course of time, as firms increasingly consider the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM as appropriate behaviour, institutional pressures become less influential and internal organizational factors become crucial to enable the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM.

Chapter 3 offers further insights into organizational capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Prior research rarely considered how firms use their existing capabilities and the capabilities developed within their environmental strategy to come up with new and better ways to reduce the environmental impact. We investigate whether the integration of environmental concerns within the firm can provide an additional impetus to the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM, when combined with innovative orientation. In this context, we assess performance implications of capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Compared with the past research, we consider supply chain-oriented EM as an organizational capability for the integration of supply chain partners into EM, not as a set of environmental practices. The findings show that the development of supply chain-oriented EM is supported by both capabilities of innovative orientation and environmental integration and is accelerated by their combination. Furthermore, integration capabilities on in-house and supply chain levels appeared to be interconnected. The capability to integrate environmental concerns within the firm induces the integration of environmental concerns in the supply chain relationships. Finally, it is shown that the overarching capability to engage supply chain in EM pays off. This capability is induced by the implementation of interconnected environmental practices that involve supply chain partners (green purchasing, environmental collaboration with customers, and eco-design).

Chapter 4 advances the understanding of the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on firm performance by introducing in environmental research the problem of appropriation of benefits created by the partners. Grounded in the Resource based view spin-offs, we claim that supply chain-oriented EM can enhance the performance of the focal firm not only directly, but also indirectly. The indirect relationship implies that supply chain-oriented EM stimulates the focal firm to implement more environmentally sustainable processes that in turn contribute to firm's performance. We found that supply chain-oriented EM involving customers can induce in-house environmental innovation that results in strong performance improvements. Interestingly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers brings about weak performance improvements as a result of appropriation of the advantage realized by suppliers. Therefore, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers has a limited value and potential for Dutch food processors. Possibly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers can induce process changes among suppliers, not focal firms. In this context, Chapter 4 illustrates the necessity to integrate the characteristics of supply chain actors into the research on the implications of supply chain-oriented EM. The findings regarding the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on the sustainability of internal operations have a link with firm performance. Supply chain-oriented EM that involves suppliers was shown to induce no significant improvements in environmental sustainability of operations among food processors. Unlike supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers, supply chain-oriented EM involving customers has an indirect effect on the firm performance via environmental innovation.

Firm’s network can be seen as a rich source of knowledge. Having access to knowledge and resources of the partners in supply chains and networks does not imply that a firm can appropriate (i.e. capture) corresponding benefits that could enhance environmental sustainability of in-house operations and performance. The exploitation of external knowledge requires the development of organizational capability to realize the value of new external knowledge, assimilate it and ultimately exploit it – absorptive capacity. Chapter 5 brings absorptive capacity into the discussion regarding the role of external partners in environmental innovation. Environmental innovation can also rely on internal knowledge sources. Development and accumulation of internal knowledge can be supported by the continuous improvement capability vested in the EM system. Therefore, Chapter 5 informs the discussion of the roles of internal and external knowledge for environmental innovation by considering organizational capabilities for knowledge sourcing: absorptive capacity to exploit external knowledge and continuous improvement to develop and accumulate internal environmental knowledge. The findings demonstrate that Dutch food processors develop environmental innovations relying on both external knowledge in their network tapped with the help of absorptive capacity and on internal knowledge built within the EM system with the help of continuous improvement capabilities. These findings challenge the presence of a substitution effect between internal and external knowledge. We expand the research on the determinants of environmental innovation by considering not only different knowledge sources but by providing insights into the knowledge sourcing process.

Overall, the dissertation evidences an increasing importance of internal organizational capabilities to enable sustainable industry growth. Internal organizational capabilities appeared to be decisive to induce environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM. Also the appropriation of benefits created in cooperation with external partners and exploitation of external knowledge require certain organizational capabilities. In the earlier periods of corporate environmentalism, external pressures were of primary importance to induce the reduction of the environmental impact. Nowadays, the increasing role of organizational capabilities implies that a lot of power is concentrated in the hands of managers. For public policy, these findings suggest a focus on the development of instruments to stimulate the accumulation of organizational capabilities and capacity building.

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