Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Perceptions des intervenants de la gestion des sites Natura 2000 : une étude en France, Flandre, Grande-Bretagne et aux Pays-Bas
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Stakeholder perceptions about the management of Natura 2000 sites : a survey in France, Flanders, England and the Netherlands
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Percepties van betrokkenen op het beheer van Natura 2000-gebieden : een onderzoek in Frankrijk, Vlaanderen, Engeland en Nederland
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - frankrijk - nederland - belgië - groot-brittannië - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - france - netherlands - belgium - great britain
Stakeholder perceptions in relation to changes in the management of Natura 2000 sites and the causes and consequences of change. : A survey in England, Flanders, France and the Netherlands
Bouwma, I.M. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Frissel, J.Y. ; Wegman, R.M.A. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 128) - 98 p.
Natura 2000, management, change, perception - natura 2000 - stakeholders - natuurbescherming - natuurbeheer - natuurbeleid - nederland - belgië - frankrijk - groot-brittannië - nature conservation - nature management - nature conservation policy - netherlands - belgium - france - great britain
This report presents the result of an online survey amongst key-stakeholders involved in the management planning and management of Natura 2000 sites in in England, Flanders, France and the Netherlands. The survey was held in a total of 91 sites and resulted in 464 (fully or partially) completed surveys (response rate was 20%). Overall, the results of the survey indicate that perceptions of actors in the area differ among actor groups, especially in regard to statements that measure impacts or value judgements. This result underlines the importance of including a broad range of stakeholders in the policy evaluations of the management of the area. Overall, the differences between the geographical areas are small, except on topics related to the discussion between the government and involved stakeholders were a moderate difference was found. Also the status of prior designation has a small effect on how respondents view the discussion on management.
Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178 p.
rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme

Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.

The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).

The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.

Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.

Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.

Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.

Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.

The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.

Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51 p.
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Waardekaarten Ridens & Recifs
Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C073/15) - 18
kaarten (charts) - kaarten - frankrijk - kustwateren - vergelijkend onderzoek - opbrengsten - visvangsten - schol - scophthalmus rhombus - tarbot - charts - maps - france - coastal water - comparative research - yields - fish catches - plaice - turbot
In dit rapport beantwoorden wordt een offerteaanvraag van de Nederlandse Vissersbond van 18 februari 2015 beantwoord waarin zij vroegen om waardekaarten en tabellen van de N2000 gebieden Ridens & Récifs voor de Franse kust.
A historical analysis of diversity trends in French and Dutch lettuce cultivars
Wouw, M.J. van de; Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2013
Euphytica 190 (2013)2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 229 - 239.
genetische erosie - genetische diversiteit - lactuca sativa - slasoorten - rassen (planten) - oude plantenrassen - diversiteit - frankrijk - nederland - bladgroenten - groenten - genetic erosion - genetic diversity - lettuces - varieties - old varieties - diversity - france - netherlands - leafy vegetables - vegetables - genebank collection - erosion
Using historical seed catalogues in combination with molecular fingerprinting data, diversity trends of lettuce, representing an important vegetable with active breeding programmes, were studied. Seed catalogues originating from France and the Netherlands from five different decades, the earliest dating from the 1840s, were checked for the occurence of lettuce cultivars. A total of 225 catalogues, with 7,311 records of lettuce, representing 878 different cultivars were found. The number of unique cultivars on offer by French and Dutch companies showed a small continuous increase until the 1960s, after which the number of cultivars on offer more than doubled to a total of 534 in the 1990s. Only a relatively small overlap between France and the Netherlands in the range of cultivars offered was observed. The 1960s appeared to be a period with many changes: the lowest genetic diversity in lettuce cultivars was found for this decade, whereas after the 1960s the number of companies supplying lettuce seeds reduced dramatically. The percentage of companies in a decade offering an identical cultivar decreased over time, and in the 1990s almost all cultivars were unique to only a single company. The possible relations of the observed trends with the developments in plant variety protection and in the plant breeding industry are discussed.
ACER: developing Adaptive Capacity to Extreme events in the Rhine basin
Linde, A.H. te; Moors, E.J. ; Droogers, P. ; Bisselink, B. ; Becker, G. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Aerts, J.C.J.H. - \ 2012
Nieuwegein : Programme Office Climate changes Spatial Planning - ISBN 9789088150395 - 52
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - rijn - scenario-analyse - waterbeheer - nederland - duitsland - frankrijk - catchment hydrology - climatic change - climate adaptation - river rhine - scenario analysis - water management - netherlands - germany - france
Het algemene doel van het ACER project is om de gevolgen van klimaatverandering en adaptatie strategieën te onderzoeken voor het Rijnstroomgebied, zowel grensoverschrijdend in Duitsland en Frankrijk als voor het regionale waterbeheer in Nederland. ACER gebruikt een scenario analyse om effecten en oplossing te analyseren en vergelijken, onder de veronderstelling van verschillende klimaatverandering en sociaal-economische scenario’s voor 2050. Aan de basis van deze scenario aanpak staat een internationale groep van belanghebbenden en waterbeheerders uit verschillende bestuurslagen in het Rijnstroomgebied. Het is de vraag of de maatregelen die momenteel stroomopwaarts in Duitsland worden uitgevoerd positieve of negatieve effecten op de piekavoeren benedenstrooms hebben
A methodology to compare specialized and mixed farming systems : case studies, in the Netherlands and France
Guillaume, D. ; PRI, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 129
bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - gespecialiseerde landbouw - vergelijkingen - indicatoren - gevalsanalyse - nederland - frankrijk - farming systems - mixed farming - specialized farming - comparisons - indicators - case studies - netherlands - france
In this thesis, the aim was to create a methodology, composed of a set of economic, social and environmental indicators, in order to compare mixed and specialized farming system and to test the methodology in two case studies in the Netherlands and in France. The analysis relies on two farm typologies based on the concepts of representative and typical farms. Accordingly, the two-scale methodology uses the farm accountancy data network (FADN) to compare farming systems over large areas and agri-environmental data collected on-farm to design innovative farming systems. The results are a first step towards understanding up scaling procedure of innovative mixed farming systems at district level. While the municipality of Winterswijk shows a higher potential to develop between-farm mixing, the Ribéracois however presents better possibilities to develop diversified on-farm mixing. Very heterogeneous areas of Europe render difficult to set up a harmonized methodology. The data heterogeneity of case studies and the importance to make good use of existing information and specificities of each case study prevails on harmonizing the set of indicators. The scientific soundness and efficacy of the methodology is empirically verified but further study is needed to validate all indicators. Additionally, a selection of a primary set of information that is required by all work packages and all case studies is necessary to have a common basis for work.
Vereenvoudiging van het Welfare Quality protocol voor vleeskalveren
Reenen, C.G. van; Vereijken, P.F.G. ; Buist, W.G. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Engel, B. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 536) - 49
rundveehouderij - vleesproductie - vleeskalveren - dierenwelzijn - protocollen - beoordeling - nederland - frankrijk - italië - dierlijke productie - cattle husbandry - meat production - veal calves - animal welfare - protocols - assessment - netherlands - france - italy - animal production
This report describes research into possibilities to simplify the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for veal calves.
Exportkansen op de Franse biologische markt
Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Dubbeldam, R. - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Markt & Keten (2011)9. - 4
biologische voedingsmiddelen - export - marktonderzoek - frankrijk - organic foods - exports - market research - france
De markt voor biologische producten groeit in Frankrijk. Dit kan kansen bieden voor de Nederlandse export. Export bestaat al wel, maar is nog beperkt. In een onderzoek is bekeken of en hoe Nederlandse toeleveranciers hun toegang tot de Franse markt kunnen vergroten.
Ierland en Frankrijk: wat doen ze er anders?
Aarts, H.F.M. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2011
V-focus 8 (2011)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - ierse republiek - frankrijk - noordwest-europa - dairy farming - farm management - farm comparisons - irish republic - france - northwestern europe
In het Europese project Dairyman werken belangrijke melkveegebieden in Noordwest-Europa samen aan de gewenste ontwikkeling van hun melkveebedrijven. Dit gebeurt op een vergelijkbare manier als in het mineralenproject Koeien & Kansen. Door deze samenwerking komt extra kennis beschikbaar en is vergelijking mogelijk, wat leerzaam is. Wat doen ze in het buitenland anders dan wij en waarom? Een kijkje op het melkveebedrijf in Ierland en West-Frankrijk.
Sturen op duurzame ontwikkeling van stadsranden : lessen uit 7 regio’s in Europa en China
Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Westerink - Petersen, J. ; Kolijn, B. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra - 60
stadsrandgebieden - regionale planning - zuid-holland - slovenië - duitsland - engeland - frankrijk - polen - china - urban hinterland - regional planning - slovenia - germany - england - france - poland
In 2005 nam Alterra het initiatief tot een geïntegreerd Europees onderzoek naar stadsranden, PLUREL. Dit project onderzocht stadsrandgebieden van zes Europese regio's en een regio in China. Voor de Europese regio's zijn de strategieën en ruimtelijke planningen bekeken. Het gaat om de regio's Haaglanden, Leipzig-Halle, Koper, Greater Manchester, Montpellier, Warschau en voor China: Hangzhou
Grondbeleid in de Montpellier agglomeratie, Frankrijk
Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 21
stedelijke planning - stedelijke gebieden - voorstedelijke woonwijken - stadslandbouw - duurzame landbouw - grondbeleid - frankrijk - urban planning - urban areas - suburban areas - urban agriculture - sustainable agriculture - land policy - france
Van 2007 tot 2010 co-financierde het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit het Europese PLUREL onderzoek naar ontwikkelingen en sturing daarop in de stadsranden van stedelijke regio‟s. In dit project trokken het Ruimtelijk structuurplan van Montpellier Agglomeratie en de daaromheen gehanteerde beleidsprocedures, wetgeving en grondbeleid-instrumenten de aandacht van het Ministerie. Doel van dit project was het verkrijgen van nader inzicht in de tools die de regio Montpellier inzet om een duurzaam groen peri-urbaan gebied te behouden, respectievelijk te ontwikkelen, waarbij de landbouw een voorname plaats inneemt. Het gaat in het bijzonder om tools inzake het grondbeleid.
Ex Situ Conservation Of Holstein-Friesian Cattle - Comparing The Dutch, French And USA Germplasm Collections
Danchin-Burge, C. ; Blackburn, H. ; Hiemstra, S.J. - \ 2010
genenbanken - genetische variatie - cryopreservering - frankrijk - vs - nederland - zwartbont - stieren (bulls) - ex-situ conservering - gene banks - genetic variation - cryopreservation - france - usa - netherlands - holstein-friesian - bulls - ex situ conservation
The establishment of gene banks using cryopreservation to secure the genetic diversity of farm breeds have been widely assessed. France, the Netherlands and the USA were among the first countries to organize national cryobanks and these banks are now 10 to 20 years old. All three countries have started Holstein-Friesian (HF) collections to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this globally important breed. In order better understand the diversity captured in these collections, the genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed, and genetic variability of germplasm collections were compared with active bulls in each country. The overall aim of the project was to determine the breed’s security and to guide future collection activities.
Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics
Vellinga, O.S. ; Gioli, B. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Kabat, P. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. - \ 2010
Biogeosciences 7 (2010)4. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1307 - 1321.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - landgebruik - emissie - frankrijk - climatic change - carbon dioxide - land use - emission - france - sensible heat - field experiment - latent-heat - aircraft - co2 - exchange - footprint - surface - errors - variability
This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES’07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps.
This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES'07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps. The segments are delineated using an average footprint length, based on all flights, and segment lengths, which are variable in space but not in time. The method results in segment averaged carbon and energy fluxes, which are shown to be representative of regional fluxes. Our analysis is focussed on carbon dioxide, heat and evaporative fluxes around solar noon. We will show that spatial and seasonal variations in the fluxes can be linked to the underlying landscape. In addition, a comparison between the airborne data and ground flux data is made to support our results. However, due to the incompleteness of ground data for some predominant vegetation types (even in such a data dense context), upscaling of ground data to regional fluxes was not possible. Without the comparison, we are still able to demonstrate that aircraft can provide direct and meaningful estimates of regional fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide.
Fusarium in wintertarwe (2007 en 2008). Inventarisatie, identificatie en kwantificering van nieuwe soorten
Waalwijk, C. ; Köhl, J. ; Vries, P.M. de; Lee, T. van der - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 272)
triticum aestivum - tarwe - schimmelziekten - fusarium - identificatie - mycotoxinen - eu regelingen - gezondheid - diergezondheid - nederland - duitsland - frankrijk - wheat - fungal diseases - identification - mycotoxins - eu regulations - health - animal health - netherlands - germany - france
Fusarium-aarziekte of kalfjesrood is vanwege de opbrengstderving een probleem in granen. Feitelijk wordt Fusarium-aarziekte veroorzaakt door een complex van schimmels dat in steeds andere samenstelling het gewas belaagt. Van recenter datum is de zorg over het vermogen van verschillende Fusariumsoorten om mycotoxinen te produceren. Deze secundaire metabolieten vormen reeds in geringe hoeveelheden een bedreiging voor de gezondheid van mens en dier. De Europese Commissie heeft daarom actielimieten vastgesteld voor een aantal mycotoxinen, terwij; voor enkele andere deze regels aanstaande zijn (Verordening (EG) nr. 1881/2006; Verordening (EG) nr. 1126/2007). Vanwege de steeds strengere normen voor diverse mycotoxinen in voedsel en voer zijn bji ongunstige teeltcondities partijen niet vermarktbaar en kan een tekort aan het te verwerken graanproduct ontstaan
Landschap met een accent, landschapsplannen in Frankrijk en Zwitserland : inventarisatie van nationaal beleid en aanbevelingen voor een Nederlandse stimuleringsregeling
Schroder, R.R.G. ; Jonkhof, J.F. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1786) - 35
regionale planning - landschap - methodologie - overheidsbeleid - samenwerking - frankrijk - zwitserland - nederland - landschapsplanning - landschapsbeheer - regional planning - landscape - methodology - government policy - cooperation - france - switzerland - netherlands - landscape planning - landscape management
Frankrijk en Zwitserland hebben een planningssysteem met verplichte ruimtelijke plannen en vrijwillige landschapsplannen. Landschap is er een verplicht onderdeel van ruimtelijke plannen. Landschapsplannen worden vaak gemaakt in een samenwerking van meerdere lokale overheden. Ze worden aan het begin van een planningsproces ingezet voor het maken van een analyse, het creëren van draagvlak en het vormen van een visie. Het Nederlandse beleid voor landschapsontwikkelingsplannen zou kunnen leren van het buitenland door meer landschapsregels in te zetten en een centrale kennisbasis op te zetten. Het gaat dan om kennisuitwisseling onder landschapskundigen en afstemming van methoden van landschapsplanning.
Programma beheer : leren van omliggende landen
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Roza, P. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2008
In: Natuur en landschap in het landelijk gebied: kennis voor beleid / Brouwer, F.M., Dirkx, G.H.P., - p. 52 - 55.
internationale vergelijkingen - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - natuurbescherming - evaluatie - engeland - duitsland - frankrijk - denemarken - belgië - agrarisch natuurbeheer - international comparisons - cap - nature conservation - evaluation - england - germany - france - denmark - belgium - agri-environment schemes
De EU schrijft voor dat regelingen voor agrarisch natuurbeheer geëvalueerd worden op effectiviteit en efficiëntie, maar schrijft geen methodiek voor. Dit artikel vergelijkt de situatie in Engeland, Noordrijn-Westfalen, Vlaanderen, Frankrijk en Denemarken met die van Nederland. Daarbij ligt de nadruk op de vraag in hoeverre regelingen centraal dan wel decentraal worden aangestuurd
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