Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rapid Analysis of Illegal Cationic Dyes in Foods and Surface Waters Using High Temperature Direct Analysis in Real Time High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Wen, Ruizhi ; Zeng, Dong ; Yang, Zihui ; Jiang, Le ; Ma, Ming ; Chen, Bo ; Beek, Teris A. Van - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66 (2018)28. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7542 - 7549.
crystal violet - direct analysis in real time - food safety - high-resolution mass spectrometry - illegal cationic dyes - induced phase separation extraction - malachite green - methylene blue - rhodamine B

A high temperature desorption (HTD) direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometric (DART-HRMS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of four banned cationic dyes. Rhodamine B is used to dye foods, while malachite green, crystal violet, and methylene blue are added to fishponds as antimicrobials. A simple induced phase separation extraction was used to pretreat samples. The DART-HRMS method employed two temperature steps, i.e., 200 °C for drying, purification, and enrichment of sample solution and 500 °C for thermal desorption and ionization of analytes. The calibration curves of dyes in the range of 50-2000 ng/mL were linear using deuterated malachite green as an internal standard. The LODs vary for all analytes between 0.1 and 30 ppb depending on the matrix and experimental conditions. Through analyses of real samples, two chili powders and one chili oil were found to be contaminated by rhodamine B. The concentrations were comparable with those found by an HPLC-MS/MS method.

Stadsvarkens als schakel in de circulaire economie
Vijn, M.P. - \ 2017
Ekoland 37 (2017)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 24 - 25.
varkens - varkenshouderij - stadslandbouw - cradle to cradle - wetgeving - reststromen - voedselveiligheid - varkensvlees - pigs - pig farming - urban agriculture - legislation - residual streams - food safety - pigmeat
Aan welke regelgeving moet je voldoen om varkens in de stad te houden en te voeden met reststromen? Wageningen University & Research heeft hier onderzoek naar gedaan voor de Stichting Stadsvarkens in Ede. Deze stichting heeft als doelstelling het realiseren van een lokale circulaire economie door de inzet van (stads)varkens en de educatie hierover.
National Reference Laboratories RIKILT Wageningen University & Research : annual report 2016
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, M. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Meijer, Nathan ; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT Report 2017.007) - 49 p.
reference standards - laboratories - food legislation - europe - annual reports - food safety - food quality - feeding standards - referentienormen - laboratoria - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - europa - jaarverslagen - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedingsnormen
National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) are part of the system responsible for the control and enforcement of EU food and feed law. RIKILT Wageningen University & Research has been designated as the NRL for twelve subjects. The tasks of a NRL depend on its research field. This report gives an overview of the activities performed by all of RIKILT's NRLs in 2016.
Stadsvarkens : schakel in een circulaire economie : ruimte in wet- en regelgeving voor stadsvarkens : een advies aan Stichting Stadsvarkens Ede
Vermeij, I. ; Bikker, P. ; Holster, H. ; Raamsdonk, L. van; Vijn, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University & Research Wetenschapswinkel rapport 336) - ISBN 9789463434577 - 32
varkens - varkenshouderij - stadslandbouw - cradle to cradle - wetgeving - reststromen - voedselveiligheid - varkensvlees - duurzame ontwikkeling - pigs - pig farming - urban agriculture - legislation - residual streams - food safety - pigmeat - sustainable development
De Stichting Stadsvarkens te Ede wil weten aan welke regelgeving moet worden voldaan om vier varkens in een bosperceel te houden en te voeden met reststromen. Het doel is het sluiten van kringlopen binnen een circulaire economie. Dit rapport gaat in op de wet- en regelgeving rond diervoeding en op de afzet van het vlees in de setting van Stadsvarkens. Daarnaast wordt het voeren van reststromen in relatie tot diergezondheid belicht. Door studenten is binnen een ACT-traject gekeken naar relevante wetgeving en is een viertal scenario’s geschetst voor het houden van stadsvarkens die gevoerd worden met lokale reststromen. De scenario’s zijn door de onderzoekers tegen het licht gehouden en van kanttekeningen en een advies voorzien. Dit heeft geresulteerd in een ander advies, omdat verschillende knelpunten de eerdere scenario’s niet mogelijk maken.
Cadmium in soil, crops and resultant dietary exposure
Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Mol, G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2784) - 39
cadmium - soil - food intake - crops - exposure - fertilizers - food safety - toxicology - bodem - voedselopname - gewassen - blootstelling - kunstmeststoffen - voedselveiligheid - toxicologie
A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food
Raptis, Ioannis ; Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Makarona, Eleni ; Salapatas, Alexandros ; Petrou, Panagiota ; Kakabakos, Sotirios ; Botsialas, Athanasios ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo ; Lees, Michelle ; Valamontes, Evangelos - \ 2016
In: Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems VIII. - SPIE (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging 37) - ISBN 9781628419597
food safety - lab-on-a-chip - Mach-Zehnder interferometry - optoelectronic chip

Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

ESBL Evaluation framework
Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. - \ 2016
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-020) - ISBN 9789462578517 - 45 p.
extended spectrum beta-lactamases - livestock - epidemiology - animal welfare - animal health - public health - food safety - risk management - verbreed spectrum bèta-lactamases - vee - epidemiologie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - volksgezondheid - voedselveiligheid - risicobeheersing
Extended-spectrum bèta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become increasingly common in animals and humans. The goal of the presented ESBL evaluation framework is to help policy makers to evaluate the effectiveness of possible interventions aimed to reduce ESBL levels in livestock. An objective-driven ESBL policy approach (i.e., setting more clear and stringent objectives, for example maximum ESBL prevalence on national level) is preferable since much is unknown about other potential relevant measures and moreover the accountability of individual agents is hampered, which are both requisites for a measure-driven policy approach. In addition, for the nearby future, an additional measure is to extend the ban on some other antibiotics that are related to ESBLs.
Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature
Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Brennan, M. ; Bánáti, D. ; Lion, R. ; Meertens, R.M. ; Rowe, G. ; Siegrist, M. ; Verbeke, W. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. - \ 2016
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (2016)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1728 - 1745.
benefit communication - food hazard - food safety - risk communication - Risk perception - trust

A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics
Ren, Yingxue ; He, Zhen ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2016
Total Quality Management & Business Excellence (2016). - ISSN 1478-3363 - 15 p.
diagnostic instrument - edible oil - food safety - food safety management system - quality management

This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study includes a structured interview with the quality assurance manager. FSMS-DI is used to diagnose the core control and assurance activities, as well as the riskiness of context factors and output of the system. A factory tour is done to verify the information collected during the interview. The company is operating in a low to moderate risk context. The control activities are overall operating at an advanced level, while the assurance activities are at an average level. Although the food safety output of the FSMS is good, improvements are advised on the assurance activities to develop towards a more robust FSMS. This study gives an insight into the current situation of implemented FSMS in view of the context riskiness of the food business. Quantitative studies and further exploration of typical Chinese context characteristics may help food safety authorities, supporting (branch of industry) organisations, and food companies to advance towards a more effective food safety control in the food sector.

Impact of microbial variability on food safety and quality
Aryani, D.C. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577381 - 190 p.
listeria monocytogenes - lactobacillus plantarum - growth analysis - kinetics - growth models - inactivation - heat stress - strain differences - food safety - milk - ham - microbial diversity - food quality - groeianalyse - kinetica - groeimodellen - inactivatie - warmtestress - stamverschillen - voedselveiligheid - melk - microbiële diversiteit - voedselkwaliteit
Potential food hazards from organic greenhouse horticulture
Alsanius, B.W. ; Dorais, M. ; Doyle, O. ; Oancea, F. ; Spadaro, D. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse ) - 3 p.
organic farming - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - plant diseases - food safety - agricultural research - biologische landbouw - tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - plantenziekten - voedselveiligheid - landbouwkundig onderzoek
This factsheet describes the critical hazards in organic greenhouse horticulture (OGH) crop production and identifies the crucial knowledge gaps.
'Extra regels zorgen ook voor schaalvergroting' : landbouwbeleid in spagaat
Poppe, Krijn - \ 2015
market competition - sustainable agriculture - sustainable animal husbandry - agricultural policy - animal welfare - food safety - agricultural economics - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal housing

Aan de ene kant streeft Nederland naar een vrije wereldmarkt, waarbij concurrentie op kostprijs een belangrijke factor is. Dus zoveel mogelijk produceren voor zo weinig mogelijk geld. Aan de andere kant wil de maatschappij een landbouw gebaseerd op duurzaamheid, diervriendelijkheid en voedselveiligheid met veel ruimte voor gezinsbedrijven. Een spagaat waar het landbouwbeleid nog niet uit is. Wel constateert Reinout Burgers dat met het rechtser worden van maatschappij en politiek het beleid steeds meer in liberale richting beweegt, een beweging die – paradoxaal genoeg – juist versterkt wordt door extra regels voor duurzaamheid en diervriendelijkheid
Voedselveiligheid bij luchthavens : rapportage van gewasmetingen spinazie en boerenkool bij de luchthavens van Lelystad en Bremen
Simons, H.A.E. ; Dijk, C.J. van; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2015
Nieuwegein : LBP/Sight - 35 p.
luchthavens - gewasanalyse - gewaskwaliteit - gewasteelt - gewasmonitoring - monitoring - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - spinazie - boerenkool - airports - plant analysis - crop quality - crop management - crop monitoring - food safety - food quality - spinach - curley kales
In de Kabinetsreactie op het door de Alderstafel uitgebrachte advies omtrent de ontwikkeling van de luchthaven Lelystad, heeft het kabinet het advies overgenomen om Lelystad gecontroleerd te ontwikkelen naar een luchthaven met circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar. Voor de uitwerking van het advies is door de Alderstafel Lelystad een werkprogramma opgesteld. In dit werkprogramma is opgenomen dat er een monitoringsprogramma wordt uitgewerkt om de effecten van de uitbreiding van de luchthaven op de duurzame landbouw te beoordelen. Dit monitoringsprogramma is in overleg met de betrokken partijen opgesteld en is in uitvoering. Onderdeel van het programma zijn gewasmetingen bestaande uit een nulmeting bij Lelystad en een referentiemeting bij Bremen (de luchthaven van Bremen komt qua aantal vliegbewegingen overeen met de toekomstige omvang van Lelystad). De onderzoeksopdracht behorende bij deze gewasmetingen is het beantwoorden van de volgende twee hoofdvragen. 1) Heeft een luchthaven als Lelystad een onderscheidenlijke invloed op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden? 2) Heeft de ontwikkeling naar circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar een mogelijk onder-scheidenlijk effect op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden?
Duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek bij kinderen 2014 : eerste resultaten
Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Alewijn, M. ; Top, H.J. van den; A, D.L. van der; Roos, A.M. ; Drijvers, J.J.M.M. ; Etemad, Z. ; Ocké, M.C. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Briefrapport 2015-0170) - 40 p.
voedselconsumptie - schadelijke stoffen - voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - besmetters - voedingsonderzoek - food consumption - noxious substances - nutrition and health - food safety - children - child health - contaminants - nutrition research
This report describes the consumption of children who participated in a
duplicate diet study. Furthermore it provides additional information on
the collected duplicate diets, for example if a child had followed a
specific diet. Duplicate diet studies are conducted periodically since 1976
in the Netherlands and provide the opportunity to monitor the quantities
of certain substances people ingest daily over time (chemicals,
mycotoxins). Moreover, it can be assessed if these quantities remain
within the safety limits.
This duplicate diet study was conducted during the spring and autumn of
2014 by RIVM and RIKILT and was commissioned by the Dutch Food and
Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). Parents/ carers of 126
children aged 2 to 6 years in the region of Wageningen participated in
the study. They collected duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of all foods
and beverages their child consumed over a 24-hour period. They also
kept food diaries to record what the child had consumed during the day.
The duplicate diets were processed into freeze-dried samples and stored
at RIKILT.
The results of this study showed that for many children less duplicate
diet was collected than what they probably consumed. This should be
taken into account when interpreting the results of dietary exposure to
harmful substances.
Probabilistic dietary exposure models : relevant for acute and chronic exposure assessment of adverse chemicals via food
Boon, Polly E. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM letter report 2015-0191) - 41 p.
exposure assessment - exposure - models - chemicals - toxic substances - intake - food consumption - food safety - probabilistic models - blootstellingsbepaling - blootstelling - modellen - chemicaliën - toxische stoffen - opname (intake) - voedselconsumptie - voedselveiligheid - waarschijnlijkheidsmodellen
Exposure models are used to calculate the amount of potential harmful chemicals ingested by a human population. Examples of harmful chemicals are residues of pesticides, chemicals entering food from the environment (such as dioxins, cadmium, lead, mercury), and chemicals that are generated via heating (such as acrylamide and furans). In this report we describe the characteristics of two types of models: the first for calculating the short term-intake, and the second for calculating long-term intake. These models currently result in the most realistic estimation of chemical intake via food.
Voeding blog
Dagevos, H. ; Doets, E.L. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Kremer, S. ; Rest, O. van de; Ruben, R. ; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Zondervan, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - voedselzekerheid - voedsel - voeding - internet - telecommunicatie - nutrition and health - food safety - food security - food - nutrition - telecommunications
Voeding en voedsel spelen binnen Wageningen UR een centrale rol. In 2040 hebben we 9 miljard mensen te voeden met een veranderende voedselvraag. Hoe moeten we iedereen van gezond voedsel voorzien, zonder schade aan te richten aan het milieu? Voeding bepaalt voor een grote mate onze gezondheid. Het gaat daarbij om veilige voeding, maar ook afgestemd op de behoefte. Wageningse onderzoekers bloggen over het onderzoek naar beide onderwerpen en werkt daarmee aan een betere kwaliteit van leven. Dit blog is een initiatief van Wageningen University and Research Centre. Wageningen UR is het samenwerkingsverband tussen Wageningen University en Stichting DLO. Op dit platform delen onze medewerkers verhalen en kennis over hun werkveld en nodigen u uit om hierover mee te denken.
Werkgroep Fytobacteriologie : verslag van de bijeenkomst op 3 september 2015 : dead or alive
Wolf, J.M. van der; Overbeek, L.S. van - \ 2015
Gewasbescherming 46 (2015)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 124 - 124.
plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - bacteriologie - werkgroepen - plantenziektekunde - voedselveiligheid - biologische technieken - bacillus cereus - komkommerbontvirus - nuttige organismen - plant pathogenic bacteria - bacteriology - working groups - plant pathology - food safety - biological techniques - cucumber green mottle mosaic virus - beneficial organisms
Het thema van deze werkgroepbijeenkomst ‘dead or alive’ was al tijdens een eerder werkgroepoverleg gekozen. Het kunnen onderscheiden van dode en levende bacteriën is belangrijk, zowel voor pathogene bacteriën als voor ‘beneficials’, maar het onderscheid is vaak moeilijk te maken.
Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food
Broekhoven, S. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Arnold van Huis; Joop van Loon; Tiny van Boekel. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 178
insecten als voedsel - voedselkwaliteit - voedingswaarde - voedselveiligheid - tenebrio molitor - alphitobius diaperinus - insects as food - food quality - nutritive value - food safety
We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575745 - 241
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - groenten - consumenten - consumptiepatronen - consumptie - milieubeleid - vietnam - zuidoost-azië - food safety - food quality - vegetables - consumers - consumption patterns - consumption - environmental policy - south east asia

This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam.

Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned economy ranking among the world’s most impoverished nations to a socialist-oriented market economic power house, currently ranking highest among the world’s largest growth economies. Throughout this transition Vietnam has struggled with food security in which concerns have shifted from ‘is there enough to eat?’ to ‘is it safe to eat?’. Food safety has become a major social and political issue in Vietnam. Urbanization puts pressure on the provision of daily fresh food. The distanciation of production-consumption relationships and the intensification of cultivation methods, as a response to growing urban demand with a declining farmland acreage, results in regular food safety incidents related to the inappropriate use of chemicals in agricultural production. The wide media coverage of such incidences has resulted in food safety being the ‘number one consumer concern’ in Vietnam.

To improve food safety and to restore trust among consumers, authorities in Vietnam, as in other parts of Asia, promulgate policies that focus on the modernization of the food retail system. Western models of consumption and retailing strongly influence these retail modernization policies, placing supermarket development at the core of strategies. The retail modernization policies are designed to influence choices and persuade consumers to change their behavior based on the idea that consumers make rational choices, assuming that food safety concerns will drive consumers into supermarket channels. However, despite consumer food safety concerns, in the performance of everyday life, consumers don’t ‘en masse’ adopt the policy enabled risk-reducing alternative of supermarkets. Traditional channels such as wet markets continue to dominate in the daily fresh vegetable purchasing practices. This phenomenon is observed across the Asian continent. As it turns out, transitions in the food buying practices of Asian consumers are not so easily established.

This thesis addresses consumption as a social practice. The application of social practice based approaches to the analysis of consumption started around the turn of the century and has since gained importance in thinking about food system changes with a strong focus on western developed societies. By applying the research on the specific case of shopping for vegetables in Vietnam, this thesis exemplifies how a social practices approach is relevant beyond OECD countries. In studying the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalization at the consumption junction, this thesis uncovers how practices of shopping for vegetables and their inherent food safety dynamics emerge, evolve, or die out within the rapidly transforming urban context of Hanoi, Vietnam. This thesis is concerned with the question:

How do ordinary people in Vietnam confront food safety risks and why and how they do, or do not adopt alternative practices, like modern retail shopping, to respond to their increasing concerns about the fresh-food made available to them?

The conducted research and its findings are described in this thesis over six chapters. It starts with an introductory chapter 1, followed by four distinct, though coherent, empirical research chapters (chapter 2-5). Each of these chapters delivers a complementary understanding on the everyday practice of shopping for vegetables in the transformative context of Vietnam. Combined these empirical research chapters provide an understanding of how practices of shopping for vegetables develop, are sustained and/or die out within a rapidly transforming urban context. The thesis ends with a concluding chapter 6.

The first chapter describes the research problem, the theoretical framing of the problem and the research questions. The chapter explicates why this thesis takes a social practices theory based research approach. Exploring the middle ground of two interlinked debates - a debate with extreme positions in retail development and a debate on how to bring about behavioral change, - it is discussed that a social practices approach is relevant for obtaining understandings of everyday life, because of its non-individualist perspective, its empirical focus on habitual activity, and its inclusion of the local context. Next, the chapter outlines the conceptual approach in which relations between provision systems on the one hand and consumers on the other are mediated at the food retailing sites. By giving primacy to neither agency nor structure, it is discussed how practices based research, might deliver an understanding of the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalisation. It than elaborates on the novel programmatic methodological approach of shifting perspectives - zooming in on situated practices and zooming out through a historical mapping of a portfolio of embedded practices - that allow the detection of the dynamics in situated habitual and contextually constrained activities, as well as longer term transformations of practices over time. Chapter 1 concludes with an exposition of the mix of methods applied.

Chapter 2 investigates which characteristics of the dominant and persistent practice of shopping at wet markets account for its continued reproduction and addresses the question of how food safety concerns are confronted within this well–established practice. Taking a rural city not yet touched by retail modernization as the research setting, this chapter presents in-depth empirical research insights on interactions at wet-market from the perspective of both sales persons and citizen-consumers. This chapter shows that food safety is a well-recognized dilemma by both providers and consumers of vegetables, but that food safety concerns are not the principal factor in determining the purchasing practices. Shopping at wet markets is a highly routinized taken for granted activity and food safety concerns only become prominent within this habitual shopping setting. Deploying specific heuristics for vendor and product selection, food safety is shown to be continuously reproduced along pre-given lines. As long as the existing, ‘practical’ repertoire of food safety heuristics deployed by consumers suffices in counter balancing their anxieties, consumers adhere to their established food shopping routines of shopping at wet markets.

Chapter 3 explores the persistence of shopping for vegetables at informal, uncontrolled, and unhygienic street markets in the context of advancing retail modernization in urban Hanoi. Government induced policies aim at replacing wet markets by supermarkets and therewith enforce breaks with well-established routines. However, although supermarkets are recognized and valued as safe vegetable retailing sites, they are only marginally successful in attracting daily vegetables consumers. This chapter addresses the question of what context specific processes and circumstances account for the continued reproduction of shopping at street markets that do not offer formal food safety guarantees. The empirical study of vegetable shopping practices at six different street markets, reveals how consumers handle food safety concerns in combination with other choices about where and when to buy. It shows how and why daily routines are time-spatial constrained. Where and how to buy vegetables is importantly shaped by other activities in daily life. The empirical research illustrates that temporal and spatial dimensions of practices in contemporary daily life in Hanoi constitute a reinforcing mechanism for the persistence of uncontrolled and unhygienic street markets, rather than the uptake of supermarkets. This chapter points out that food safety policies and interventions that do not take into consideration the existing everyday consumption practices, might fail to address acute food safety issues.

Chapter 4 assesses the extent of the outreach of modernized retail formats in terms of who benefits, who is excluded and what context specific processes and circumstances influence the uptake of modified or modern retail formats by different social groups. A practice realist perspective is demonstrated to be relevant for addressing outreach and social inclusion and understanding how policy interventions play out in practice. On the basis of a collective case study of six distinct policy induced retail modernization interventions, this chapter illustrates the emerging and on-going process of food retail transformation. This approach exposes how and why similar supermarket interventions can yield contrasting intermediate outcomes when they do not accommodate for differences in shopper population and do not adapt to variations in the urban conditions. The current one-dimensional, supermarket oriented, retail modernization policy that aims to reduce the exposure to uncertified ‘unsafe’ food, is shown to lead to the exclusion of a large proportion of the population. This chapter points out the importance for Vietnamese policymakers to consider the risk of social deprivation and to explicitly reflect on the unanticipated consequences of the normative direction of their interventions in food provision. This chapter indicates that reaching a more diverse population requires more flexible policies that allow for malleability in response to local conditions.

Chapter 5 addresses the questions: what practices of purchasing or appropriating fresh vegetables do exist in contemporary Vietnam; how do they relate to food safety concerns and dynamics; why did they emerge and evolve during the past 40 years; and what factors are important in explaining the dynamics of change in the overall set of shopping practices? Deploying a practice historical perspective, this chapter unravels the complex evolving relationships between the local and the global as they can be read from the ways in which Vietnamese consumers deal with food safety risks when shopping for fresh food, by analyzing a portfolio of shopping practices against the background of historical changes over the period 1975-2015. Discussing the way in which six situated social practices are embedded in the broader set of food appropriation practices, this chapter portrays how practices show consistency in change over time, influenced by transformations in their environment, in which practices are interrelated with other practices in daily life beyond the act of shopping for food and beyond the domain of food. Further this chapter demonstrates how food safety related trust mechanisms as deployed by Vietnamese consumers show patterns of hybridization of personalized trust with abstract guidance systems. The historical approach provides insights on why shopping at supermarkets is not just currently still limited in recruiting practitioners. Also looking forward, it is not reasonable to expect homogenization in food retail system transformation.

This thesis concludes with chapter 6 which addresses the question of what lessons can be learned from social practices research in assessing the present and future role of supermarkets and the accompanying food safety strategies, which imply the de- and re-routinization of well-established contemporary practices of shopping for fresh-food. Along the four empirical research chapters, it first sets out to answer the research questions. Next it elaborates on the theoretical and methodological approach. The chapter describes the iterative research process and depicts how methodological variance can be used as a strength when applied as an intelligible program of shifting perspectives - zooming in and out on practices - and a mix of methods. It is pointed out that although practices based approaches are criticized on their complexity and ambiguity, the approach used in this thesis is proven to deliver concrete results and might be useful in similar cases. Lastly, this concluding chapter discusses how practices based perspectives have the potential to inform a more versatile and amenable portfolio of public regulations and resources when striving for amelioration in food provision, not only in Vietnam, but across the Asian continent.

This thesis demonstrates how changes in infrastructures are not sufficient for changing practices and thus warns against making food safety policies strongly dependent on a single supermarket model. Instead of putting all strategic resources on one strategy, efforts of integration and mutual adaptation of modern and traditional structures could be considered. Pursuing a trend of hybridization prevents that consumers have to break with long established routines in an isolated, radical way.

Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2014
Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015-012) - 48
voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - voederveiligheid - schadelijke stoffen - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - laboratoriumproeven - europese unie - food legislation - food safety - feed safety - noxious substances - genetically engineered organisms - laboratory tests - european union
Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL’s) vormen een onderdeel van het stelsel voor controle en handhaving van EU wet- en regelgeving op het gebied van veiligheid van voedsel en diervoeders. RIKILT is aangewezen als NRL voor twaalf onderzoekdomeinen. Taken van een NRL zijn afhankelijk van het onderzoekdomein. In dit rapport wordt een overzicht gegeven van de activiteiten in 2014 van alle NRL’s van RIKILT. Dit zijn de NRL’s voor dioxines en PCB’s, pesticiden in dierlijke producten, mycotoxinen, zware metalen, polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAK’s), mariene biotoxinen, stoffen en producten gerelateerd aan Richtlijn 96/23/EG, genetisch gemodificeerde organismen in voedsel en voeders, dierlijke eiwitten, diervoederadditieven, melk- en melkproducten en watergehalte pluimveevlees.
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