Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Perceptions des intervenants de la gestion des sites Natura 2000 : une étude en France, Flandre, Grande-Bretagne et aux Pays-Bas
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Stakeholder perceptions about the management of Natura 2000 sites : a survey in France, Flanders, England and the Netherlands
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Percepties van betrokkenen op het beheer van Natura 2000-gebieden : een onderzoek in Frankrijk, Vlaanderen, Engeland en Nederland
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - frankrijk - nederland - belgië - groot-brittannië - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - france - netherlands - belgium - great britain
Stakeholder perceptions in relation to changes in the management of Natura 2000 sites and the causes and consequences of change. : A survey in England, Flanders, France and the Netherlands
Bouwma, I.M. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Frissel, J.Y. ; Wegman, R.M.A. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 128) - 98 p.
Natura 2000, management, change, perception - natura 2000 - stakeholders - natuurbescherming - natuurbeheer - natuurbeleid - nederland - belgië - frankrijk - groot-brittannië - nature conservation - nature management - nature conservation policy - netherlands - belgium - france - great britain
This report presents the result of an online survey amongst key-stakeholders involved in the management planning and management of Natura 2000 sites in in England, Flanders, France and the Netherlands. The survey was held in a total of 91 sites and resulted in 464 (fully or partially) completed surveys (response rate was 20%). Overall, the results of the survey indicate that perceptions of actors in the area differ among actor groups, especially in regard to statements that measure impacts or value judgements. This result underlines the importance of including a broad range of stakeholders in the policy evaluations of the management of the area. Overall, the differences between the geographical areas are small, except on topics related to the discussion between the government and involved stakeholders were a moderate difference was found. Also the status of prior designation has a small effect on how respondents view the discussion on management.
Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178 p.
rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme

Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.

The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).

The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.

Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.

Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.

Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.

Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.

The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.

Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51 p.
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Waardekaarten Ridens & Recifs
Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C073/15) - 18
kaarten (charts) - kaarten - frankrijk - kustwateren - vergelijkend onderzoek - opbrengsten - visvangsten - schol - scophthalmus rhombus - tarbot - charts - maps - france - coastal water - comparative research - yields - fish catches - plaice - turbot
In dit rapport beantwoorden wordt een offerteaanvraag van de Nederlandse Vissersbond van 18 februari 2015 beantwoord waarin zij vroegen om waardekaarten en tabellen van de N2000 gebieden Ridens & Récifs voor de Franse kust.
The Schmallenberg virus epidemic in Europe 2011-2013
Afonso, A. ; Abrahantes, J.C. ; Conraths, F. ; Veldhuis, A.E. ; Elbers, A.R.W. - \ 2014
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 116 (2014)4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 391 - 403.
congenital-abnormalities - akabane virus - newborn lambs - infection - cattle - sheep - seroprevalence - outbreaks - france
During the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) collected data on SBV occurrence across Europe in order to provide an assessment of spread and impact. By May 2013, twenty-nine countries were reporting to EFSA and twenty-two countries had reported cases of SBV. The total number of SBV herds reported was 13,846 and the number of SBV laboratory confirmed herds was 8730. The surveillance activities were based on the detection of SBV clinical cases (either adults or newborns). Malformation in newborns was the most commonly reported clinical sign of SBV-infection. All countries were able to provide the date when the first suspicion of SBV in the herd was reported and nineteen could report the location of the herd at a regional level. This allowed the spread of SBV in Europe to be measured both temporally and spatially. The number of SBV confirmed herds started to increase in December 2011 and two peaks were observed in 2012 (February and May). Confirmed herds continued to be reported in 2012 and into 2013. An increase during winter 2012 and spring 2013 was again observed, but the number of confirmed herds was lower than in the previous year. SBV spread rapidly throughout Europe from the initial area of detection. SBV was detected above the latitude of 60° North, which exceeds the northern expansion observed during the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in 2006-2009. The impact of SBV was calculated as ratio of the number of herds with at least one malformed SBV positive foetus and the total number of herds in this region. The 75th percentile of the malformations ratio in the various affected countries for the whole reporting period was below 1% and 3% for cattle and sheep herds, respectively. International data collection on emerging diseases represents a challenge as the nature of available data, data quality and the proportion of reported cases may vary widely between affected countries. Surveillance activities on emerging animal diseases are often structured only for case detection making the estimation of infection/diseases prevalence and the investigation of risk factors difficult. The impact of the disease must be determined to allow risk managers to take appropriate decisions. Simple within-herd impact indicators suitable for emerging disease outbreaks should be defined that could be measured as part of routine animal health surveillance programmes and allow for rapid and reliable impact assessment of emerging animal health diseases.
Unified Formulation of Single- and Multimoment Normalizations of the Raindrop Size Distribution Based on the Gamma Probability Density Function
Yu, N. ; Delrieu, G. ; Boudevillain, Brice ; Hazenberg, P. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2014
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53 (2014)1. - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 166 - 179.
slope-shape relation - rainfall estimation - spectra - precipitation - variability - france - snow
This study offers a unified formulation of single- and multimoment normalizations of the raindrop size distribution (DSD), which have been proposed in the framework of scaling analyses in the literature. The key point is to consider a well-defined “general distribution” g(x) as the probability density function (pdf) of the raindrop diameter scaled by a characteristic diameter Dc. The two-parameter gamma pdf is used to model the g(x) function. This theory is illustrated with a 3-yr DSD time series collected in the Cévennes region, France. It is shown that three DSD moments (M2, M3, and M4) make it possible to satisfactorily model the DSDs, both for individual spectra and for time series of spectra. The formulation is then extended to the one- and two-moment normalization by introducing single and dual power-law models. As compared with previous scaling formulations, this approach explicitly accounts for the prefactors of the power-law models to yield a unique and dimensionless g(x), whatever the scaling moment(s) considered. A parameter estimation procedure, based on the analysis of power-law regressions and the self-consistency relationships, is proposed for those normalizations. The implementation of this method with different scaling DSD moments (rain rate and/or radar reflectivity) yields g(x) functions similar to the one obtained with the three-moment normalization. For a particular rain event, highly consistent g(x) functions can be obtained during homogeneous rain phases, whatever the scaling moments used. However, the g(x) functions may present contrasting shapes from one phase to another. This supports the idea that the g(x) function is process dependent and not “unique” as hypothesized in the scaling theory.
Estimation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) pig seroprevalence using Elisa and Western blot and comparison between human and pig HEV sequences in Belgium.
Thiry, D. ; Mauroy, A. ; Saegerman, C. ; Thomas, I. ; Wautier, M. ; Miry, C. ; Czaplicki, G. ; Berkvens, D. ; Praet, N. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Cariolet, R. ; Brochier, B. ; Thiry, E. - \ 2014
Veterinary Microbiology 172 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 407 - 414.
antibodies - swine - transmission - infection - netherlands - populations - prevalence - france - meat - farm
Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence data on HEV infection in swine in Belgium and to phylogenetically compare Belgian human HEV sequences with those obtained from swine. An ELISA screening prevalence of 73% (95% CI 68.8–77.5) was determined in Belgian pigs and a part of the results were re-evaluated by Western blot (WB). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed and scenarios varying the ELISA specificity relative to WB were analysed. The seroprevalences estimated by the different scenarios ranged between 69 and 81% and are in agreement with the high exposure of the European pig population to HEV. Pig HEV sequences were genetically compared to those detected in humans in Belgium and a predominance of genotype 3 subtype f was shown in both swine and humans. The high HEV seroprevalence in swine and the close phylogenetic relationships between pig and human HEV sequences further support the risk for zoonotic transmission of HEV between humans and pigs.
Risk factors for persistence of livestock-associated MRSA and environmental exposure in veal calf farmers and their family members: an observational longitudinal study
Dorado-Garcia, A. ; Bos, M.E.H. ; Graveland, H. ; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Verstappen, K.M. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Heederik, D.J.J. - \ 2013
BMJ Open 3 (2013)9. - ISSN 2044-6055
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - animals - carriage - origin - health - st398 - infections - emergence - france - calves
Objectives: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) emergence is a major public health concern. This study was aimed at assessing risk factors for persistently carrying MRSA in veal calf farmers and their family members. We also evaluate the dynamics of MRSA environmental load during the veal-calf production cycle. Design: Observational, longitudinal, repeated cross-sectional study. Setting: 52 veal calf farms in the Netherlands. Participants: From the end of 2010 to the end of 2011, a total of 211 farmers, family members and employees were included in the study. Primary outcome and secondary outcome measures: Nasal swabs were taken from participants on days 0, 4, 7 and week 12. A persistent MRSA carrier was defined as a person positive for MRSA on days 0, 4 and 7. Participants filled in an extensive questionnaire to identify potential risk factors and confounders. For estimation of MRSA prevalence in calves and environmental contamination, animal nasal swabs and Electrostatic Dust Collectors were taken on day 0 and week 12. Results: The presence of potential animal reservoirs (free-ranging farm cats and sheep) and the level of contact with veal calves was positively associated with persistent MRSA carriage. Interestingly, at the end of the study (week 12), there was a twofold rise in animal prevalence and a significantly higher MRSA environmental load in the stables was found on farms with MRSA carriers. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that environmental contamination with MRSA plays a role in the acquisition of MRSA in farmers and their household members and suggests that other animal species should also be targeted to implement effective control strategies.
Development of a real time PCR for detection of the oyster pathogen Nocardia crassostrea based on its homogeneous 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region
Carrasco, N. ; Roozenburg, I. ; Voorbergen-Laarman, H.A. ; Engelsma, M.Y. - \ 2013
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 114 (2013)2. - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 120 - 127.
pacific oyster - summer mortality - gigas thunberg - gene-sequences - bacteria - identification - france
Nocardia crassostreae, the causative agent of Pacific oyster nocardiosis (PON), is a Gram-positive actinomycete bacterium associated with Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) mortalities. Oysters infected with this bacterium have been reported previously from the west coast of North America and Japan. More recently, N. crassostreae was reported in oyster culture areas in the Netherlands. In this study, a sensitive real-time PCR for specific detection of N. crassostreae was developed, and the intra-species divergence of N. crassostreae from different geographical locations was studied. The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region of N. crassostreae was sequenced for a number of infected oysters originating from the Netherlands, Japan and Canada. The sequence analyses showed an absence of genetic variation in the ITS region between N. crassostreae from different geographical locations. Based on these ITS sequences a species-specific and highly sensitive SYBR Green real-time PCR assay was developed to facilitate detection of N. crassostreae in oyster tissue. To evaluate this new detection tool for N. crassostreae a preliminary validation was carried out and real-time PCR results were compared with other detection methods (histology, conventional PCR and bacterial isolation) using field samples from Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands. The genetic homogeneity in the ITS region between N. crassostreae from different geographical locations might be explained by the recent spread of the organism via the international trade in Pacific oysters for aquaculture purposes. However, the lack of genetic variation could also suggest that N. crassostreae is a genetically monomorphic species.
Improving national-scale carbon stock inventories using knowledge on land use history
Schulp, C.J.E. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Olivier, J.G.J. ; Vries, W. de; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2013
Environmental Management 51 (2013)3. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 709 - 723.
soil organic-carbon - landscape units - regional-scale - forest soils - belgium - dynamics - database - france - europe
National-scale inventories of soil organic carbon (SOC) and forest floor carbon (FFC) stocks have a high uncertainty. Inventories are often based on the interpolation of sampled information, often using a number of covariables to help such interpolation. The rationale for the choice of these covariables is not always documented, despite the fact that many local-scale studies have identified the factors explaining spatial variability of SOC and FFC stocks. These studies indicate, among others the importance of long-term land use history. Despite this, information on the effects of land use history has never been used to explain variability of carbon stocks in national-scale inventories. We designed an alternative method to improve national-scale inventories of SOC and FCC for the Dutch sand area that takes stock of the findings of detailed case studies. Determinants for SOC and FFC stocks derived from landscape-scale case studies were used to map national-scale spatial variability and to calculate national totals. The resulting national-scale spatial distribution was compared with the SOC stock map from the current Dutch greenhouse gas inventory. Using land use history to explain SOC variability decreased the error of the SOC stock estimate in 60 % of the area. The error in FFC stocks decreased in half of the forest area after including soil fertility, tree species, and forest age as explanatory factors. Estimates with reduced uncertainty will make land use and land management a more attractive and acceptable mitigation option to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases for the LULUCF sector.
A proposal for including humus forms in the World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB-FAO)
Jabiol, B. ; Zanella, A. ; Ponge, J.F. ; Sarton, G. ; Englisch, M. ; Delft, S.P.J. van; Waal, R.W. de; Claire-Le Bayon, R. - \ 2013
Geoderma 192 (2013). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 286 - 294.
earthworm invasion - organic-matter - forest - classification - vegetation - france
The morpho-functional classification of humus forms proposed in a previous issue by Zanella and collaborators for Europe has been extended and modified, without any change in diagnostic horizons, in order to embrace a wide array of humus forms at worldwide level and to complete and make more effective the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. For that purpose 31 Humus Form Reference Groups (HFRGs) and a set of prefix and suffix qualifiers are proposed, following the rules erected for the WRB. An exhaustive classification key, respecting the principles of WRB, is suggested and examples of classification are given for some already well known humus forms.
A historical analysis of diversity trends in French and Dutch lettuce cultivars
Wouw, M.J. van de; Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2013
Euphytica 190 (2013)2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 229 - 239.
genetische erosie - genetische diversiteit - lactuca sativa - slasoorten - rassen (planten) - oude plantenrassen - diversiteit - frankrijk - nederland - bladgroenten - groenten - genetic erosion - genetic diversity - lettuces - varieties - old varieties - diversity - france - netherlands - leafy vegetables - vegetables - genebank collection - erosion
Using historical seed catalogues in combination with molecular fingerprinting data, diversity trends of lettuce, representing an important vegetable with active breeding programmes, were studied. Seed catalogues originating from France and the Netherlands from five different decades, the earliest dating from the 1840s, were checked for the occurence of lettuce cultivars. A total of 225 catalogues, with 7,311 records of lettuce, representing 878 different cultivars were found. The number of unique cultivars on offer by French and Dutch companies showed a small continuous increase until the 1960s, after which the number of cultivars on offer more than doubled to a total of 534 in the 1990s. Only a relatively small overlap between France and the Netherlands in the range of cultivars offered was observed. The 1960s appeared to be a period with many changes: the lowest genetic diversity in lettuce cultivars was found for this decade, whereas after the 1960s the number of companies supplying lettuce seeds reduced dramatically. The percentage of companies in a decade offering an identical cultivar decreased over time, and in the 1990s almost all cultivars were unique to only a single company. The possible relations of the observed trends with the developments in plant variety protection and in the plant breeding industry are discussed.
ACER: developing Adaptive Capacity to Extreme events in the Rhine basin
Linde, A.H. te; Moors, E.J. ; Droogers, P. ; Bisselink, B. ; Becker, G. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Aerts, J.C.J.H. - \ 2012
Nieuwegein : Programme Office Climate changes Spatial Planning - ISBN 9789088150395 - 52
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - rijn - scenario-analyse - waterbeheer - nederland - duitsland - frankrijk - catchment hydrology - climatic change - climate adaptation - river rhine - scenario analysis - water management - netherlands - germany - france
Het algemene doel van het ACER project is om de gevolgen van klimaatverandering en adaptatie strategieën te onderzoeken voor het Rijnstroomgebied, zowel grensoverschrijdend in Duitsland en Frankrijk als voor het regionale waterbeheer in Nederland. ACER gebruikt een scenario analyse om effecten en oplossing te analyseren en vergelijken, onder de veronderstelling van verschillende klimaatverandering en sociaal-economische scenario’s voor 2050. Aan de basis van deze scenario aanpak staat een internationale groep van belanghebbenden en waterbeheerders uit verschillende bestuurslagen in het Rijnstroomgebied. Het is de vraag of de maatregelen die momenteel stroomopwaarts in Duitsland worden uitgevoerd positieve of negatieve effecten op de piekavoeren benedenstrooms hebben
Export opportunities on the French organic market
Oosterkamp, Elsje - \ 2012
organic foods - organic farming - supermarkets - france - exports - market surveys
Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem service supply, biodiversity, and habitat conservation status in Europe
Maes, J. ; Paracchini, M.L. ; Zulian, G. ; Dunbar, M.B. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. - \ 2012
Biological Conservation 155 (2012). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 1 - 12.
terrestrial - framework - france
In the European Union (EU) efforts to conserve biodiversity have been consistently directed towards the protection of habitats and species through the designation of protected areas under the Habitats Directive (92/43/ECC). These biodiversity conservation efforts also have the potential to maintain or improve the supply of ecosystem services; however, this potential has been poorly explored across Europe. This paper reports on a spatial assessment of the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem services, and conservation status of protected habitats at European scale. We mapped at 10 km resolution ten spatial proxies for ecosystem service supply (four provisioning services, five regulating services and one cultural service) and three proxies for biodiversity (Mean Species Abundance, tree species diversity and the relative area of Natura 2000 sites). Indicators for biodiversity and aggregated ecosystem service supply were positively related but this relationship was influenced by the spatial trade-offs among ecosystem services, in particular between crop production and regulating ecosystem services. Using multinomial logistic regression models we demonstrated that habitats in a favourable conservation status provided more biodiversity and had a higher potential to supply, in particular, regulating and cultural ecosystem services than habitats in an unfavourable conservation status. This information is of utmost importance in identifying regions in which measures are likely to result in cost-effective progress towards both new biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services targets adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020.
Detection and characterization of pCT-like plasmid vectors for blaCTX-M-14 in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, turkeys and cattle in England and Wales
Stokes, M.O. ; Cottel, J.L. ; Piddock, L.J. ; Wu, G. ; Wootton, M. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Randall, L.P. ; Teale, C.J. ; Fielder, M.D. ; Coldham, N.G. - \ 2012
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67 (2012)7. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 1639 - 1644.
spectrum-beta-lactamase - ctx-m - salmonella - ctx-m-14 - enterobacteriaceae - resistance - strains - france - gene - uk
Objectives - To detect and characterize Escherichia coli strains and pCT-like plasmids implicated in the dissemination of the CTX-M-14 gene in animals and humans, in England and Wales. Methods UK CTX-M-14-producing E. coli (n¿=¿70) from cattle (n¿=¿33), turkeys (n¿=¿9), sheep (n¿=¿2) and humans (n¿=¿26) were screened using multiplex PCR for the detection of a previously characterized plasmid, pCT. Isolates found to be carrying two or more pCT genetic markers were further analysed using PFGE. Their antimicrobial-resistance genes and virulence genes were also determined. These plasmids were transferred to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium 26R and further examined for incompatibility type, genetic environment of the blaCTX-M-14 gene, size, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and nikB sequence. Results - The 25 E. coli isolates carrying pCT genetic markers generated 19 different PFGE profiles, and 23 isolates had different virulence and antimicrobial-resistance gene patterns. One isolate from cattle was a verotoxigenic E. coli (‘VTEC’); the rest were commensal or extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. pCT-like plasmids with similar molecular characteristics (size, replicon type, RFLP pattern, pCT markers and genetic environment of the blaCTX-M-14 gene) were detected in 21/25 of the field isolates, which comprised those from cattle (n¿=¿9), turkeys (n¿=¿8) and humans (n¿=¿4). All pCT-like plasmids were conjugative, and most were IncK (n¿=¿21) and had the same local genetic environment flanking the blaCTX-M-14 gene (n¿=¿23). RFLP analysis demonstrated =75% similarity among most plasmids (n¿=¿22). Conclusions - pCT-like plasmids were common vectors for horizontal dissemination of 30% of the blaCTX-M-14 genes to
A methodology to compare specialized and mixed farming systems : case studies, in the Netherlands and France
Guillaume, D. ; PRI, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 129
bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - gespecialiseerde landbouw - vergelijkingen - indicatoren - gevalsanalyse - nederland - frankrijk - farming systems - mixed farming - specialized farming - comparisons - indicators - case studies - netherlands - france
In this thesis, the aim was to create a methodology, composed of a set of economic, social and environmental indicators, in order to compare mixed and specialized farming system and to test the methodology in two case studies in the Netherlands and in France. The analysis relies on two farm typologies based on the concepts of representative and typical farms. Accordingly, the two-scale methodology uses the farm accountancy data network (FADN) to compare farming systems over large areas and agri-environmental data collected on-farm to design innovative farming systems. The results are a first step towards understanding up scaling procedure of innovative mixed farming systems at district level. While the municipality of Winterswijk shows a higher potential to develop between-farm mixing, the Ribéracois however presents better possibilities to develop diversified on-farm mixing. Very heterogeneous areas of Europe render difficult to set up a harmonized methodology. The data heterogeneity of case studies and the importance to make good use of existing information and specificities of each case study prevails on harmonizing the set of indicators. The scientific soundness and efficacy of the methodology is empirically verified but further study is needed to validate all indicators. Additionally, a selection of a primary set of information that is required by all work packages and all case studies is necessary to have a common basis for work.
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