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Conservation in a crowded place : forest and people on Mount Elgon Uganda
Sassen, M. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): D. Sheil. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737847 - 200
bossen - landbouw - brandhout - houtsoorten - natuurbescherming - natuurbeheer - kroondak - verstoorde bossen - biomassa - biodiversiteit - oost-afrika - uganda - forests - agriculture - fuelwood - timbers - nature conservation - nature management - canopy - disturbed forests - biomass - biodiversity - east africa
Key words: tropical forest, conservation management, local livelihoods, forest cover change, disturbance, fuelwood, forest structure, species richness, biomass, Mount Elgon
A growing world population has important consequences for forests. In this study I investigate how conflicting goals by different actors under different historical contexts impacted the protected area of Mt Elgon, Uganda, and I consider what this means for conservation. Mt Elgon is an important water catchment area for Uganda and Kenya with important biodiversity values. The forest on Mt Elgon is also a source of agricultural land, timber, fuel wood and other forest resources for local communities. In this study I explore the factors that influenced local people’s motivations for forest clearing, the impacts of local forest use, including as a source of fuelwood, on Mt Elgon, Uganda. I also evaluate the use of radar satellite data to estimate above ground biomass on Mt Elgon. Finally I discuss the implications for the design of interventions that seek to reconcile the needs of local people and forest conservation.
A major wave of deforestation on Mt Elgon, Uganda took place in the 1970s and 1980s and by 2009, 25% of the forest on Mt Elgon was lost. However, locally, there were areas of recovery. This study demonstrated that agricultural expansion on Mt Elgon cannot simply be linked to individual drivers such as population or high crop prices, and these were not always associated with increased deforestation. By analysing local variations, I found that it is the context (institutional, social, political) under which drivers such as population, wealth or commodity prices operate, rather than the drivers per se, that influences outcomes for forest cover.
I found that local forest uses strongly influenced forest structure, even where people had a collaborative management agreement with the park authorities. The type of resources collected varied with the land use systems around the park: small stem-harvesting affected regeneration in areas where people grew crops that require supports such as bananas and climbing beans, and seedlings were almost absent where in-forest cattle grazing was important. Studying the characteristics and impacts of fuelwood harvesting revealed high levels of fuelwood collection and depletion of dead wood on the edge of the park. Human impacts affected highly preferred and used tree species. Allowing the collection of fuelwood or other non-timber products creates opportunities for more destructive activities such as timber harvesting or charcoal making. On the other hand it helps to improve relations between local people and park staff, which this study showed helps limit agricultural encroachment. I also found indications that trees on people’s own land can provide alternative sources of fuel.
Mt Elgon has a history of conservation and development projects in an attempt to better reconcile local livelihood improvement and forest conservation. The most recent include pilot REDD+ schemes both inside and outside the protected area. Such schemes need consistent biomass estimations. I used a cost-effective field method for direct basal area estimation that yielded consistent estimates of above ground biomass (AGB), which reached above 800Mg/ ha on Mt Elgon’s northern slopes. Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data produced realistic classifications of the different vegetation types. However, using radar backscatter values in combination with field estimated AGB data to produce a biomass map had limited success. This was likely linked to the sampling strategy and topography.
Our study showed that simple theoretical models based on single drivers of deforestation cannot explain local variation, nor can simple models that lead to “simplified institutional prescriptions” lead to sustainable solutions, as they do not reflect complex local social and ecological realities. This has important implications for the design of more locally adapted and ecologically and socially sustainable management arrangements on Mt Elgon and elsewhere. These are necessary because current practices appear to lead to forest degradation and resource depletion. Building trust between stakeholders and developing alternative resources are vital to support more sustainable forest management. Both international conservation actors, as well as forest management authorities need to recognise that incentives that influence people’s motivation for action vary locally and can therefore not be designed globally.
Woodfuel for urban markets in the Congo Basin: a livelihood perspective
Schure, J.M. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum; P. Levang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737717 - 186
hout - markten - stadsomgeving - brandhout - brandstofgewassen - huishoudens - afrika - energie - ontwikkelingslanden - biobased economy - wood - markets - urban environment - fuelwood - fuel crops - households - africa - energy - developing countries
Hout is de belangrijkste energiebron van huishoudens in sub-Sahara Afrika en het gebruik van houtskool in stedelijke gebieden groeit. Deze dissertatie maakt deel uit van een nieuwe generatie van houtenergie-studies sinds de begin jaren 2000. De hernieuwde interesse komt voort uit de erkenning, dat handel in houtenergie mogelijk bijdraagt aan het oplossen van armoede en energieproblemen. Waar in het verleden houtenergie- studies zich nog voornamelijk concentreerden op het kappen voor eigen huishoudelijk gebruik en productievraagstukken, is er nu meer aandacht voor de rol van stedelijke vraag en commercie. Dit omvat het potentieel van houtenergie als bron van inkomsten. Omdat houtenergie-studies zich traditioneel meer gericht hebben op de kwetsbare droge en semi-aride gebieden in de wereld, is er weinig informatie over het karakter en het ontwikkelingsperspectief van de handel in Afrika’s tropische humide bos regio’s. Deze dissertatie analyseert houtenergie als een bron van levensonderhoud in de context van stedelijke brandhoutbevoorrading in het Kongobekken.
Trees and woodlots in Rwanda and their role in fuelwood supply
Ndayambaje, J.D. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; Wim Heijman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735140 - 399
brandhout - bomen - boerenbossen - biomassa - aanbodsevenwicht - rwanda - fuelwood - trees - farm woodlands - biomass - supply balance
Trees and woodlots on farms are prominent features of agricultural landscapes worldwide. For developing countries such as Rwanda where fuelwood is the main sources of energy for cooking, the contribution to total energy supply is important. However, little is known about their role in meeting the household demands of fuelwood under conditions of high population density, small forest cover per capita, heavy reliance on forests for fuelwood, and subsistence farming. The main focus of this study was to quantify the role of trees and woodlots on farms in fuelwood supply in Rwanda, by analysing the fuelwood demand and supply, identifying the determinants of the farmer’s choice of fuelwood sources and the reasons why and when farmers are keeping trees and woodlots on their farms. Biomass stocks on individual farms and in the agricultural landscape were assessed, and the contribution of woody biomass on agricultural land to fuelwood supply was determined. The study showed that households with higher socio-economic status obtained fuelwood from their farms and markets rather than collecting it from nearby forests. Indeed, many trees and woodlots were mainly kept for economic benefits, including fuelwood. The household decision to have trees and woodlots on farms in three altitude regions was affected by different sets of socio-economic and location variables, implying that interventions to promote tree and woodlots must be region specific to account for the socio-economic and biophysical environments. The woody biomass survey on the agricultural land indicated that about 80 % of total standing biomass in trees and woodlots was useable biomass for fuelwood. It was estimated that for Rwanda, the amount of fuelwood on agricultural land was higher than in forest plantations. Increasing sustainable woody biomass production on farms could potentially meet the fuelwood demands by the households; even a surplus is possible in the future. This, however, is only achievable if sustainable tree and woodlot management are promoted and implemented, and the socio-economic and policy environments improved.
Effecten van oogst van takhout op de voedingstoestand en bijgroei van bos : een literatuurstudie
Jong, J.J. de - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2202) - 50
biomassa - bossen - brandhout - takhout - dunnen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - groei - nederland - biobased economy - biomass - forests - fuelwood - branchwood - thinning - soil fertility - growth - netherlands
De Nederlandse overheid heeft als doel gesteld om meer energie uit biomassa te winnen. Eén van de mogelijkheden daarvoor is het winnen van energie uit takhout dat normaal gesproken als oogstresten in het bos achter blijft. Oogst van takhout leidt echter tot een verhoging van de afvoer van voedingsstoffen uit het bos. Uit de literatuurstudie die in dit rapport is weergegeven, blijkt dat er in het buitenland veel onderzoek naar dit thema is gedaan. Over de effecten daarvan op de bodemvruchtbaarheid en groei van bos geeft de aanwezige literatuur geen eenduidig beeld. In het algemeen blijven vooral zorgen bestaan om uitputting van calcium en andere kationen op de armere bodems. Stikstoftekort zal naar verwachting in Nederland niet optreden. Effecten op de groei van bomen worden soms wel en soms niet geconstateerd, wat verklaard wordt door het complex aan factoren die bepalen hoe snel voedingsstoffen vrijkomen. Buitenlandse richtlijnen over houtoogst en oogst van takhout delen veelal bodems in risicoklassen en schrijven mitigerende maatregelen voor op de risicovolle arme bodems.
Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia
Gebreegziabher, Z. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam; Kees van Kooten, co-promotor(en): Tassew Woldehanna. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047452 - 184
economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - brandstofverbruik - landdegradatie - innovatie adoptie - efficiëntie - kachels - brandhout - beschikbaarheid - koeienuitwerpselen - biogas - platteland - huishoudens - gemeenschappen - ethiopië - ontwikkelingseconomie - biobrandstoffen - energiebesparing - economic development - rural development - natural resources - resource management - fuel consumption - land degradation - innovation adoption - efficiency - stoves - fuelwood - availability - cattle dung - rural areas - households - communities - ethiopia - development economics - biofuels - energy saving
Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia. Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined problems of global concern. Land degradation affects some 2 billion hectares of land world-wide. In Africa some 500 million hectares of land have been affected by land or soil degradation, including about 65 percent of the continent’s agricultural land. Land degradation has different facets, one of which is nutrient loss (depletion). In Ethiopia, indirect estimates suggest that the reduction in agricultural productivity from lost nutrients associated with the use of animal dung for household fuel accounts for about a 7 percent reduction of agricultural GDP. By piecing together the various aspects of the puzzle, this thesis quantitatively analyzes the behavioral factors underlying household fuel demand and supply in rural-urban Ethiopia. It contributes to the existing literature in four important respects. Firstly, it provides insights into the role of using an improved stove in redressing land degradation, besides determining the factors that affect the stove adoption decision. Secondly, the thesis empirically analyzes the role that household and community tree planting play in redressing the fuel problem. It also investigates two attributes of household tree growing, i.e., a household’s decision to grow trees and the extent of tree growing, in an econometrically consistent framework. Thirdly, it investigates the potential of environmentally clean technologies such as biogas installation at farm level as an opportunity to redressing land degradation. Fourthly, it draws empirically the implication of urban fuel demand for rural hinterlands using a demand system approach. Empirical results indicate that the adoption of an improved stove reduces harvest pressure on local forests and that adoption is an economic decision related to savings in time spent in collecting fuel and cooking, and cattle required for everyday purposes. The thesis reveals a clear positive relationship between household tree plating and fuelwood consumption of the household. Consequently, tree planting might reduce the future use of manure as fuel. Biogas installations are only profitable for a few farm households. Profitability might increase if family farms were to combine their efforts. Findings also reveal that redressing the urban fuel problem cannot be seen in isolation from broader development policies aiming at raising the levels of education and income. Higher urban incomes, however, increase fuel demand. Although data are from northern Ethiopia, conclusions drawn may have a wider application in other parts of the country as well as in the broader context of the African Sahel.
Opties voor duurzame energieproductie in de biologische landbouw = Production of renewable energy in organic farming
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Timmermans, B.G.H. - \ 2007
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group : Divisie Veehouderij 54) - 35
biologische landbouw - brandstofgewassen - brandhout - fermentatie - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ethanolproductie - dieselolie - gasproductie - biologische productie - teelt - sierteelt - glastuinbouw - biobased economy - organic farming - fuel crops - fuelwood - fermentation - energy - sustainability - ethanol production - diesel oil - gas production - biological production - cultivation - ornamental horticulture - greenhouse horticulture
This report provides an overview of possibilities and bottlenecks of renewable energy production in organic farming. Focus is on anaerobic digestion, production of biodiesel and bio-ethanol from agricultural crops and the production of heat from wood burning.
Economic Analysis of Urban Fuelwood Demand - The case of Harare in Zimbabwe
Chambwera, M. - \ 2004
University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer; Wim Heijman. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9085040868 - 222
milieu - economie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - brandhout - economische analyse - ontbossing - energiegebruik - relaties tussen stad en platteland - zimbabwe - afrika - environment - economics - natural resources - fuelwood - economic analysis - deforestation - energy consumption - rural urban relations - africa
|Oogsttechniek heeft grote invloed op bewaring hout voor energiedoeleinden
Gigler, J.K. ; Bosma, A.H. - \ 1995
Landbouwmechanisatie 46 (1995)8. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 16 - 17.
energie - energiegebruik - energiebronnen - bosbouw - bosbouwtechniek - bosbouwkundige handelingen - brandhout - stapelplaats - houtkap - stamhout - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - salicaceae - opslag - bomen - nuttig gebruik - hout - arbeidskunde - energy - energy consumption - energy sources - forestry - forestry engineering - forestry practices - fuelwood - landings - logging - logs - natural resources - storage - trees - utilization - wood - work study
Elektriciteit uit energiegewassen als wilg kan in de toekomst realiteit worden. Het IMAG-DLO onderzoekt of de Zweedse kennis van en ervaring met de wilgenteelt ook in Nederland past
Botanical and agronomic evaluation of a collection of Sesbania sesban and related perennial species
Heering, J.H. - \ 1995
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. 't Mannetje. - S.l. : Heering - ISBN 9789054853596 - 127
bosbouw - bomen - bossen - brandhout - fabaceae - sesbania sesban - bomen als veevoer - forestry - trees - forests - fuelwood - fodder trees
<br/>The species <em>Sesbania sesban</em> has many attributes which make it attractive as a multi purpose tree for different agricultural production systems. This thesis focuses on the evaluation and classification of a <em>S.</em><em>sesban</em> collection on morphological, agronomic and nutritional characteristics. It provides information on the chromosome numbers, breeding system and interspecific relations of <em>S.</em><em>sesban</em> and the related perennial species <em>S.</em><em>goetzei</em> and <em>S.</em><em>keniensis.</em> It also demonstrates the multi disciplinary research approach which is required for the development of multi purpose tree germplasm.<p>The three species have a chromosome number of 2n = 12 and are able to produce viable seeds after interspecific hybridization. They are both self and cross compatible, although outbreeding is thought to be the common method of reproduction under natural conditions. The classification shows that the <em>S.</em><em>sesban</em> accessions in the collection contain large variation in morphological, agronomic and nutritional characteristics. Through numeric analysis it is possible to identify distinct groups of accessions within the collection. This group structure can be used for the selection of accessions low in polyphenolics and with a high agronomic productivity.<p>The species is at the moment relatively underutilized and there seems to be scope for a greater use of it, particularly in alley farming or for improved fallow. <em>S.</em><em>sesban</em> has definite potential for the highlands and could further be introduced to the higher rainfall areas of the semi-arid zone and in some subhumid areas. It could be very useful to reclaim some of the areas with saline and alkaline soils and could also be grown in places prone to seasonal waterlogging and flooding.<p>The areas which require future research attention are among others, the collection of germplasm, the identification of anti- nutritional factors and the further adjustment of the management techniques to the systems in which the species is being used.
Food and fuel : a hidden dimension in human nutrition : a study on the relationship between nutrition security and fuelwood availability in Ntcheu District, Malawi
Brouwer, I.D. - \ 1994
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; J.C. Hoorweg; A.P. den Hartog. - S.l. : Brouwer - ISBN 9789054852452 - 192
economie - voedingsmiddelen - voedselvoorziening - voeding - voedselproductie - voedselbereiding - eten koken - bosbouw - brandhout - brandstoffen - hout - planten - malawi - kookkunst - economics - foods - food supply - nutrition - food production - food preparation - cooking - forestry - fuelwood - fuels - wood - plants - cookery
<p>Fuelwood is the main source of energy for rural households in developing countries and is predominantly used for food preparation and processing. Due to rapid deforestation, the supply of fuelwood is threatened. Many factors influence household food and nutrition security, but so far the role of fuelwood shortages has received little attention. Nutrition security has three main aspects (food security, care and health conditions); it is a prerequisite to the nutritional security of the individual, that these are favourable. The relationship between fuelwood availability and nutrition security is determined by the coping strategies chosen. These may comprise increase in collection time, reduction in amount of fuelwood used and switch to alternative fuels (Chapter 1). These strategies may affect food supply, food preservation, preparation and distribution, income generation and food consumption, all of which may result in a decrease in quality and quantity of the food consumed (Chapter 2). However, most of the existing literature is based on limited research or anecdotal evidence, and scientific evidence for these propositions is still scarce.<p>The purpose of this research was to describe and analyse the relationship between fuelwood availability and nutrition. The study was a joint project of the Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, and the African Studies Centre, Leiden, and was affiliated with the Centre for Social Research, Zomba. Field work was carried out among the Ngoni population in Ntcheu District, Central Region of Malawi, from 1990 to 1992. Study households originated from four villages selected on distance from woodlands, being less than 1.5 km, (Muuso), 2.5-3 km (Kachinjika), 4-6 km (Chimpuza) and more than 6 km (Magola). The area was characterized by nutrition insecurity (Chapter 3), overwhelming dependence on cereals for energy intake (Chapter 7) and moderate fuelwood scarcity (Chapter 4).<p>With increasing distance from woodlands, households initially collected further away, spending more time on collection (Chapter 4). When woodlands had to be reached much further away, they returned to nearby places needing less time and switched to lower- quality wood. Households within the same village differed in collection strategies particularly as regards collection distance and collection frequency. These strategies determined collection time, type of fuel used and amount of wood collected, which factors were highly interdependent. Female labour availability was a strong determinant of the strategy that was followed and especially households with a labour deficit economized on collection time, reduced the amount of wood collected and switched to inferior fuels.<p>In the following chapters, studies on the relationship between the three main strategies (switch to alternative fuels, increase in collection time, reduction in fuel use) and nutrition are described. Chapter 5 reports on a study of wood quality and preferences for types of wood in relation to food preparation and diet composition. Women preferred splitwood and branches and were reluctant to use twigs and maize stalks because, among others, the former yield more charcoal of better quality with a longer burning time. Preparing dishes with splitwood and branches require less time and fuel. Time studies, however, showed that the use of twigs did not prolong cooking time. However, the use of twigs prohibited women from doing other household chores as twigs need close attention to maintain the fire. Twigs cannot serve as fuel for dishes needing long cooking times (such as beans) so that, as a consequence, these are dropped from the dietary pattern. The dish nsima accompanied with relish was the mainstay of the diet, and was hardly left out.<p>Chapter 6 shows that the impact of an increase in time spent on fuelwood collection is seasonal and depends on the presence of other labour constraints. Women gave priority to food production and labour input in agriculture was never reduced, but time for resting, food processing, and, during the rainy season, for food preparation and food purchase was decreased. No evidence was found that women spent more working hours, omitted activities from their daily pattern or received more help from others during fuelwood collection days. This suggests that women were just more busy during fuelwood collection days. The increase in wood collection at the expense of resting may imply an increase in energy requirements of women. A reduction in time spent on food-related activities may affect household food availability.<p>Chapter 7 deals with the relationship between fuel use and food consumption. A decrease in fuel use is associated with a reduced intake of cooked cereals in the form of a decrease in snacking or in the amount of cereals cooked, and with a reduced bean intake. This effect is mainly visible in the post-harvest season, when fuelwood forms a determinant for food intake. In the rainy season, this association is mainly determined by the relatively low food availability. Especially the reduction of bean intake is a point of concern in view of the already overwhelming dependence on cereal and the relatively marginal quality of the food.<p>In Chapter 8 the relationship found between a decreasing fuelwood availability and nutrition security are discussed according to the different aspects mentioned in the model introduced in Chapter 1. The results clearly show that already under conditions of moderate fuelwood scarcity a decreasing fuelwood availability affects nutrition security. The impact is highly dependent on other factors such as food availability, labour availability and labour constraints emerging from other problems than fuelwood shortage. The results of the present study give several starting points for methodologies to be used in future research and for development efforts intended to promote both fuelwood supply and nutrition security. More information is needed on the relationship between food and fuel in urban areas and in rural areas with different agro-ecological, dietary and anthropometric characteristics. Methodologies to be used in such studies are suggested. In view of the interrelationship between fuelwood, food and labour the effects of a decreasing fuelwood availability should not only be a point of concern for nutrition and health projects but also for rural development efforts in general concerning reforestation, agriculture and labour. Fuelwood shortage means that a compromise has to be made between agricultural, ecological, nutritional and women's aims.
Hout als energiebron.
Heij, W. - \ 1992
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 64 (1992)5. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 200 - 207.
bio-energie - biomassa - kosten - energie - bestedingen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - brandhout - inkomen - nederland - winsten - rendement - nuttig gebruik - hout - biobased economy - bioenergy - biomass - costs - energy - expenditure - forest management - forestry - fuelwood - income - netherlands - profits - returns - utilization - wood
|Natural resource development and utilization - Future research and technology management in soil-plant-animal-human systems.
Jong, R. de; Nolan, T. ; Bruchem, J. van - \ 1992
Wageningen : Agricultural University - ISBN 9789067542449 - 168
milieu - milieubeheer - milieubescherming - voedingsmiddelen - bosbouw - bossen - brandhout - begrazing - berggraslanden - natuurlijke graslanden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - pampa's - bescherming - kwaliteit - extensieve weiden - herstel - hulpbronnengebruik - hulpbronnen - sahel - semi-aride klimaatzones - bronnen - steppen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tropen - bomen als veevoer - environment - environmental management - environmental protection - foods - forestry - forests - fuelwood - grazing - mountain grasslands - natural grasslands - natural resources - pampas - protection - quality - rangelands - rehabilitation - resource utilization - resources - semiarid zones - sources - steppes - sustainability - tropics - fodder trees
|Social forestry and agroforestry in India
Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1986
Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" 456) - 38
bosbouw - agroforestry - agrosilviculturele systemen - landgebruik - bossen - brandhout - pachtstelsel - bebossing - sociale bosbouw - india - bomen als veevoer - forestry - agrosilvicultural systems - land use - forests - fuelwood - tenure systems - afforestation - social forestry - fodder trees
|Etude economique en vue de l'amenagement de la foret classee de Yabo
Wit, A.P.W. de - \ 1986
Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 457) - 66
bosbouw - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouweconomie - hout - houtproducten - marketing - burkina faso - brandhout - forestry - forest management - forest economics - wood - wood products - fuelwood
|Het dorpsbossenproject in Burkina Faso : resultaten en toekomstverwachtingen in 1985
Visser, W. - \ 1986
Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 436) - 210
bossen - brandhout - bosbouw - bosbezit - gemeenschapsbosbouw - boerenbosbouw - burkina faso - bomen als veevoer - forests - fuelwood - forestry - forest ownership - community forestry - farm forestry - fodder trees
Brandhoutgebruik in ontwikkelingslanden
Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1982
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 54 (1982)7/8. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 248 - 257.
ontwikkelingslanden - bosbouw - brandhout - developing countries - forestry - fuelwood
Mogelijkheden van benutting van hout voor energie
Filius, A.M. ; Lonsain, J.A.H. - \ 1982
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 54 (1982)7/8. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 186 - 196.
bosbouw - brandhout - forestry - fuelwood
Economische overwegingen over het gebruik van hout als brandstof
|Houtteelt en energie : orientatiereis naar de Verenigde Staten (20 augustus - 7 september 1980)
Faber, P.J. - \ 1981
Wageningen : Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "de Dorschkamp" no. 263) - 45
bosbouw - onderzoek - nuttig gebruik - energie - biomassa - bio-energie - brandhout - lagenstructuur - bosplantages - intensieve houtteelt - snelgroeiende stammen - energiebeleid - economie - probleemanalyse - bossen - bosproducten - vs - houtaanwas - opstandsontwikkeling - opstandsstructuur - forestry - research - utilization - energy - biomass - bioenergy - fuelwood - layer structure - forest plantations - intensive silviculture - rapidly growing strains - energy policy - economics - problem analysis - forests - forest products - usa - increment - stand development - stand structure
|Energiewinning uit stro
Anonymous, - \ 1979
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4319)
bibliografieën - bijproducten - graansoorten - energievoorraden - energiebronnen - vezels - voedselgewassen - brandstoffen - brandhout - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - planten - zonne-energie - stengels - stro - windenergie - hout - bibliographies - byproducts - cereals - energy resources - energy sources - fibres - food crops - fuels - fuelwood - natural resources - plants - solar energy - stems - straw - wind power - wood
|Het gebruik van iepen (Ulmus sp.) als veevoeder
Anonymous, - \ 1979
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4259)
bibliografieën - takken - bosbouw - bossen - brandhout - bomen - hout - bomen als veevoer - bibliographies - branches - forestry - forests - fuelwood - trees - wood - fodder trees