Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Effects of dietary protein and carbohydrate on life-history traits and body protein and fat contents of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens
Barragan-Fonseca, Karol B. ; Gort, Gerrit ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
Physiological Entomology (2019). - ISSN 0307-6962
Body nutrient composition - fecundity - food quality - larval performance - macronutrients - nutrition

We investigate how the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) responds to dietary protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) contents and the P:C ratio in terms of both immature and adult life-history traits, as well as effects on larval body composition. Nine chicken-feed based diets varying in their P:C ratio are formulated. We test three protein concentrations (10%, 17% and 24%) and three carbohydrate concentrations (35%, 45% and 55%) and their combinations. All nine diets support the complete development and reproduction of this species. Survival is high on all diets. Development time, larval yield, larval crude fat and egg yield are more influenced by P and C contents than by the P:C ratio. Low contents result in a shorter development time. Larval yield is higher on diets with higher C-contents. Pupal development is faster on a low dietary P-content for all three C-contents. Egg yield only increases when P-content increases, although it also varies with the P:C ratio. Larval crude protein content is similar on all nine diets but increases when C-content is low (10%) in P10 and P17. Larval crude fat content is high at P24-diets irrespective of C-content. We conclude that a high macronutrient content combined with a low P:C ratio positively affects H. illucens performance. The diet P17:C55 supports the highest larval and adult performance and results in a high larval body protein content and an intermediate crude fat content.

A floor cover to improve temperature distribution and quality preservation in maritime refrigerated container transport of grapes : GreenCHAINge WP1 - Table Grapes
Lukasse, Leo ; Mensink, Manon ; Wissink, Edo - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1733) - ISBN 9789463436601 - 32
refrigerated transport - containers - sea transport - grapes - covers - temperature - food quality - koeltransport - zeetransport - druiven - bedekkingsmaterialen - temperatuur - voedselkwaliteit
Like many other fruits, table grapes depend on accurate temperature management during transport in maritime refrigerated containers. Ideally the temperature inside the container is equal to set point in every location in the container. Unfortunately door-end temperatures are always higher due to poor air flow distribution. In climate chamber tests Lukasse & Staal (2016a and 2016b) investigated the effect of covering sections of the container’s T-bar floor. The best T-bar floor cover found in that study was a trapezoid-shape floor cover. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of that trapezoid-shape T-bar floor cover on temperature and fruit quality in commercial reefer container transports of grapes. A field experiment was done in a commercial container shipment of six standard 40 ft. HC reefer containers travelling from South Africa to The Netherlands taking 24 days. The three test containers contained a T-bar floor cover. The three reference containers did not contain the T-bar floor cover. All other parameters were, to the extent possible, the same for all containers. In 31 locations air temperature between the fruit was logged at an interval of 10 min. with an accuracy of approx. ± 0.1 °C. 15 Trays, evenly distributed in a vertical plane on the container’s longitudinal centre line, were weighed at origin and at destination. At destination the fruit quality of these 15 trays was analysed. A clear positive effect on temperature was observed. The floor cover reduces the average difference between warmest and coldest temperature in the trays by approx. 30%. An effect on grape quality could not be assessed.
National Reference Laboratories RIKILT Wageningen University & Research : annual report 2016
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, M. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Meijer, Nathan ; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT Report 2017.007) - 49 p.
reference standards - laboratories - food legislation - europe - annual reports - food safety - food quality - feeding standards - referentienormen - laboratoria - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - europa - jaarverslagen - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedingsnormen
National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) are part of the system responsible for the control and enforcement of EU food and feed law. RIKILT Wageningen University & Research has been designated as the NRL for twelve subjects. The tasks of a NRL depend on its research field. This report gives an overview of the activities performed by all of RIKILT's NRLs in 2016.
Zoeken naar betekenis in twee waarheden : samenhang tussen bodem- en voedselkwaliteit tijdens symposium niet opgehelderd
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Ekoland (2017)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - voedselkwaliteit - voeding en gezondheid - voedselproductie - biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - bemesting - soil management - soil quality - food quality - nutrition and health - food production - organic farming - dairy farming - fertilizer application
In de landbouw bestaan er twee waarheden: die van de wetenschap en die van de praktijk. Tijdens het symposium Sustainable soil management & healthy food bleken die twee waarheden vooralsnog onverenigbaar. “Niet om te beledigen, maar de praktijk loopt toch een beetje voor op de wetenschap”, vindt melkveehouder Kees van Gaalen.
Impact of microbial variability on food safety and quality
Aryani, D.C. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577381 - 190 p.
listeria monocytogenes - lactobacillus plantarum - growth analysis - kinetics - growth models - inactivation - heat stress - strain differences - food safety - milk - ham - microbial diversity - food quality - groeianalyse - kinetica - groeimodellen - inactivatie - warmtestress - stamverschillen - voedselveiligheid - melk - microbiële diversiteit - voedselkwaliteit
Voedselveiligheid bij luchthavens : rapportage van gewasmetingen spinazie en boerenkool bij de luchthavens van Lelystad en Bremen
Simons, H.A.E. ; Dijk, C.J. van; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2015
Nieuwegein : LBP/Sight - 35 p.
luchthavens - gewasanalyse - gewaskwaliteit - gewasteelt - gewasmonitoring - monitoring - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - spinazie - boerenkool - airports - plant analysis - crop quality - crop management - crop monitoring - food safety - food quality - spinach - curley kales
In de Kabinetsreactie op het door de Alderstafel uitgebrachte advies omtrent de ontwikkeling van de luchthaven Lelystad, heeft het kabinet het advies overgenomen om Lelystad gecontroleerd te ontwikkelen naar een luchthaven met circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar. Voor de uitwerking van het advies is door de Alderstafel Lelystad een werkprogramma opgesteld. In dit werkprogramma is opgenomen dat er een monitoringsprogramma wordt uitgewerkt om de effecten van de uitbreiding van de luchthaven op de duurzame landbouw te beoordelen. Dit monitoringsprogramma is in overleg met de betrokken partijen opgesteld en is in uitvoering. Onderdeel van het programma zijn gewasmetingen bestaande uit een nulmeting bij Lelystad en een referentiemeting bij Bremen (de luchthaven van Bremen komt qua aantal vliegbewegingen overeen met de toekomstige omvang van Lelystad). De onderzoeksopdracht behorende bij deze gewasmetingen is het beantwoorden van de volgende twee hoofdvragen. 1) Heeft een luchthaven als Lelystad een onderscheidenlijke invloed op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden? 2) Heeft de ontwikkeling naar circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar een mogelijk onder-scheidenlijk effect op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden?
Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food
Broekhoven, S. van - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van Huis; Joop van Loon; Tiny van Boekel. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 178
insecten als voedsel - voedselkwaliteit - voedingswaarde - voedselveiligheid - tenebrio molitor - alphitobius diaperinus - insects as food - food quality - nutritive value - food safety
We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575745 - 241
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - groenten - consumenten - consumptiepatronen - consumptie - milieubeleid - vietnam - zuidoost-azië - food safety - food quality - vegetables - consumers - consumption patterns - consumption - environmental policy - south east asia

This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam.

Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned economy ranking among the world’s most impoverished nations to a socialist-oriented market economic power house, currently ranking highest among the world’s largest growth economies. Throughout this transition Vietnam has struggled with food security in which concerns have shifted from ‘is there enough to eat?’ to ‘is it safe to eat?’. Food safety has become a major social and political issue in Vietnam. Urbanization puts pressure on the provision of daily fresh food. The distanciation of production-consumption relationships and the intensification of cultivation methods, as a response to growing urban demand with a declining farmland acreage, results in regular food safety incidents related to the inappropriate use of chemicals in agricultural production. The wide media coverage of such incidences has resulted in food safety being the ‘number one consumer concern’ in Vietnam.

To improve food safety and to restore trust among consumers, authorities in Vietnam, as in other parts of Asia, promulgate policies that focus on the modernization of the food retail system. Western models of consumption and retailing strongly influence these retail modernization policies, placing supermarket development at the core of strategies. The retail modernization policies are designed to influence choices and persuade consumers to change their behavior based on the idea that consumers make rational choices, assuming that food safety concerns will drive consumers into supermarket channels. However, despite consumer food safety concerns, in the performance of everyday life, consumers don’t ‘en masse’ adopt the policy enabled risk-reducing alternative of supermarkets. Traditional channels such as wet markets continue to dominate in the daily fresh vegetable purchasing practices. This phenomenon is observed across the Asian continent. As it turns out, transitions in the food buying practices of Asian consumers are not so easily established.

This thesis addresses consumption as a social practice. The application of social practice based approaches to the analysis of consumption started around the turn of the century and has since gained importance in thinking about food system changes with a strong focus on western developed societies. By applying the research on the specific case of shopping for vegetables in Vietnam, this thesis exemplifies how a social practices approach is relevant beyond OECD countries. In studying the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalization at the consumption junction, this thesis uncovers how practices of shopping for vegetables and their inherent food safety dynamics emerge, evolve, or die out within the rapidly transforming urban context of Hanoi, Vietnam. This thesis is concerned with the question:

How do ordinary people in Vietnam confront food safety risks and why and how they do, or do not adopt alternative practices, like modern retail shopping, to respond to their increasing concerns about the fresh-food made available to them?

The conducted research and its findings are described in this thesis over six chapters. It starts with an introductory chapter 1, followed by four distinct, though coherent, empirical research chapters (chapter 2-5). Each of these chapters delivers a complementary understanding on the everyday practice of shopping for vegetables in the transformative context of Vietnam. Combined these empirical research chapters provide an understanding of how practices of shopping for vegetables develop, are sustained and/or die out within a rapidly transforming urban context. The thesis ends with a concluding chapter 6.

The first chapter describes the research problem, the theoretical framing of the problem and the research questions. The chapter explicates why this thesis takes a social practices theory based research approach. Exploring the middle ground of two interlinked debates - a debate with extreme positions in retail development and a debate on how to bring about behavioral change, - it is discussed that a social practices approach is relevant for obtaining understandings of everyday life, because of its non-individualist perspective, its empirical focus on habitual activity, and its inclusion of the local context. Next, the chapter outlines the conceptual approach in which relations between provision systems on the one hand and consumers on the other are mediated at the food retailing sites. By giving primacy to neither agency nor structure, it is discussed how practices based research, might deliver an understanding of the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalisation. It than elaborates on the novel programmatic methodological approach of shifting perspectives - zooming in on situated practices and zooming out through a historical mapping of a portfolio of embedded practices - that allow the detection of the dynamics in situated habitual and contextually constrained activities, as well as longer term transformations of practices over time. Chapter 1 concludes with an exposition of the mix of methods applied.

Chapter 2 investigates which characteristics of the dominant and persistent practice of shopping at wet markets account for its continued reproduction and addresses the question of how food safety concerns are confronted within this well–established practice. Taking a rural city not yet touched by retail modernization as the research setting, this chapter presents in-depth empirical research insights on interactions at wet-market from the perspective of both sales persons and citizen-consumers. This chapter shows that food safety is a well-recognized dilemma by both providers and consumers of vegetables, but that food safety concerns are not the principal factor in determining the purchasing practices. Shopping at wet markets is a highly routinized taken for granted activity and food safety concerns only become prominent within this habitual shopping setting. Deploying specific heuristics for vendor and product selection, food safety is shown to be continuously reproduced along pre-given lines. As long as the existing, ‘practical’ repertoire of food safety heuristics deployed by consumers suffices in counter balancing their anxieties, consumers adhere to their established food shopping routines of shopping at wet markets.

Chapter 3 explores the persistence of shopping for vegetables at informal, uncontrolled, and unhygienic street markets in the context of advancing retail modernization in urban Hanoi. Government induced policies aim at replacing wet markets by supermarkets and therewith enforce breaks with well-established routines. However, although supermarkets are recognized and valued as safe vegetable retailing sites, they are only marginally successful in attracting daily vegetables consumers. This chapter addresses the question of what context specific processes and circumstances account for the continued reproduction of shopping at street markets that do not offer formal food safety guarantees. The empirical study of vegetable shopping practices at six different street markets, reveals how consumers handle food safety concerns in combination with other choices about where and when to buy. It shows how and why daily routines are time-spatial constrained. Where and how to buy vegetables is importantly shaped by other activities in daily life. The empirical research illustrates that temporal and spatial dimensions of practices in contemporary daily life in Hanoi constitute a reinforcing mechanism for the persistence of uncontrolled and unhygienic street markets, rather than the uptake of supermarkets. This chapter points out that food safety policies and interventions that do not take into consideration the existing everyday consumption practices, might fail to address acute food safety issues.

Chapter 4 assesses the extent of the outreach of modernized retail formats in terms of who benefits, who is excluded and what context specific processes and circumstances influence the uptake of modified or modern retail formats by different social groups. A practice realist perspective is demonstrated to be relevant for addressing outreach and social inclusion and understanding how policy interventions play out in practice. On the basis of a collective case study of six distinct policy induced retail modernization interventions, this chapter illustrates the emerging and on-going process of food retail transformation. This approach exposes how and why similar supermarket interventions can yield contrasting intermediate outcomes when they do not accommodate for differences in shopper population and do not adapt to variations in the urban conditions. The current one-dimensional, supermarket oriented, retail modernization policy that aims to reduce the exposure to uncertified ‘unsafe’ food, is shown to lead to the exclusion of a large proportion of the population. This chapter points out the importance for Vietnamese policymakers to consider the risk of social deprivation and to explicitly reflect on the unanticipated consequences of the normative direction of their interventions in food provision. This chapter indicates that reaching a more diverse population requires more flexible policies that allow for malleability in response to local conditions.

Chapter 5 addresses the questions: what practices of purchasing or appropriating fresh vegetables do exist in contemporary Vietnam; how do they relate to food safety concerns and dynamics; why did they emerge and evolve during the past 40 years; and what factors are important in explaining the dynamics of change in the overall set of shopping practices? Deploying a practice historical perspective, this chapter unravels the complex evolving relationships between the local and the global as they can be read from the ways in which Vietnamese consumers deal with food safety risks when shopping for fresh food, by analyzing a portfolio of shopping practices against the background of historical changes over the period 1975-2015. Discussing the way in which six situated social practices are embedded in the broader set of food appropriation practices, this chapter portrays how practices show consistency in change over time, influenced by transformations in their environment, in which practices are interrelated with other practices in daily life beyond the act of shopping for food and beyond the domain of food. Further this chapter demonstrates how food safety related trust mechanisms as deployed by Vietnamese consumers show patterns of hybridization of personalized trust with abstract guidance systems. The historical approach provides insights on why shopping at supermarkets is not just currently still limited in recruiting practitioners. Also looking forward, it is not reasonable to expect homogenization in food retail system transformation.

This thesis concludes with chapter 6 which addresses the question of what lessons can be learned from social practices research in assessing the present and future role of supermarkets and the accompanying food safety strategies, which imply the de- and re-routinization of well-established contemporary practices of shopping for fresh-food. Along the four empirical research chapters, it first sets out to answer the research questions. Next it elaborates on the theoretical and methodological approach. The chapter describes the iterative research process and depicts how methodological variance can be used as a strength when applied as an intelligible program of shifting perspectives - zooming in and out on practices - and a mix of methods. It is pointed out that although practices based approaches are criticized on their complexity and ambiguity, the approach used in this thesis is proven to deliver concrete results and might be useful in similar cases. Lastly, this concluding chapter discusses how practices based perspectives have the potential to inform a more versatile and amenable portfolio of public regulations and resources when striving for amelioration in food provision, not only in Vietnam, but across the Asian continent.

This thesis demonstrates how changes in infrastructures are not sufficient for changing practices and thus warns against making food safety policies strongly dependent on a single supermarket model. Instead of putting all strategic resources on one strategy, efforts of integration and mutual adaptation of modern and traditional structures could be considered. Pursuing a trend of hybridization prevents that consumers have to break with long established routines in an isolated, radical way.

Alleen sterkere smaak verhoogt eetlust niet
Doets, E.L. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
ondervoeding - eiwitdepletie - ouderen - voedselvoorkeuren - voedselkwaliteit - productontwikkeling - smaak - voedselverpakking - voeding - voedingsonderzoek - ouderenvoeding - undernutrition - protein depletion - elderly - food preferences - food quality - product development - taste - food packaging - nutrition - nutrition research - elderly nutrition
Vijf tot tien procent zelfstandige ouderen is ondervoed. Ouderen waarderen voeding waarschijnlijk beter als verschillende aspecten zoals textuur, smaak en uiterlijk tegelijkertijd worden verbeterd. Dit schrijven Esmée Doets en Stefanie Kramer, onderzoekers bij Food & Biobased Research, in een overzichtsstudie in het tijdschrift Food Quality and Preference.
Inventarisatie van voedselfraude: mondiaal kwetsbare productgroepen en ontwikkeling van analytische methoden in Europees onderzoek
Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT rapport 2015.014) - 25
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselproducten - voedselonderzoek - voedselinspectie - europa - inventarisaties - food safety - food quality - food products - food research - food inspection - europe - inventories
Het aantal gerapporteerde voedselfraude-incidenten is de laatste vijf tot tien jaar toegenomen en daarmee ook de publieke belangstelling voor deze zaken met een duidelijk toename na de paardenvleesaffaire van 2013. Toch is over de concrete omvang van fraude veel onduidelijk. Deze studie heeft tot doel het inventariseren van productgroepen die kwetsbaar zijn voor voedselfraude en het inventariseren van de voltooide en lopende Europese onderzoeksprojecten op dit terrein. Op basis van het aantal vermeldingen in beschikbare internationale databanken zijn de meest kwetsbare productgroepen geïdentificeerd. Vervolgens is geïnventariseerd voor welke productgroepen fraudegerelateerde methoden zijn ontwikkeld op Europees niveau.
Quick scan voedselfraude in Nederland; Wie verzamelt welke data? Welk onderzoek is er? Wat zijn de cijfers? Wat zijn mogelijke kennislacunes?
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Benninga, J. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI VR14-126) - 32
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselinspectie - voedselproducten - gegevens verzamelen - inventarisaties - nederland - beleid inzake voedsel - food safety - food quality - food inspection - food products - data collection - inventories - netherlands - food policy
In Nederland is er geen database gevonden, die specifiek is ontwikkeld voor incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland. De NVWA en het bedrijfsleven vielen buiten de scope van dit onderzoek. Onderzoeken naar voedselfraude betreffen voornamelijk de ontwikkeling van een specifieke (analytische) detectiemethode voor specifieke producten. Incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland opgenomen in het Europese Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of beschreven in dagbladen en vaktijdschriften betreffen vooral vlees(producten), vis(producten), veevoer en eieren. De fraude betreft toevoeging, verdunning of vervanging met goedkoop vreemd productmateriaal, of frauduleuze declaratie van het productie (management) systeem of van het productie proces. Geïdentificeerde lacunes in kennis betreffen risicofactoren voor voedselfraude, geschiktheid van (analytische) methoden voor de detectie van verschillende typen voedselfraude bij verschillende product(groep)en, het juridisch handhavingskader, en een risico-gebaseerd controlesysteem specifiek gericht op voedselfraude.
Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality
Koreissi, Y. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; Diego Moretti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574557 - 177
digitaria exilis - digitaria - voedingsstoffenverbetering - voedselkwaliteit - voedingswaarde - ijzer - zink - west-afrika - nutrient improvement - food quality - nutritive value - iron - zinc - west africa

Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: Towards improving nutrient quality

Abstract

Hidden hunger affects a far greater percentage of the world’s population with iron and zinc deficiencies being the most common, particularly affecting women of reproductive age. The primary cause of the mineral and vitamin deficiencies in developing countries is inadequate intakes of multiple and bioavailable micronutrients in common cereal-based diets, emphasizing the need for increased quality of diets. Plant genetic diversity, and also indigenous foods and/ or traditional grains as fonio may play a critical role in reduction of the problem for resource poor populations. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most ancient West African cereal representing a key crop in food supply during crop shortfall periods. However, less is known about its potential to contribute improving nutrition and health. In this context, the thesis investigated whether we could improve the nutrient quality of fonio, especially iron, to potentially contribute to the daily intake of population.

Investigations in this thesis comprised: i) the consumption pattern of fonio and its contribution to nutrient intakes (108 women aged 15‐49 year-old selected from 3‐stage cluster sampling procedure in Bamako, Mali for the purpose of the fonio project); ii) the validation of the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing population level intakes of energy and nutrients (36 women out of 108 previously selected); iii) the genetic diversity, nutrient content especially bioavailable iron and zinc content and the effect of processing on fonio landraces (12 fonio landraces collected from farmers in Mali); iv) the sensory variability among fonio landraces (20 fonio landraces collected from farmers in Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso); v) improved food processing combining dephytinisation with native phytase and fortification of fonio diet with iron to increase iron absorption (16 women aged 18-30 year-old from simple random sampling in Cotonou, Benin).

The results indicated that i) fonio is consumed one to three times/ month by 68% of our study population. The average daily portion size is 152g when consumed. Only 5% of the study population consumed fonio dishes contributing to 16% of the daily energy intake for the consumed portion size, reflecting the low consumption of fonio related to significant barriers such as availability of cooked fonio in urban markets, lack of consistent supply throughout the year, difficult post- harvest processing, high-quality product demand, hard texture coupled with time consuming cooking process, and high cost of fonio products.

The use of the adjusted TACAM is acceptable for estimating average intake at population level for macronutrients, calcium and zinc in a low intake population, but not for carbohydrate and iron intakes which was underestimated and vitamin A which was overestimated, nor for probability of adequate intakes and nutrient densities. At individual level, significant differences were observed between estimated and analyzed intakes for all the nutrients increasing with higher intakes.

The nutrient content of fonio landraces in Mali and the effect of processing of the nutrient values revealed i) a limited genetic variation of studied landraces, polymorphism level (3.5%) compared to 63% reported for 118 fonio accessions collected in West Africa, three different clusters only for Malians landraces compared to two clusters for Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea and Benin together; ii) no statistically significant differences between fonio landraces for their iron and zinc content, iii) a high iron and phytate concentration in paddy fonio (35 and 514 mg/100 g dry weight) which reduces considerably with traditional processing, the most important losses occurring during processing from paddy to mid wet fonio (approximately 2 and 129 mg/100 g), 96% reduction for iron and 75% for phytate.

Fonio landraces in West Africa were different for their visual (colour and presence/absence of impurities) and their textural (consistency of cooked grain) charactersitics.

Exploring processing to increase iron biavailability from fonio meals confirm that whole wheat flour could be used as a source of natural phytase to produce low phytic acid containing fonio porridge. It showed also that dephytinisation using intrinsic wheat phytase reduced phytate-to-iron molar ratio from 23.7:1 to 2.7:1 after only 1 hour of incubation at 50ºC with pH of 5.0, and iron fortification decreased the molar ratio to 0.3:1. Dephytinisation with wheat phytase and fortification significantly increased iron absorption ratio from 2.6% to 8.2% in fonio porridges.

From these results, we can conclude that the current contribution of fonio to daily bioavailable iron intake is low due to small portion sizes being consumed in low frequency, to considerable losses during processing to mid-wet fonio, and to a high phytate-iron molar ratio. Fonio landraces from Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso are variable in visual and textural characteristics (colour, presence of impurity and consistency of the cooked grain, respectively), determining the preference of consumers. Selecting landraces for preferred sensory properties may offer an entry point for processors who intend to promote the consumption of fonio and increase its role in diet. In absence of meaningful genetic diversity and variation in iron content in fonio landraces in Mali, there is little benefit in selecting landraces for natural high iron content. Dephytinisation using intrinsic wheat phytase could be a promising processing practice to improve iron bioavailability and fortification is required to increase the amount of absorbed iron from fonio meals.

Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin
Dabade, D.S. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; D.J. Hounhouigan, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574205 - 158
garnalen - penaeus - penaeus monodon - voedselkwaliteit - voedselveiligheid - bacteriëntelling - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteitszorg - benin - microbiologie - risicobeheersing - risicoanalyse - kwantitatieve methoden - shrimps - food quality - food safety - bacterial counting - quality controls - quality management - microbiology - risk management - risk analysis - quantitative methods

Abstract

This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The steps of the chain prior to shrimp processing at the freezer plants were critical for shrimp quality and safety because of prevailing temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. Combining culture-dependent (plate counts) and culture independent (DGGE, clone libraries analysis) approaches, it was found that bacterial concentration in shrimps was higher than that of their surrounding water and sediment. Conversely, bacterial diversity was higher in water or sediment than in shrimps. At species level, distinct bacterial communities were associated with sediment, water or shrimp samples. Spoilage evaluation of shrimps showed that during storage at 0ºC, Pseudomonas spp. were dominant, whereas at 7ºC and 28ºC, H2S-producing bacteria were the dominant group of microorganisms. An empirical model predicting shrimp shelf-life as a function of constant storage temperature was developed. Isolates producing strong off-odor were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae at 28ºC or 7ºC and Pseudomonas spp. and LAB (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) at 0ºC. The fastest growing isolates namely, Pseudomonas psychrophila and C. maltaromaticum were selected for their spoilage activity and for modeling studies. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and a higher spoilage activity at 0 to 15ºC, while at 28ºC, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. Models predicting the growth of pseudomonads in shrimps as a function of temperature were constructed. These models were validated under dynamic storage temperatures simulating actual temperature fluctuation in the supply chain. Using different risk classification approaches, the main foodborne pathogen risks identified were Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The management of the risks posed by the main pathogens was addressed using different scenarios to meet the set food safety objectives. Based on quantitative and ecological studies, this thesis developed tools that can be used in decision-making regarding tropical shrimp quality and safety management.

Aanpassing rekenmodel "percentage aal onder de som-TEQ norm"
Kotterman, M.J.J. ; Vries, P. de - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C104/15) - 27
anguillidae - palingen - voedselveiligheid - normen - voedselkwaliteit - berekening - geslachtsverhouding - eels - food safety - standards - food quality - calculation - sex ratio
Naast het bestaande rekenmodel voor de schatting van het deel van de aalvangst met gehalten som-TEQ onder de voedselveiligheidsnorm (“percentage aal onder de norm”) is nu een rekenmodel gemaakt zodat ook voor de som van niet-dioxine achtige PCBs (som-ndl-PCB) het percentage van de vangst onder de voedselveiligheidsnorm kan worden geschat. De gehalten som-TEQ en som-ndl-PCB in aal zijn aan elkaar gerelateerd, maar een eventuele overschrijding van de norm in aal kan van de som-TEQ, van de somndl-PCB óf van beide normen zijn. Dit kan per locatie verschillen. De norm voor som-ndl-PCBs wordt in de aal uit de onderzochte locaties het vaakst overschreden. Beide normen wegen wettelijk even zwaar; het laagste geschatte percentage aal onder de norm uit beide modellen wordt genomen als hét “percentage aal onder de norm”. Door het gebruik van de norm voor som-TEQ én som-ndl-PCBs wordt het geschatte percentage aal onder de norm in het gesloten gebied lager. Daarnaast zijn de beide modellen aangepast zodat de gemeten man-vrouw verhouding in het gebruikte mengmonster aal in de berekening wordt meegenomen.
inauguratie Jacques Trienekens
Trienekens, J.H. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR
voedselketens - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - food chains - food safety - food quality - sustainability - animal production - animal welfare
Als de partijen in de voedselketen, van boer tot consument, meer samenwerken kan de hele keten winnen aan kwaliteit, veiligheid en duurzaamheid. Afspraken en vertrouwen maken een keten stabieler, en daar worden alle partijen beter van, ook de consument met een groeiend aantal wensen ten aanzien van assortiment, milieu en dierenwelzijn. Dat betoogt prof.dr. Jacques Trienekens in zijn inaugurele rede als persoonlijk hoogleraar Keten- en netwerkmanagement aan Wageningen University op 2 juli.
Perspectives on the distribution of fresh food in emerging metropolises: the cases of Mexico City and Cairo
Waldhauer, N. ; Burgh, M. van der; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Bing, X. ; Scheer, F.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1529) - ISBN 9789462573642 - 56
voedsel - distributie - voedseldistributieprogramma's - ketenmanagement - voedselketens - logistiek - efficiëntie - stedelijke gebieden - mexico - voedselzekerheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselverspilling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - food - distribution - food distribution programs - supply chain management - food chains - logistics - efficiency - urban areas - food security - food quality - food wastage - sustainability
The report consists of four main chapters. In chapter 2 a theoretical framework of urban food distribution is developed based on earlier projects, a literature study and interviews. This framework underlines the main elements of urban food distribution and serves as a theoretical outline for the following case studies and recommendations for improvement. Chapter 3 describes the current situation of fresh food distribution in the two chosen case studies Mexico City and Cairo using the framework of chapter 2 as a reference. Chapter 4 presents the conclusions from the case studies comparing the current situation of the respective urban fresh food distribution networks, assessing the performance of the system and stating the major challenges in both cities. Recommendations for intervention are given in chapter 5 taking into account the conclusions from the case studies, urban distribution initiatives and projects in Western European cities and expert interviews. Chapter 6 gives an outlook into further research.
Het effect van licht op bio-aardappel vergroening in de retail
Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G. ; Otma, E.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1528) - ISBN 9789462573635 - 26
consumptieaardappelen - achteruitgang (deterioration) - vergroening - chlorofyl - kunstlicht - supermarkten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - aardappelen - voedselkwaliteit - table potatoes - deterioration - greening - chlorophyll - artificial light - supermarkets - organic foods - potatoes - food quality
Uit peilingen van de Nederlandse Aardappel Organisatie en andere, blijkt dat er nog steeds kwaliteitsgebreken vast te stellen zijn bij de biologische aardappels in het schap. Vergroening lijkt één van de belangrijkste aspecten van de kwaliteitsgebreken te zijn. Het doel van dit projectonderdeel is daarom om te onderzoeken welk type licht in de supermarkt leidt tot de beste resultaten om vergroening van bio-aardappels in het schap tegen te gaan.
Consumer behaviour towards vegetables: a study on domestic processing of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households
Bongoni, R. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. - \ 2015
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 28 (2015)3. - ISSN 0952-3871 - p. 219 - 225.
different cooking methods - food quality - health - fruit - consumption - interventions - determinants - attributes - choice - impact
Background: Preferences for sensory properties (e.g. taste and texture) are assumed to control cooking behaviour with respect to vegetables. Conditions such as the cooking method, amount of water used and the time-temperature profile determine the nutritional quality (e.g. vitamins and phytochemicals) of cooked vegetables. Information on domestic processing and any underlying motives can be used to inform consumers about cooking vegetables that are equally liked and are nutrient-rich. Methods: Two online self-reporting questionnaires were used to identify domestic processing conditions of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households. Questions on various aspects of domestic processing and consumer motives were included. Descriptive data analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed for both vegetables, separately, to group consumers with similar motives and behaviour towards vegetables. Results: Approximately 70% of consumers boiled vegetables, 8–9% steamed vegetables, 10–15% stir fried raw vegetables and 8–10% stir fried boiled vegetables. Mainly texture was used as a way to decide the ‘doneness’ of the vegetables. For both vegetables, three clusters of consumers were identified: texture-orientated, health-orientated, or taste-orientated. The texture-orientated consumers are identified as the most prevalent (56–59%) group in the present study. Statistically significant associations are found between domestic processing conditions and clusters, whereas no such association are found between demographic details and clusters. Conclusions: A wide variation in domestic processing of broccoli and carrots is found in the present study. Mainly sensory properties (i.e. texture and taste) determined the domestic processing conditions. The findings of the present study can be used to optimise cooking to yield vegetables that meet consumer’s specific sensory preference and are higher in nutrients, and as well as to communicate with target consumer groups.
Small-scale farmers, certification schemes and private standards: is there a business case? : costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors
Kuit, M. ; Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA) (Value Chains & Trade ) - ISBN 9789290815686 - 148
certificering - boeren - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - voedselindustrie - voedselproducten - voedselkwaliteit - kleine landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - kosten-batenanalyse - certification - farmers - food marketing - food industry - food products - food quality - small farms - peasant farming - cost benefit analysis
Certification of agricultural products is an increasingly common tool that is expected to contribute to agricultural improvement, farmer well-being, poverty alleviation, reduced environmental impact and food safety. In an increasingly competitive market, processors, manufacturers and retailers use certification to demonstrate their green and sustainable credentials and differentiate their products. In some commodity sectors, such as coffee and cocoa, products certified as sustainable are on track to reach majority market share in important producing and consuming nations. This development poses a major challenge for farmers in general, and small-scale farmers in ACP and other developing countries, in particular. This publication, commissioned by CTA, presents the findings of a study of the impact of certification on farmers in coffee, cocoa, cotton, fruit and vegetables.
Social Information use by Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis, an Experiment Revisited
Kurvers, R.H.J.M. ; Straates, K. ; Ydenberg, R.C. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Swierstra, P.S. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2014
Ardea 102 (2014)2. - ISSN 0373-2266 - p. 173 - 180.
public information - brent geese - goose flocks - group-size - food quality - bernicla - personality - vigilance - selection - patch
Reproducing research results is one of the cornerstones of science. However, few biological findings are actually replicated. Here, we repeat a study done more than 35 years ago on social information use in Barnacle Geese. In the original study, models of Barnacle Geese were used to measure how they attracted wild Barnacle Geese (Drent & Swierstra 1977). Models were placed in different locations in a pasture and these models attracted many wild Barnacle Geese, providing strong evidence for the use of social information. 37 years later we repeated this experiment, using the same models, the same area and a similar research protocol. Despite an abundance of wild Barnacle Geese in the area frequently flying over the models, the models did not elicit a landing response. In line with the original study, we scored vigilance rates and abundance of geese. Comparing these data to previous records we found that total abundance increased but that vigilance rates were lower than previously recorded. The decreased vigilance suggests that the landscape has become safer or that competition between geese has intensified; both could explain a reduced use of social information. More generally, our study shows the importance of repeating experiments in ecology, especially in a rapidly changing world.
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