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Carbon storage potential in degraded forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ferraz, António ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Xu, Liang ; Hagen, Stephen ; Chave, Jerome ; Yu, Yifan ; Meyer, Victoria ; Garcia, Mariano ; Silva, Carlos ; Roswintiart, Orbita ; Samboko, Ari ; Sist, Plinio ; Walker, Sarah ; Pearson, Timothy R.H. ; Wijaya, Arief ; Sullivan, Franklin B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Hoekman, Dirk ; Ganguly, Sangram - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
aboveground biomass mapping - airborne lidar - carbon - forest degradation - Indonesia - Kalimantan - peat swamp forests
The forests of Kalimantan are under severe pressure from extensive land use activities dominated by logging, palm oil plantations, and peatland fires. To implement the forest moratorium for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia's government requires information on the carbon stored in forests, including intact, degraded, secondary, and peat swamp forests. We developed a hybrid approach of producing a wall-to-wall map of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of intact and degraded forests of Kalimantan at 1 ha grid cells by combining field inventory plots, airborne lidar samples, and satellite radar and optical imagery. More than 110 000 ha of lidar data were acquired to systematically capture variations of forest structure and more than 104 field plots to develop lidar-biomass models. The lidar measurements were converted into biomass using models developed for 66 439 ha of drylands and 44 250 ha of wetland forests. By combining the AGB map with the national land cover map, we found that 22.3 Mha (106 ha) of forest remain on drylands ranging in biomass from 357.2 ±12.3 Mgha-1 in relatively intact forests to 134.2 ±6.1 Mgha-1 in severely degraded forests. The remaining peat swamp forests are heterogeneous in coverage and degradation level, extending over 3.62 Mha and having an average AGB of 211.8 ±12.7 Mgha-1. Emission factors calculated from aboveground biomass only suggest that the carbon storage potential of more than 15 Mha of degraded and secondary dryland forests will be about 1.1 PgC.
DeVries, B.R. - \ 2016
landsat - time series - community-based forestry - tropical forest - deforestation - forest degradation
Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams
Noordwijk, M. van; Agus, F. ; Dewi, S. ; Purnomo, H. - \ 2014
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 677 - 692.
redd plus - forest degradation - multifunctional landscapes - southeast-asia - carbon stocks - co2 emissions - fallow model - deforestation - opportunities - incentives
Land-based emissions of carbon dioxide derive from the interface of forest and agriculture. Emission estimates require harmonization across forest and non-forest data sources. Furthermore, emission reduction requires understanding of the linked causes and policy levers between agriculture and forestry. The institutional forestry traditions dominated the emergence of the discourse on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) whilemore holistic perspectives on land-based emissions, including agriculture, found a home in international recognition for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). We tested the hypothesis that, at least for Indonesia, the NAMA framework provides opportunities to resolve issues that REDD+ alone cannot address.We reviewed progress on five major challenges identified in 2007 by the Indonesian Forest Climate Alliance: 1) scope and ‘forest’ definition; 2) ownership and tenurial rights; 3) multiplicity and interconnectedness of drivers; 4) peatland issues across forest and non-forest land categories; and 5) fairness and efficiency of benefitdistribution mechanisms across conservation, degradation and restoration phases of tree-cover transition. Results indicate that the two policy instruments developed in parallel with competition rather than synergy. Three of the REDD+ challenges can be resolved by treating REDD+ as a subset of the NAMA and national emission reduction plans for Indonesia.We conclude that two issues, rights and benefit distribution, remain a major challenge, and require progress on a motivational pyramid of policy and polycentric governance. National interest in retaining global palm oil exports gained priority over expectations of REDD forest rents. Genuine concerns over climate change motivate a small but influential part of the ongoing debate.
REDD+ Readiness progress across countries
Minang, P.A. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Duguma, L.A. ; Alemagi, D. ; Do, T.H. ; Bernard, F. ; Agung, P. ; Robiglio, V. ; Catacutan, D. - \ 2014
Climate Policy 14 (2014)4. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 685 - 708.
forest degradation - reduced emissions - deforestation - plus - conservation - challenges - cameroon
Efforts towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) have grown in importance in developing countries following negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This has favoured investments in processes to prepare countries for REDD+ at the national level (a process referred to as REDD+ Readiness). Yet, little attention has been given to how Readiness can be assessed and potentially improved. This article presents a framework for Readiness assessment and compares progress in REDD+ Readiness across four countries, namely Cameroon, Indonesia, Peru, and Vietnam. The Readiness assessment framework comprises six functions, namely planning and coordination; policy, laws, and institutions; measurement, reporting, verification (MRV), and audits; benefit sharing; financing; and demonstrations and pilots. We found the framework credible and consistent in measuring progress and eliciting insight into Readiness processes at the country level. Country performance for various functions wasmixed. Progress was evident on planning and coordination, and demonstration and pilots. However, MRV and audits; financing; benefit sharing; and policies, laws and institutions face major challenges. The results suggest that the way national forest governance has been shaped by historical circumstances (showing path dependency) is a critical factor for progress in Readiness processes. There is need for a rethink of the current REDD+ Readiness infrastructure given the serious gaps observed in addressing drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, linking REDD+ to broader national strategies and systematic capacity building. Policy relevance Policy makers, researchers and analysts helping to plan and implement REDD+, environmental services and climate change would find this paper potentially helpful. The paper explores progress on REDD+ Readiness across four countries (Cameroon, Indonesia, Peru and Vietnam) and provides broad lessons, recommendations and examples across these countries for further improving REDD+. The paper also suggests an innovative, credible and universally applicable set of criteria and indicators derived through a systematic review that could serve further global comparative analysis of readiness for REDD+ and relevant national environmental services delivery systems, including climate change mitigation. - See more at: http://www.asb.cgiar.org/journal-article/redd-readiness-progress-across-countriestime-reconsideration#sthash.88k4P1vq.dpuf
Prospects for Agroforestry in REDD+ landscapes in Africa
Minang, P.A. ; Duguma, L.A. ; Bernard, F. ; Metz, O. ; Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 78 - 82.
carbon sequestration - forest degradation - intensification - deforestation - conservation - challenges - systems - area
Agroforests and agroforestry can be direct targets of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programs, or indirect parts of the necessary conditions for success. Whether or not it becomes a core element of REDD+ depends on the country's forest definition. We review these dimensions of agroforestry in REDD+, with supporting examples, mostly from Africa, and highlight the implications and challenges for enhancing the contributions of agroforestry to REDD+ and corresponding sustainable benefits. Where carbon stocks in agroforestry cannot be directly targeted in REDD+, agroforestry still can be included in REDD+ strategies, as ways to (1) shift demand for land (land sparing) and (2) provide alternative sources of products otherwise derived from forest over-exploitation or conversion, thereby avoiding leakage from forest protection efforts.
Agroforestry solutions to address climate change and food security challenges in Africa
Mbow, C. ; Neufeldt, H. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Minang, P.A. ; Kowero, G. ; Luedeling, E. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 61 - 67.
sub-saharan africa - forest degradation - land degradation - climate-change - west-africa - agriculture - systems - intensification - classification - security
Trees inside and outside forests contribute to food security in Africa in the face of climate variability and change. They also provide environmental and social benefits as part of farming livelihoods. Varied ecological and socio-economic conditions have given rise to specific forms of agroforestry in different parts of Africa. Policies that institutionally segregate forest from agriculture miss opportunities for synergy at landscape scale. More explicit inclusion of agroforestry and the integration of agriculture and forestry agendas in global initiatives on climate change adaptation and mitigation can increase their effectiveness. We identify research gaps and overarching research questions for the contributions in this special issue that may help shape current opinion in environmental sustainability.
Trade-offs, co-benefits and safeguards: Current debates on the breadth of REDD+.
Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; McDermott, C. ; Vijge, M.J. ; Cashore, B. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)6. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 646 - 653.
climate-change - forest degradation - reduced emissions - carbon payments - biodiversity - deforestation - plus - opportunities - conservation - management
Fundamental trade-offs exist between different land uses for carbon, livelihoods, economic development, biodiversity, agriculture and energy (especially biofuels). This article analyses the scientific debates on REDD+ trade-offs, co-benefits and safeguards, and shows how the development and expanded scope of REDD+ mechanisms have shaped these debates over time. We find substantial evidence that the non-carbon values of biodiversity conservation, equity and sustainable livelihoods are critical to both the legitimacy and effectiveness of REDD+, and argue that they therefore are better viewed as prerequisites than as values to be safeguarded. Scientists can contribute to the development of a more integrative REDD+ through interdisciplinary research and through a ‘learning architecture’ that supports the REDD+ policy development process with research dedicated to finding durable solutions.
REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management
Hein, L.G. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)6. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 604 - 611.
greenhouse-gas emissions - environmental services - developing-countries - forest degradation - tropical forest - deforestation - implementation - indonesia - payments - biodiversity
The design and implementation of REDD+ projects requires understanding the local ecological, economic and social context. This paper analyzes how REDD+ influences the context of ecosystem management, from both a conceptual and an ecosystem-scale perspective. We analyze how REDD+ changes the economic interests in ecosystem management for different stakeholders, and present a case study demonstrating the economic benefits of sustainable forest use versus oil palm plantation in Indonesia. We also analyze the economic costs of carbon emissions from land use conversion, and show that in Kalimantan, Indonesia, net revenues from REDD+ need to be US$ 3/ton CO2 to allow sustainable forest use to compete with oil palm on peat, and US$ 7/ton CO2 for mineral soil. Subsequently we present four insights from our ecosystem analysis relevant for REDD+.
Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?
Ring, I. ; Drechsler, M. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van; Irawan, S. ; Venter, O. - \ 2010
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 50 - 58.
intergovernmental fiscal transfers - environmental services - species conservation - forest degradation - carbon payments - deforestation - emissions - habitat - restoration - incentives
Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation. Economic instruments should act as complements to rather than substitutes for conventional land-use planning, given that their applicability is limited by the heterogeneity of biodiversity. Linking biodiversity policies with carbon mitigation policies may provide synergies and alleviate the chronic inadequacy of conservation budgets. Since the scope and scale of the two policy fields differ in some respects, it must be ensured that market-based climate mitigation policies will be implemented with the restrictions necessary for safeguarding Earth's biological diversity.