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Indirect genetic effects and inbreeding: consequences of BLUP selection for socially affected traits on rate of inbreeding.
Khaw, H.L. ; Ponzoni, R.W. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2014
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 46 (2014). - ISSN 0999-193X - 8 p.
tilapia oreochromis-niloticus - multilevel selection - biological groups - fish welfare - populations - gain - parameters - inheritance - aquaculture - prediction
Background Social interactions often occur among living organisms, including aquatic animals. There is empirical evidence showing that social interactions may genetically affect phenotypes of individuals and their group mates. In this context, the heritable effect of an individual on the phenotype of another individual is known as an Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE). Selection for socially affected traits may increase response to artificial selection, but also affect rate of inbreeding. Methods A simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) selection for socially affected traits on the rate of inbreeding. A base scenario without IGE and three alternative scenarios with different magnitudes of IGE were simulated. In each generation, 25 sires and 50 dams were mated, producing eight progeny per dam. The population was selected for 20 generations using BLUP. Individuals were randomly assigned to groups of eight members in each generation, with two families per group, each contributing four individuals. “Heritabilities” (for both direct and indirect genetic effects) were equal to 0.1, 0.3 or 0.5, and direct–indirect genetic correlations were -0.8, -0.4, 0, 0.4, or 0.8. The rate of inbreeding was calculated from generation 10 to 20. Results For the base scenario, the rates of inbreeding were 4.09, 2.80 and 1.95% for “heritabilities” of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5, respectively. Overall, rates of inbreeding for the three scenarios with IGE ranged from 2.21 to 5.76% and were greater than for the base scenarios. The results show that social interaction within groups of two families increases the resemblance between estimated breeding values of relatives, which, in turn, increases the rate of inbreeding. Conclusion BLUP selection for socially affected traits increased the rate of inbreeding. To maintain inbreeding at an acceptable rate, a selection algorithm that restricts the increase in mean kinship, such as optimum contribution selection, is required.
Bayesian analysis of energy balance data from growing cattle using parametric and non-parametric modelling
Moraes, L.E. ; Kebreab, E. ; Strathe, A.B. ; France, J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Casper, D. ; Fadel, J.G. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)12. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 2068 - 2081.
lactating dairy-cows - metabolizable energy - net energy - penalized splines - dynamic-model - mixed models - efficiency - growth - regression - gain
Linear and non-linear models have been extensively utilised for the estimation of net and metabolisable energy requirements and for the estimation of the efficiencies of utilising dietary energy for maintenance and tissue gain. In growing animals, biological principles imply that energy retention rate is non-linearly related to the energy intake level because successive increments in energy intake above maintenance result in diminishing returns for tissue energy accretion. Heat production in growing cattle has been traditionally described by logarithmic regression and exponential models. The objective of the present study was to develop Bayesian models of energy retention and heat production in growing cattle using parametric and non-parametric techniques. Parametric models were used to represent models traditionally employed to describe energy use in growing steers and heifers whereas the non-parametric approach was introduced to describe energy utilisation while accounting for non-linearities without specifying a particular functional form. The Bayesian framework was used to incorporate prior knowledge of bioenergetics on tissue retention and heat production and to estimate net and metabolisable energy requirements (NEM and MEM, respectively), and the partial efficiencies of utilising dietary metabolisable energy for maintenance (km) and tissue energy gain (kg). The database used for the study consisted of 719 records of indirect calorimetry on steers and non-pregnant, non-lactating heifers. The NEM was substantially larger in energy retention models (ranged from 0.40 to 0.50 MJ/kg BW0.75.day) than were NEM estimates from heat-production models (ranged from 0.29 to 0.49 MJ/kg BW0.75.day). Similarly, km was also larger in energy retention models than in heat production models. These differences are explained by the nature of y-intercepts (NEM) in these two models. Energy retention models estimate fasting catabolism as the y-intercept, while heat production models estimate fasting heat production. Conversely, MEM was virtually identical in all models and approximately equal to 0.53 MJ/kg BW0.75.day in this database.
Monodisperse conjugated polymer particles by Suzuki-Miyaura dispersion polymerization
Kuehne, A.J.C. ; Gather, M.C. ; Sprakel, J.H.B. - \ 2012
Nature Communications 3 (2012). - ISSN 2041-1723
aqueous-media - nanoparticles - laser - microparticles - films - gain - dots
The self-assembly of colloidal building blocks into complex and hierarchical structures offers a versatile and powerful toolbox for the creation of new photonic and optoelectronic materials. However, well-defined and monodisperse colloids of semiconducting polymers, which would form excellent building blocks for such self-assembled materials, are not readily available. Here we report the first demonstration of a Suzuki–Miyaura dispersion polymerization; this method produces highly monodisperse submicrometer particles of a variety of semiconducting polymers. Moreover, we show that these monodisperse particles readily self-assemble into photonic crystals that exhibit a pronounced photonic stopgap.
Birth of new spliceosomal introns in fungi by multiplication of introner-like elements
Burgt, A. van der; Severing, E.I. ; Collemare, J. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de - \ 2012
Current Biology 22 (2012)13. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 1260 - 1265.
evolution - gain - genomics
Spliceosomal introns are noncoding sequences that separate exons in eukaryotic genes and are removed from pre-messenger RNAs by the splicing machinery. Their origin has remained a mystery in biology since their discovery [  and ] because intron gains seem to be infrequent in many eukaryotic lineages [  and ]. Although a few recent intron gains have been reported [  and ], none of the proposed gain mechanisms  can convincingly explain the high number of introns in present-day eukaryotic genomes. Here we report on particular spliceosomal introns that share high sequence similarity and are reminiscent of introner elements . These elements multiplied in unrelated genes of six fungal genomes and account for the vast majority of intron gains in these fungal species. Such introner-like elements (ILEs) contain all typical characteristics of regular spliceosomal introns (RSIs) [  and ] but are longer and predicted to harbor more stable secondary structures. However, dating of multiplication events showed that they degenerate in sequence and length within 100,000 years to eventually become indistinguishable from RSIs. We suggest that ILEs not only account for intron gains in six fungi but also in ancestral eukaryotes to give rise to most RSIs by a yet unknown multiplication mechanism
Supplementary dietary calcium stimulates faecal fat and bile acid excretion, but does not protect against obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice
Wit, N.J.W. de; Bosch-Vermeulen, H. ; Oosterink, E. ; Müller, M.R. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2011
British Journal of Nutrition 105 (2011)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1005 - 1011.
metabolism-related proteins - body-weight - lipid-metabolism - energy-expenditure - rna expression - dairy - milk - gain - rats - adiposity
There is increased interest in the potential protective role of dietary Ca in the development of metabolic disorders related to the metabolic syndrome. Ca-induced intestinal precipitation of fatty acids and bile acids as well as systemic metabolic effects of Ca on adipose tissue is proposed to play a causal role. In this experiment, we have studied all these aspects to validate the suggested protective effect of Ca supplementation, independent of other dietary changes, on the development of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In our diet intervention study, C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat diets differing in Ca concentrations (50 v. 150 mmol/kg). Faecal excretion analyses showed an elevated precipitation of intestinal fatty acids (2.3-fold; P
Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project
Halkjaer, J. ; Olsen, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Palli, D. ; Tognon, G. ; Du, H. ; A, D.L. van der; Forouhi, N.G. ; Wareham, N.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sorensen, T.I.A. ; Tjonneland, A. - \ 2011
International Journal of Obesity 35 (2011)8. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1104 - 1113.
physical-activity - dietary-intake - nutrition - cancer - metaanalysis - obesity - gain - fat - epidemiology - association
Background: As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary protein, and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). Methods: 89 432 men and women from five countries participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a mean of 6.5 years. Associations between the intake of protein or subgroups of protein (from animal and plant sources) and changes in weight (g per year) or WC (cm per year) were investigated using gender and centre-specific multiple regression analyses. Adjustments were made for other baseline dietary factors, baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors and follow-up time. We used random effect meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centres. Results: Higher intake of total protein, and protein from animal sources was associated with subsequent weight gain for both genders, strongest among women, and the association was mainly attributable to protein from red and processed meat and poultry rather than from fish and dairy sources. There was no overall association between intake of plant protein and subsequent changes in weight. No clear overall associations between intakes of total protein or any of the subgroups and changes in WC were present. The associations showed some heterogeneity between centres, but pooling of estimates was still considered justified. Conclusion: A high intake of protein was not found associated with lower weight or waist gain in this observational study. In contrast, protein from food items of animal origin, especially meat and poultry, seemed to be positively associated with long-term weight gain. There were no clear associations for waist changes. International Journal of Obesity (2011) 35, 1104-1113; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.254; published online 7 December 2010
Postpartum behaviour as predictor of weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum
Althuizen, E. ; Poppel, M.N.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Mechelen, W. van - \ 2011
BMC Public Health 11 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 7 p.
food-frequency questionnaire - physical-activity - brazilian women - obesity - retention - gain - reproducibility - association - cholesterol - childbirth
Background - Postpartum weight retention affects many women and increases the risk of becoming overweight. The research objective was to study modifiable factors contributing to weight change at one year postpartum. Methods - In this prospective cohort, postpartum behavior, such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and intake of total energy, total fat and saturated fatty acids of 118 Dutch women were assessed in 2003/2004 by self-report at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Mean postpartum scores were computed for the behavioral measures. In linear regression models it was determined which factors were associated with average weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum. Furthermore, factors associated with substantial postpartum weight retention (= 5 kg) were also studied in logistic regression models. Results - At one year postpartum, the average weight of participants had increased by 0.9 kg (SD 4.4). Moreover, 20% of the women retained = 5 kg. Women who perceived themselves more physically active than others were almost ten times less likely to retain = 5 kg than women who perceived themselves equally active (OR = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.02 - 0.66). Exceeding the guideline for saturated fatty acid intake (OR = 3.40, 95%CI: 1.04 - 11.11), total gestational weight gain (OR = 1.14/kg, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.27), and not having completed post high school education (OR = 5.13, 95%CI: 1.66 - 15.90) increased the odds of retaining = 5 kg. Conclusions - Since one in five women had substantial weight retention postpartum, effective interventions for the prevention of weight retention are much needed. Future studies should evaluate whether interventions focusing on the identified modifiable postpartum factors are successful in reducing weight retention after childbirth.
Effects of genomic selection on genetic improvement, inbreeding, and merit of young versus proven bulls
Roos, A.P.W. de; Schrooten, C. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2011
Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1559 - 1567.
marker-assisted selection - cattle breeding schemes - dairy-cattle - wide selection - populations - prediction - progress - gain
Genomic selection has the potential to revolutionize dairy cattle breeding because young animals can be accurately selected as parents, leading to a much shorter generation interval and higher rates of genetic gain. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of genomic selection and reduction of the generation interval on the rate of genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. Furthermore, the merit of proven bulls relative to young bulls was studied. This is important for breeding organizations as it determines the relative importance of progeny testing. A closed nucleus breeding scheme was simulated in which 1,000 males and 1,000 females were born annually, 200 bulls were progeny tested, and 20 sires and 200 dams were selected to produce the next generation. In the "proven" (PROV) scenario, only cows with own performance records and progeny-tested bulls were selected as parents. The proportion of the genetic variance that was explained by simulated marker information (M) was varied from 0 to 100%. When M increased from 0 to 100%, the rate of genetic gain increased from 0.238 to 0.309 genetic standard deviations (s) per year (+30%), whereas the rate of inbreeding reduced from 1.00 to 0.42% per generation. Alternatively, when young cows and bulls were selected as parents (YNG scenario), the rate of genetic gain for M=0% was 0.292 s/yr but the corresponding rate of inbreeding increased substantially to 3.15% per generation. A realistic genomic selection scheme (YNG with M=40%) gave 108% higher rate of genetic gain (0.495 s/yr) and approximately the same rate of inbreeding per generation as the conventional system without genomic selection (PROV with M=0%). The rate of inbreeding per year, however, increased from 0.18 to 0.52% because the generation interval in the YNG scheme was much shorter. Progeny-testing fewer bulls reduced the rate of genetic gain and increased the rate of inbreeding for PROV, but had negligible effects for YNG because almost all sires were young bulls. In scenario YNG with M=40%, the best young bulls were superior to the best proven bulls by 1.27 s difference in genomic estimated breeding value. This superiority increased even further when fewer bulls were progeny tested. This stochastic simulation study shows that genomic selection in combination with a severe reduction in the generation interval can double the rate of genetic gain at the same rate of inbreeding per generation, but with a higher rate of inbreeding per year. The number of progeny-tested bulls can be greatly reduced, although this will slightly affect the quality of the proven bull team. Therefore, it is important for breeding organizations to predict the future demand for proven bull semen in light of the increasing superiority of young bulls
Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial
Werkman, A.M. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Kremers, S.P.J. ; Kok, F.J. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Schuit, A.J. - \ 2010
BMC Public Health 10 (2010). - ISSN 1471-2458
physical-activity scale - elderly pase - bioelectrical-impedance - waist circumference - validity - gain - interventions - statistics - prevention - education
Background: The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity warrants preventive actions, particularly among people in transitional stages associated with lifestyle changes, such as occupational retirement. The purpose is to investigate the effect of a one year low-intensity computer-tailored energy balance programme among recent retirees on waist circumference, body weight and body composition, blood pressure, physical activity and dietary intake. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was conducted among recent retirees (N = 413; mean age 59.5 years). Outcome measures were assessed using anthropometry, bio-impedance, blood pressure measurement and questionnaires. Results: Waist circumference, body weight and blood pressure decreased significantly in men of the intervention and control group, but no significant between-group-differences were observed at 12 or at 24-months follow-up. A significant effect of the programme was only observed on waist circumference (-1.56 cm ( 95% CI: -2.91 to -0.21)) at 12 month follow up among men with low education (n = 85). Physical activity and dietary behaviours improved in both the intervention and control group during the intervention period. Although, these behaviours changed more favourably in the intervention group, these between-group-differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The multifaceted computer-tailored programme for recent retirees did not appear to be effective. Apparently the transition to occupational retirement and/or participation in the study had a greater impact than the intervention programme.
Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women
Du, H. ; A, A.D. van der; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Forouchi, N.G. ; Wareham, N. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Masala, G. ; Palli, D. ; Sorensen, T. ; Saris, W.H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2010)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 329 - 336.
cardiovascular-disease - energy density - risk-factors - whole-grain - cancer - cereal - obesity - gain - overweight - nutrition
Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with changes in weight and waist circumference. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 89,432 European participants, aged 20–78 y, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline and who were followed for an average of 6.5 y. Dietary information was collected by using validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in each center studied, and estimates were combined by using random-effect meta-analyses. Adjustments were made for follow-up duration, other dietary variables, and baseline anthropometric, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Results: Total fiber was inversely associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change. For a 10-g/d higher total fiber intake, the pooled estimate was –39 g/y (95% CI: –71, –7 g/y) for weight change and –0.08 cm/y (95% CI: –0.11, –0.05 cm/y) for waist circumference change. A 10-g/d higher fiber intake from cereals was associated with –77 g/y (95% CI: –127, –26 g/y) weight change and –0.10 cm/y (95% CI: –0.18, –0.02 cm/y) waist circumference change. Fruit and vegetable fiber was not associated with weight change but had a similar association with waist circumference change when compared with intake of total dietary fiber and cereal fiber. Conclusion: Our finding may support a beneficial role of higher intake of dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, in prevention of body-weight and waist circumference gain.
Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohorts
Forouchi, N.G. ; Sharp, S. ; Du, H. ; A, A.D. van der; Halkjaer, J. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sorensen, T. ; Wareham, N. - \ 2009
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1632 - 1641.
physical-activity questionnaire - energy-intake - obesity - women - metaanalysis - trial - gain - calibration - prevention - validity
Background: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. Objective: The objective was to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change (follow-up weight minus baseline weight divided by duration of follow-up). Design: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake (amount and type of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats) and annual weight change by using the residual, nutrient density, and energy-partition methods. We used random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centers. Results: Mean total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake ranged between 31.5% and 36.5% across the 6 cohorts (58% women; mean ± SD age: 53.2 ± 8.6 y). The mean (±SD) annual weight change was 109 ± 817 g/y in men and 119 ± 823 g/y in women. In pooled analyses adjusted for anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle factors and follow-up period, no significant association was observed between fat intake (amount or type) and weight change. The difference in mean annual weight change was 0.90 g/y (95% CI: –0.54, 2.34 g/y) for men and –1.30 g/y (95% CI: –3.70, 1.11 g/y) for women per 1 g/d energy-adjusted fat intake (residual method). Conclusions: We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain.
Effects of pedigree errors on the efficiency of conservation decisions
Oliehoek, P.A. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2009
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 41 (2009). - ISSN 0999-193X - p. 9 - 9.
genetic diversity - small populations - selection - cattle - minimization - generations - information - gain
Conservation schemes often aim at increasing genetic diversity by minimizing kinship, and the best method to achieve this goal, when pedigree data is available, is to apply optimal contributions. Optimal contributions calculate contributions per animal so that the weighted average mean kinship among candidate parents is minimized. This approach assumes that pedigree data is correct and complete. However, in practice, pedigrees often contain errors: parents are recorded incorrectly or even missing. We used simulations to investigate the effect of these two types of errors on minimizing kinship. Our findings show that a low percentage of wrong parent information reduces the effect of optimal contributions. When the percentage of wrong parent information is above 15%, the population structure and type of errors, should be taken into account before applying optimal contributions. Optimal contributions based on pedigrees with missing parent information hampers conservation of genetic diversity; however, missing parent information can be corrected. It is crucial to know which animals are founders. We strongly recommend that pedigree registration include whether missing parents are either true founders or non-founders.
Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense
Struik, P.C. ; Yin, X. ; Meinke, H.B. - \ 2008
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88 (2008)3. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 363 - 370.
alpi et-al - transport - photosynthesis - acclimation - shade - wheat - model - gain
This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in solving complex plant physiological elements of signalling, internal and external plant communication and whole-plant organisation. Plant neurobiology proposes useful concepts that stimulate discussions on plant behaviour. To be considered a new science, its added value to existing plant biology needs to be presented and critically evaluated. A general, scientific approach is to follow the so-called `parsimony principle', which calls for simplest ideas and the least number of assumptions for plausible explanation of scientific phenomena. The extent to which plant neurobiology agrees with or violates this general principle needs to be examined. Nevertheless, innovative ideas on the complex mechanisms of signalling, communication, patterning and organisation in higher plants are badly needed. We present current views on these mechanisms and the specific role of auxins in regulating them.
Determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China
Li Yanping, ; Zhai, F. ; Yang, X. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Hu, X. ; He, Y. ; Luan, D. ; Ma, Guansheng - \ 2007
British Journal of Nutrition 97 (2007)1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 210 - 215.
dietary energy density - physical-activity - weight status - risk-factors - adults - transportation - predictors - children - gain - food
In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included in the study. Information for dietary intake was collected using three consecutive 24-h recalls by trained interviewers. The amounts of cooking oil and condiments consumed were weighed. An interview-administered 1-year physical activity questionnaire was used to collect physical activity information. The results showed that the heavier the parental body weight, the higher the overweight prevalence in children. The prevalence ratio increased if parent(s) were overweight and/or obese, up to 12.2 if both parents were obese. Overweight children consumed significantly more dietary energy, protein and fat, but less carbohydrate than their normal weight counterparts. On average, overweight children spent 0.5h less on moderate/vigorous activities and 2.3h more on low intensity activities per week. The following prevalence ratios were statistically significant: walking to and from school (0.6); moderate/vigorous activities >= 45 min/d (0.8); low intensity physical activities > 2 h/d (1.3); the consumption of >= 25 g/d cooking oil (1.4); >= 200g/d meat and meat products consumption (1.5); >= 100 g/d dairy products (1.8). After adjustment for parental body weight status and socioeconomic status, only cooking oil consumption and walking to and from school remained significantly related to child overweight. In conclusion, parental weight status is an important determinant. Fat intake, low intensity activities and active transport to/from school may be suitable entry points for overweight prevention among Chinese school children.
Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle
Albera, A. ; Groen, A.F. ; Carnier, P. - \ 2004
Journal of Animal Science 82 (2004)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3440 - 3446.
young bull production - sire evaluation - categorical-data - threshold-model - parameters - weight - gain
The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at a central station. Live fleshiness (six traits) and bone thinness were subjectively scored by classifiers using a nine-point linear grid. Data on calving performance were calving difficulty scores (five classes from unassisted to embryotomy) routinely recorded in the farms. Calving performance of heifers and cows were considered different traits. A total of 30,763 and 80,474 calving scores in first and later parities, respectively, were used to estimate covariance components with beef traits. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models, including direct genetic effects for calving performance and beef traits and maternal genetic effects only for calving performance. Due to the nature of the data structure, which involved traits measured in different environments and on different animals, covariances were estimated mostly through pedigree information. Genetic correlations of daily gain were positive with direct calving performance (0.43 in heifers and 0.50 in cows) and negative with maternal calving performance (-0.23 and -0.28 for heifers and cows, respectively). Live fleshiness traits were moderately correlated with maternal calving performance in both parities, ranging from 0.06 to 0.33. Correlations between live fleshiness traits and direct calving performance were low to moderate and positive in the first parity, but trivial in later parities. Bone thinness was negatively correlated with direct calving performance (-0.17 and -0.38 in heifers and cows, respectively), but it was positively correlated to maternal calving performance (0.31 and 0.40). Estimated residual correlations were close to zero. Results indicate that, due to the existence of antagonistic relationships between the investigated traits, specific selection strategies need to be studied.
Leptin and insulin responses to a four-day energy-deficient diet in men with different weight history
Mars, M. ; Graaf, C. de; Rossum, C.T.M. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2003
International Journal of Obesity 27 (2003). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 574 - 581.
serum leptin - short-term - glucose-tolerance - obese women - gain - restriction - americans - humans
OBJECTIVE: To assess the leptin responses to a 4-day energy-restricted diet in men with different weight history; high retrospective weight gain was expected to be associated with a small decline in leptin. DESIGN: Changes in fasting leptin and insulin were measured during a 4-day controlled intervention, in which men with high retrospective weight gain and men who had stable weight consumed 35% of their estimated energy needs. SUBJECTS: A total of 44 healthy men (age: 31-52y, BMI: 22.7-39.8 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a cohort study: 22 men who had gained weight (weight change >1 kg/y) and 22 men whose weight had remained stable (weight change +/-0.3kg/y) between the first (1987-1991) and the second measurement (1993-1997) of the cohort study. The intervention study was carried out in 2001. RESULTS: After intervention changes in fasting leptin levels were similar for both groups of retrospective weight gain: -2.2 mulU/ml (95% Cl: -2.8; -1.7) and -2.4 mulU/ml (95% Cl: -3.2; -1.7) respectively (P = 0.69). Proportional changes in fasting leptin levels were different: -43.3% (95% Cl: -47.8; -38.4) in the participants whose weight had remained stable (n-22) and -35.2% (95% Cl: -42.4; -27.1) in those who had gained weight (n=22)(P