Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Shaping the future of marine socio-ecological systems research: when early-career researchers meet the seniors
Drakou, Evangelia G. ; Kermagoret, Charlène ; Comte, Adrien ; Trapman, Brita ; Rice, Jake C. - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)7. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1957 - 1964.
dialogue among research generations - future - governance - interdisciplinary science - marine socio-ecological systems - operational research
As the environmental issues facing our planet change, scientific efforts need to inform the sustainable management of marine resources by adopting a socio-ecological systems approach. Taking the symposium on “Understanding marine socio-ecological systems: including the human dimension in Integrated Ecosystem Assessments (MSEAS)” as an opportunity we organized a workshop to foster the dialogue between early and advanced-career researchers and explore the conceptual and methodological challenges marine socio-ecological systems research faces. The discussions focused on: a) interdisciplinary research teams versus interdisciplinary scientists; b) idealism versus pragmatism on dealing with data and conceptual gaps; c) publishing interdisciplinary research. Another major discussion point was the speed at which governance regimes and institutional structures are changing and the role of researchers in keeping up with it. Irrespective of generation, training or nationality, all participants agreed on the need for multi-method approaches that encompass different social, political, ecological and institutional settings, account for complexity and communicate uncertainties. A shift is needed in the questions the marine socio-ecological scientific community addresses, which could happen by drawing on lessons learnt and experiences gained. These require in turn a change in education and training, accompanied by a change in research and educational infrastructures.
Considering a healthy future : effects of time orientation on eating and exercising behavior
Beek, Jannette van - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Michel Handgraaf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579286 - 167
exercise - health behaviour - time - food preferences - future - eating patterns - lichaamsbeweging - gezondheidsgedrag - tijd - voedselvoorkeuren - toekomst - eetpatronen

Trade-offs between current and future consequences are characteristic for the domain of health behavior. Therefore, both eating and exercising behavior could be determined by time orientation, which refers to an individual’s general orientation toward the present or the future. The main aim of this dissertation is to provide insight into the relations between time orientation and both eating and exercising behavior. The results of this dissertation confirm that time orientation is a shared determinant of eating and exercising behavior. Nevertheless, time orientation for food and for exercise are different constructs that, in turn, have differential relations with eating and exercising behavior. Specifically, eating behavior is mainly predicted by consideration of immediate consequences, whereas exercising behavior is mainly predicted by consideration of future consequences. In addition, these relations can be partly explained by construal level. Theoretically, the results of this dissertation contribute in various ways to a better understanding of the construct of time orientation and its relations with eating and exercising behavior. Methodologically, the results of this dissertation have several implications for the measurement of time orientation as well as the measurement of eating and exercising behavior. Practically, the results of this dissertation can be used in the development of campaigns to stimulate healthy eating and exercising behavior. Overall, the insights that have been gained in this dissertation contribute to a better understanding of individuals’ intertemporal decision making in the health domain and can ultimately be used in order to promote and stimulate healthy eating and exercising behavior.

The metis of responsible innovation : helping society to get better at the conversation between today and tomorrow
Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2016
Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573758 - 16 p.
technology - innovations - innovation adoption - future - technologie - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - toekomst
Het GLB na 2020 : schets voor een herontwerp
Vogelzang, T.A. ; Berkhout, P. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Smit, A.B. ; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-009) - ISBN 9789462577619 - 63 p.
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - toekomst - nederland - europese unie - cap - agricultural policy - future - netherlands - european union
Het landschap vormt de stad
Timmermans, Wim - \ 2016
urban areas - urban development - urban planning - physical planning - landscape - climatic change - future

Succes of verval van Europese steden was vaak nauw gekoppeld aan hun ligging in het landschap. Ook nu nog zijn handelsroutes, water, voedsel, en bescherming cruciaal. En daar komt klimaatverandering bij. Hoog tijd om een eeuw vooruit te kijken.

Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture : an application to Flevoland, The Netherlands
Mandryk, M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Pytrik Reidsma; Bas Arts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576612 - 155 p.
climate adaptation - climatic change - agriculture - farm structure - farming systems - future - klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - landbouw - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - toekomst
The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Overall, this thesis performed a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account crop, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multi-objective) and participatory assessment. The following features have been elaborated in this thesis to better assess the context of farm level impact and adaptation: analysis of long term farm structural change, assessment of farmers’ multiple objectives, assessment of contribution of crop and farm level adaptation measures to improvement of farm performance on important objectives, and an analysis on institutional feasibility of implementation of adaptation measures.
Quick scan developments dairy markets for GDF-business partner BASF
Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Prins, A.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR - 27 p.
dairy farming - dairy industry - economic situation - milk production - milk consumption - animal welfare - herd structure - world - future - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - economische situatie - melkproductie - melkconsumptie - dierenwelzijn - veestapelstructuur - wereld - toekomst
With the increasing consumption of milk and dairy products in some of the major developing markets and the fall of the quota system in the major milk producing region, Europe, milk producers are getting ready for the new opportunities. Simultaneously China, as a state controlled economy is publishing that new mega farms are being built to fulfill the production as outlined in the 5-year plan. Developments in other countries are not so obvious. However it is heard from India, Australia, Chile, Egypt, Russia and others that the number of high performing dairy cows under intensive husbandry and feeding conditions is increasing. In order to fully understand how that change is impacting the business of business partners of GDF and possibly opens up new opportunities for the business partners, an accurate analysis of the actual status and the development process is necessary. In this analysis BASF asks for putting a specific focus on the development of the feeding options which are going to be built into the new farm structures.
Opties voor energieneutrale agrosectoren in 2025
Silvis, H.J. ; Smekens, H. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Daniëls, B. ; Smit, A.B. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Velden, N.J.A. van der; Wisman, J.H. ; Briel, Jaap ; Oldenburger, J. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-108) - ISBN 9789086157181 - 81 p.
landbouwsector - energiebesparing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame energie - nederland - toekomst - agricultural sector - energy saving - sustainability - sustainable energy - netherlands - future
Deze studie is bedoeld om kansen en knelpunten voor het bereiken van energieneutrale agrosectoren
in 2025 inzichtelijk te maken. Getoond wordt hoe de primaire agrosectoren de situatie van netto
energieneutraliteit kunnen benaderen. Naast energiebesparende maatregelen worden de belangrijkste
bijdragen daaraan geleverd door de productie van duurzame energie: zonnepanelen, windmolens en
geothermie. Technisch kan ook mest een aanzienlijke bijdrage leveren als grondstof voor groen gas.
De opties zijn niet beoordeeld op economische en financiële haalbaarheid. Geconcludeerd wordt dat
forse publieke en private inspanningen nodig zijn om de technische mogelijkheden te realiseren
The future of grazing : Proceedings, Third Meeting of the EGF Working Group "Grazing"
Pol, A. van den; Vliegher, A. de; Hennessy, D. ; Isselstein, J. ; Peyraud, J.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 906) - 38 p.
grazing - future - forage - grasslands - europe - begrazing - toekomst - ruwvoer (forage) - graslanden - europa
This report presents the main results of the third meeting of the EGF Working Group “Grazing”, held in Aberystwyth, UK on 7 September 2014. The aim of the Working Group “Grazing” is to exchange knowledge on all aspects of grazing research and to provide a forum for networking.
The theme of the meeting in Aberystwyth was “The Future of Grazing”. There were five sessions:
• Welcome session / introduction
• Several forward looking views on the future of grazing in Europe
• Developments in forage production
• Current and future economics of grazing
• Closing session
The participants concluded that there certainly is a future for grazing! However, threats to grazing were also identified which need to be addressed. The EGF Working Group “Grazing” is a valuable platform for addressing these issues and exchanging knowledge on corresponding solutions
Life cycle assessment (LCA) of different fertilizer product types
Hasler, K. ; Broering, S. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Olfs, H.W. - \ 2015
European Journal of Agronomy 69 (2015). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 41 - 51.
environmental-impact assessment - greenhouse-gas emissions - crop production - agricultural production - production systems - wheat production - nitrogen - sustainability - methodology - future
Appropriate use of fertilizer in crop production to limit the environmental impact is essential for sustainable agriculture. While much is known about the environmental impact of fertilizer production only a limited amount of data is available covering the whole fertilizer supply chain. Up to now no comparison was done on the environmental impact of different fertilizer types (i.e., complex fertilizer, bulk blend fertilizer and single nutrient fertilizer). A cradle-to-field life cycle assessment (LCA) for the fertilizer supply chain in Germany, from extraction of raw materials, via fertilizer production, transportation and storage until final application in the field was carried out. Two different complex fertilizers were compared with single nutrient fertilizers (containing only one nutrient) and bulk blend fertilizers (containing more than one nutrient as a dry mixture). The five most relevant impact categories (i.e., climate change, acidification, eutrophication, fossil fuel depletion and resource depletion) were selected to cover different environmental impacts. Additionally, a scenario analysis was carried out focusing on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as new catalytic reduction techniques for the manufacturing of nitrogen (N) containing fertilizers are available that can lead to drastic reductions of N2O emissions. Production of fertilizers causes high values in the impact categories climate change, fossil fuel depletion and acidification, whereas resource depletion is dominant for production and transportation. For the impact category eutrophication, the application of fertilizer is the most important factor. For a fertilizer strategy with low phosphorus application rate, a bulk blend or single nutrient fertilizer with calcium ammonium nitrate is the most sustainable choice, while for a fertilizer strategy with a balanced nutrient formula, a bulk blend or single nutrient fertilizer with calcium ammonium nitrate or a standard complex fertilizer are sustainable options. Scenario calculations with reduced N2O emission during the production process reveals that this reduction technique is not relevant for urea based fertilizers leading to the conclusion that products containing urea need different emission reduction techniques to keep up with the environmental improvements of other nitrogen fertilizers. With an optimized fertilization strategy the environmental burden can be reduced up to 15%. As nitrogen application rates strongly affect the LCA results it is essential that the right amounts of N are used and that for N fertilizer production the best available technique should be installed. Furthermore, a careful consideration concerning the fertilizer product type should be part of every LCA of food and agricultural products, as this has a great impact on LCA results.
Loss of Plant Species Diversity Reduces Soil Erosion Resistance
Berendse, F. ; Ruijven, J. van; Jongejans, E. ; Keesstra, S.D. - \ 2015
Ecosystems 18 (2015)5. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 881 - 888.
biodiversity loss - productivity - ecology - stability - future - impact
In many estuarine areas around the world, the safety of human societies depends on the functioning of embankments (dikes) that provide protection against river floods and storm tides. Vegetation on land-side slopes protects these embankments from erosion by heavy rains or overtopping waves. We carried out a field experiment to investigate the effect of plant species diversity on soil loss through erosion on a simulated dike. The experiment included four diversity treatments (1, 2, 4, and 8 species). In the third year of the experiment, we measured net annual soil loss by measuring erosion losses every 2 weeks. We show that loss of plant species diversity reduces erosion resistance on these slopes: net annual soil loss increased twofold when diversity declines fourfold. The different plant species had strongly diverging effects on soil erosion, both in the single-species and in the multi-species plots. Analysis of the dynamics of the individual species revealed that the main mechanism explaining the strong effects of plant species diversity on soil erosion is the compensation or insurance effect, that is, the capacity of diverse communities to supply species to take over the functions of species that went extinct as a consequence of fluctuating environmental conditions. We conclude that the protection and restoration of diverse plant communities on embankments and other vegetated slopes are essential to minimize soil erosion, and can contribute to greater safety in the most densely populated areas of the world. Key words: plant species diversity; soil erosion; plant competition; insurance effect; compensation effect.
Appropriateness, acceptance and sensory preferences based on visual information: A web-based survey on meat substitutes in a meal context
Elzerman, J.E. ; Hoek, A.C. ; Boekel, T. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 42 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 56 - 65.
food acceptability - unfamiliar foods - future - expectations - consumption - neophobia - familiar - insects - liking
The aim of this study was to investigate the appropriateness, attractiveness, use-intention and (un)desirable sensory properties of meat substitutes in different dishes based only on visual information. A web-based survey was developed to let consumers assess the use of meat substitutes in different dishes. The survey consisted of 38 key questions with subdivisions and was completed by 251 respondents. Six different dishes (spaghetti, rice, wrap, pizza, pasta salad, and soup) were rated for their appropriateness for the use of meat substitutes. Subsequently, appropriateness, attractiveness, and use-intention were rated based on photographs of the six dishes prepared with meat substitutes that differed in shape and appearance. Respondents also had to indicate (un)desirable sensory properties of meat substitutes for every dish. Spaghetti, rice and wrap were more appropriate for the use of meat substitutes than the other dishes. The most appropriate meat substitute–meal combinations were those that are similar to common Dutch meal combinations (e.g. spaghetti with mince and rice with pieces). Attractiveness and intention scores were in line with the appropriateness scores. Furthermore, we found that current users of meat substitutes and younger respondents gave higher appropriateness ratings. This study demonstrates that appropriateness of meat substitutes in a dish is related to attractiveness and use-intention and that meal context should be taken into account in the development of new meat substitutes.
Toward concise metrics for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass
Sheldon, R.A. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2015
Catalysis today 239 (2015). - ISSN 0920-5861 - p. 3 - 6.
eco-efficiency analysis - green chemistry - organic-synthesis - atom economy - catalysis - future - routes - waste - basf
The development of a set of sustainability metrics for quickly evaluating the production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass is described. The method is based on four criteria: material and energy efficiency, land use and process economics. The method will be used for comparing the sustainability of the production of seven commodity chemicals – lactic acid, 1-butanol, propylene glycol, succinic acid, acrylonitrile, isoprene and methionine – from fossil feedstocks (crude oil or natural gas) versus renewable biomass.
Energy and nutrient recovery for municipal wastewater treatment: How to design a feasible plant layout?
Khiewwijit, R. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2015
Environmental Modelling & Software 68 (2015). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 156 - 165.
autotrophic nitrogen removal - sensitivity analysis - models - phosphorus - parameters - resources - oxidation - sewage - future - urine
Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for maximizing energy and nutrient recovery. A simulation model was developed based on literature data and recent experimental research using steady-state energy and mass balances with conversions. The analysis showed that in the Netherlands, proposed configuration consists of four technologies: bioflocculation, cold partial nitritation/Anammox, P recovery, and anaerobic digestion. Results indicate the possibility to increase net energy yield up to 0.24 kWh/m3 of wastewater, while reducing carbon emissions by 35%. Moreover, sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of wastewater organic matter on energy production and consumption. This study provides a good starting point for the design of promising layouts that will improve sustainability of municipal wastewater management in the future.
Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : market analysis hydroponics production for selected urban areas
Waldhauer, N. ; Soethoudt, J.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1551) - ISBN 9789462574052 - 24
hydrocultuur - marketingkanalen - toekomst - internationale samenwerking - impact van toerisme - kosten-batenanalyse - egypte - hydroponics - marketing channels - future - international cooperation - tourism impact - cost benefit analysis - egypt
Modelling of adaptation to climate change and decision-makers behaviours for the Veluwe forest area in the Netherlands
Yousefpour, R. ; Didion, M.P. ; Jacobsen, J.B. ; Meilby, H. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Thorsen, B.J. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 54 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 1 - 10.
management - uncertainty - future - dynamics - germany - belief - face
We apply Bayesian updating theory to model how decision-makers may gradually learn about climate change and make use of this information in making adaptive forest management decisions. We develop modelling steps to i) simulate observation of a multi-dimensional climate system, ii) apply updating rules for beliefs about climate trends, iii) evaluate the performance of adaptive strategies, and iv) apply (i)–(iii) at the local and forest landscape scale to find and compare individual versus joint adaptive decisions. We search for optimal forest management decisions maximizing total biomass production as a measure of management performance. The results illustrate the benefits of updating beliefs to eventually utilize the positive effects and limit negative impacts of climate change on forest biomass production. We find that adaptive decision-making results in switching decisions over time and mostly differ from deterministic decisions ignoring any change in climate. Moreover, we find that the adaptation strategies are indispensable not only because of climate change but also because of the development of the forest biological system over time and the need to revisit decisions.
Foodtopia : het voedsel van de toekomst
Govers, F. ; Boekel, T. van; Buiter, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier / Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij 34e jrg. (2015), 1) - ISBN 9789073196773 - 63
voedselproductie - voeding en gezondheid - innovaties - vleesvervangers - voedseltechnologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - toekomst - voedselconsumptie - insecten als voedsel - vleeswaren - kunstvlees - tendensen - consumenten - food production - nutrition and health - innovations - meat alternates - food technology - sustainability - future - food consumption - insects as food - meat products - meat analogues - trends - consumers
Van gekookte en luchtdicht verpakte producten tot sterk geconcentreerde voedingsmiddelen; in de afgelopen eeuwen hebben diverse innovaties ons voedsel veiliger, langer houdbaar en beter beschikbaar gemaakt. Maar ook al lijkt het voedsel in de westerse wereld nu overvloedig en gevarieerd voor handen, er is nog steeds behoefte aan innovaties. Als we over een halve eeuw negen miljard monden willen voeden zal onze voedselvoorziening bijvoorbeeld veel duurzamer moeten worden. Eiwitten zullen vaker in de vorm van kweekvlees, insecten of – al dan niet omgebouwde – plantaardige eiwitten worden gegeten dan in de vorm van een klassieke biefstuk. En wat wordt de rol van voeding in onze gezondheid? Gaan we onze conditie oppeppen met innovatieve ‘superfoods’ op basis van gojibessen en tarwegras, of moeten we op dat gebied vooral níet innoveren en terug naar het klassieke advies van twee ons groente en twee stuks fruit? In dit cahier worden wetenschappers van naam op het gebied van voedselinnovaties geinterviewd. Het cahier sluit aan bij de tentoonstelling Foodtopia die in 2015 te zien is in Museum Boerhaave in Leiden.
Trust related dynamics in contested land use: A longitudinal study towards trust and distrust in intergroup conflicts in the Baviaanskloof, South Africa
Vries, J.R. de; Aarts, N. ; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Beunen, R. ; Oude Munnink, J.M.E. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 50 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 302 - 310.
natural-resources management - social identity - self - categorization - behavior - people - wilderness - policy - future - model
Using insights about in-group and intergroup dynamics from social identity theory and sociology, we studied trust dynamics in intergroup relations in the Baviaanskloof (South Africa) over time. We conclude that in-group interpretations of intergroup interactions contribute to the lack of trust and ongoing reconstruction of distrust towards the other group. Constructions of group identities and group history reinforce differences between groups, shaping expectations about the behaviour of in-group and out-group members. In this process, seemingly unrelated past events and contextual changes were connected as uncontested arguments as to why the other group could not be trusted. The lack of trust and growing distrust stabilised group dynamics and thus distrust towards the other group. These inter- and in-group dynamics explain why adapting to major environmental changes, and future collaboration becomes more difficult in conflict situations.
Overview of challenges and achievements in the Climate Adaptation of Cities and in the Climate Proof Cities program
Albers, R.A.W. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Blocken, B. ; Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F. van den; Hove, B. van; Split, T.J.M. ; Ven, F. van de; Hooff, T. van; Rovers, V. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 1 - 10.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - governance - onderzoeksprojecten - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - temperature - research projects - netherlands - urban heat-island - building performance simulation - cfd simulation - environment - ventilation - future - generation - benefits
Despite all international, national and local initiatives to mitigate climate change, a certain degree of climate change is unavoidable. Urban environments in particular seem vulnerable to the consequences of climate change. How can cities, which are dynamic systems where most people live and work, prepare for such changes in climate? In the Netherlands, the Climate Proof Cities (CPC) research program (2010-2014) was established, aimed at: “strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of the urban system against climate change and to develop strategies and policy instruments for adapting our cities and buildings”. The program has contributed to the knowledge on assessing vulnerability of cities, on adaptation options and their effectiveness, and on governance of adaptation. Important features are the role of green infrastructures in combination with available water, improved building designs and collaboration between urban planners and water managers. Nonetheless, in spite of this effort and many other national and international efforts, research in these fields is still in its infancy, and much remains to be done. The broad scope of the CPC research program incited the establishment of this Special Issue. In addition, also papers from other researchers have been added to this Special Issue, in an attempt to provide a valuable – albeit inexhaustive – view on the challenges and achievements in adaptation of cities to climate change.
Options to improve family income, labor input and soil organic matter balances by soil management and maize–livestock interactions. Exploration of farm-specific options for a region in Southwest Mexico
Flores Sanchez, D. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Lantinga, E.A. ; Kropff, M.J. ; Rossing, W.A.H. - \ 2015
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 30 (2015)4. - ISSN 1742-1705 - p. 373 - 391.
developing-countries - systems - future - intensification - agriculture - tillage - poverty - health
Farming systems in the Costa Chica region in Mexico face limitations linked to low yields and soil fertility degradation. Several alternative maize-based cropping systems have been proposed to improve current limitations. These field-level options need to be evaluated at farm level in order to assess their feasibility, taking into account input requirements, contributions to self-sufficiency in food and long-term soil fertility, and the availability of labor. In this study, we defined four scenarios to explore consequences of changes in current farming systems for eight typical farms in the region; the first two scenarios comprised redressing current imbalances in crop nutrition and organic matter (OM) supply, respectively, and the last two scenarios explored high fertilizer input and animal husbandry. Farms responded in different ways to the various options depending on available land, current soil quality, current cropping systems and presence of livestock. Improvements in crop nutrition based on mineral fertilizers increased family income but only had substantial effects on soil OM (SOM) balances when fertilizer rates were double the amount currently subsidized. Addition of organic fertilizers resulted in positive effects on SOM balance, but with often strong trade-offs with family income due to costs of acquisition, transport and application. Animals played an important role in increasing SOM balances, but had relatively little effect on improving family income. The results demonstrated that improvements in family income and SOM balance at farm scale were feasible but that without more fundamental system changes trade-offs between short-term yield increases and longer-term soil fertility increases should be expected. The results highlight the need for policies that take into account farm-specific differences in crop and livestock intensification opportunities.
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