- G. Goff le (1)
- M. Helinski (1)
- H. Hiwat-van Laar (2)
- R.C. Hood-Nowotny (1)
- L.W. Irungu (2)
- P.W. Jong de (1)
- D.R. Kavishe (1)
- G.F. Killeen (2)
- B.G.J. Knols (5)
- C.J.M. Koenraadt (4)
- D.W. Lwetoijera (1)
- I.N. Lyimo (1)
- E.P. Madumla (1)
- E.M. Mathenge (2)
- L. Mayr (1)
- G.O. Misiani (1)
- L.L. Mnyone (2)
- M.W. Mpingwa (1)
- P.N. Ndegwa (1)
- P.N. Ndwega (1)
- F.O. Okumu (1)
- G.O. Omweri (1)
- D.O. Oulo (1)
- A.F. Read (1)
- M. Rijk de (2)
- V. Robert (1)
- T.L. Russell (2)
- T.A. Smith (2)
- R.D. Sumaye (1)
- W. Takken (4)
- C.B.F. Vogels (1)
- E. Walczak (1)
Fitness consequences of larval exposure to Beauveria bassiana on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi
Vogels, C.B.F. ; Bukhari, T. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 119 (2014). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 19 - 24.
fungus metarhizium-anisopliae - entomopathogenic fungus - mosquito larvae - nosema-algerae - biocontrol agents - gambiae - infection - density - survival - field
Entomopathogenic fungi have shown to be effective in biological control of both larval and adult stages of malaria mosquitoes. However, a small fraction of mosquitoes is still able to emerge after treatment with fungus during the larval stage. It remains unclear whether fitness of these adults is affected by the treatment during the larval stage and whether they are still susceptible for another treatment during the adult stage. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on fitness of surviving Anopheles stephensi females. Furthermore, we tested whether larval exposed females were still susceptible to re-exposure to the fungus during the adult stage. Sex ratio, survival and reproductive success were compared between non-exposed and larval exposed A. stephensi. Comparisons were also made between survival of non-exposed and larval exposed females that were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage. Larval treatment did not affect sex ratio of emerging mosquitoes. Larval exposed females that were infected died significantly faster and laid equal numbers of eggs from which equal numbers of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females that were uninfected had equal survival, but laid a significantly larger number of eggs from which a significantly higher number of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females which were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage had equal survival as females exposed only during the adult stage. Our results suggest that individual consequences for fitness of larval exposed females depended on whether a fungal infection was acquired during the larval stage. Larval exposed females remained susceptible to re-exposure with B. bassiana during the adult stage, indicating that larval and adult control of malaria mosquitoes with EF are compatible.
Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior
Hiwat-van Laar, H. ; Rijk, M. de; Andriessen, R. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Takken, W. - \ 2011
Journal of Medical Entomology 48 (2011)5. - ISSN 0022-2585 - p. 1039 - 1046.
carbon-dioxide - light-traps - differential attractiveness - mosquitos diptera - brazilian amazon - field-evaluation - sensu-stricto - endemic area - gambiae - tanzania
The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Miniature Light trap, the BG Sentinel mosquito trap, the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus mosquito trap (MM-Plus), and a custom-designed trap. Carbon dioxide and humans protected by a bed net were used as bait in the studies. The number of An. darlingi collected was greater with human landing collections than with all other collection methods. An. darlingi did not show a preference for protected humans over CO2 bait. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait and the MM-Plus proved the best alternative sampling tools for An. darlingi. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait was also very efficient at collecting Culex spp. In a field study on biting preferences of wild An. darlingi, the females showed directional biting behavior (P <0.001), with a majority of females (93.3%) biting the lower legs and feet when approaching a seated human host. Higher efficiency of the closer-to-the-ground collecting MM-Plus and BG Sentinel mosquito trap when compared with the other trapping methods may be a result of a possible preference of this mosquito species for low-level biting. It is concluded that odor-baited sampling systems can reliably collect An. darlingi, but the odor bait needs to be improved, for instance, by including host-specific volatiles, to match live human baits.
Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname
Hiwat-van Laar, H. ; Andriessen, R. ; Rijk, M. de; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Takken, W. - \ 2011
Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 106 (2011)3. - ISSN 0074-0276 - p. 360 - 364.
light traps - malaria vectors - mosquitos - culicidae - diptera - tanzania - 1-octen-3-ol - gambiae - attractiveness - surveillance
Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis mosquitoes. Of 13,549 total mosquitoes collected, 1,019 (7.52%) were An. aquasalis. Large numbers of Culex spp were also collected, in particular with the (BG-Sentinel). The majority of An. aquasalis (83.8%) were collected by the human landing collection (HLC). None of the trap catches correlated with HLC in the number of An. aquasalis captured over time. The high efficiency of the HLC method indicates that this malaria vector was anthropophilic at this site, especially as carbon dioxide was insufficiently attractive as stand-alone bait. Traps using carbon dioxide in combination with human odorants may provide better results.
Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana
Mnyone, L.L. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Lyimo, I.N. ; Mpingwa, M.W. ; Takken, W. ; Russell, T.L. - \ 2010
Parasites & Vectors 3 (2010). - ISSN 1756-3305 - 6 p.
african malaria mosquitos - gambiae - infection - susceptibility - arabiensis - resistance
Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods - Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm): release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1), netting with mineral oil (control 2) and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2). Results - Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested.
An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis
Lwetoijera, D.W. ; Sumaye, R.D. ; Madumla, E.P. ; Kavishe, D.R. ; Mnyone, L.L. ; Russell, T.L. ; Okumu, F.O. - \ 2010
Parasites & Vectors 3 (2010). - ISSN 1756-3305 - 6 p.
mosquito - gambiae - infection
Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS), can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P <0.0001) and high quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus two cotton panels; HR = 2.32, P <0.0001). We conclude that high infection rates of entomopathogenic fungi on wild malaria vectors and possibly significant disruption of malaria transmission can be achieved if the fungus is delivered using optimally located outdoor odor-baited stations
The suitability of clay pots for indoor sampling of mosquitoes in an arid area in northern Tanzania: A word of caution
Knols, B.G.J. ; Farenhorst, M. - \ 2009
Acta Tropica 112 (2009)1. - ISSN 0001-706X - p. 88 - 89.
anopheline mosquitos - malaria vectors - light-trap - gambiae - kenya
Mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes irradiated with a partially or fully sterilizing dose in small and large laboratory cages
Helinski, M. ; Knols, B.G.J. - \ 2008
Journal of Medical Entomology 45 (2008)4. - ISSN 0022-2585 - p. 698 - 705.
cytoplasmic incompatibility - gamma-radiation - population - fitness - fertility - diptera - gambiae - insemination - eradication - culicidae
Male mating competitiveness is a crucial parameter in many genetic control programs including the sterile insect technique (SIT). We evaluated competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton as a function of three experimental variables: (1) small or large cages for mating, (2) the effects of either a partially sterilizing (70 Gy) or fully sterilizing (120 Gy) dose, and (3) pupal or adult irradiation. Irradiated males competed for females with an equal number of unirradiated males. Competitiveness was determined by measuring hatch rates of individually laid egg batches. In small cages, pupal irradiation with the high dose resulted in the lowest competitiveness, whereas adult irradiation with the low dose gave the highest, with the latter males being equal in competitiveness to unirradiated males. In the large cage, reduced competitiveness of males irradiated in the pupal stage was more pronounced compared with the small cage; the males irradiated as adults at both doses performed similarly to unirradiated males. Unexpectedly, males irradiated with the high dose performed better in a large cage than in a small one. A high proportion of intermediate hatch rates was observed for eggs collected in the large cage experiments with males irradiated at the pupal stage. It is concluded that irradiation of adult An. arabiensis with the partially sterilizing dose results in the highest competitiveness for both cage designs. Cage size affected competitiveness for some treatments; therefore, competitiveness determined in laboratory experiments must be confirmed by releases into simulated field conditions. The protocols described are readily transferable to evaluate male competitiveness for other genetic control techniques
Use of carbon-13 as a population marker for Anopheles arabiensis in a sterile insect technique (SIT) context
Hood-Nowotny, R.C. ; Mayr, L. ; Knols, B.G.J. - \ 2006
Malaria Journal 5 (2006). - ISSN 1475-2875 - 8 p.
aedes-aegypti - rubidium marking - carbon isotopes - culicidae - diptera - survival - gambiae - vector - reproduction - allocation
Background - Monitoring of sterile to wild insect ratios in field populations can be useful to follow the progress in genetic control programmes such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Of the numerous methods for marking insects most are not suitable for use in mass rearing and mass release. Suitable ones include dye marking, genetic marking and chemical marking. Methods - The feasibility of using the stable isotope of carbon, 13C, as a potential chemical marker for Anopheles arabiensis was evaluated in the laboratory. Labeled-13C glucose was incorporated into the larval diet in a powder or liquid form. The contribution of adult sugar feeding to the total mosquito carbon pool and the metabolically active carbon pool was determined by tracing the decline of the enrichment of the adult male mosquito as it switched from a labeled larval diet to an unlabeled adult diet. This decline in the adult was monitored by destructive sampling of the whole mosquito and analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Results - A two-pool model was used to describe the decline of the 13C-enrichment of adult mosquitoes. The proportion of the total adult carbon pool derived from the adult sugar diet over the life span of mosquitoes was determined and the ratio of structural carbon, with a low turnover rate to metabolically active non-structural carbon was assessed. The uptake and turnover of sugar in the metabolically active fraction suggests that after 3 days >70% of the active fraction carbon is derived from sugar feeding (increasing to >90% by day 7), indicating the high resource demand of male mosquitoes. Conclusion - It was possible to "fix" the isotopic label in adult An. arabiensis and to detect the label at an appropriate concentration up to 21 days post-emergence. The optimum labeling treatment would cost around 250 US$ per million mosquitoes. Stable isotope marking may thus aid research on the fate of released insects besides other population-based ecological studies.
Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Madagascar and Comoros
Ayala, D. ; Goff, G. le; Robert, V. ; Jong, P.W. de; Takken, W. - \ 2006
Acta Tropica 97 (2006)3. - ISSN 0001-706X - p. 292 - 300.
genetic differentiation - west-africa - microsatellite - gambiae - east - disease - kenya - assay - loci
Microsatellites were used as markers for a study of the population structure of Anopheles funestus on Madagascar and Comoros. Mosquitoes were collected in four different localities on Madagascar and one on Comoros. There was a significant genetic differentiation between all samples from Madagascar and that from Comoros (P <0.05). With respect to the Madagascar mosquito samples, it was found that there were no significant genetic differences between samples that were collected at the east coast, and in the highlands, respectively. By contrast, the west coast sample exhibited significant genetic differences (with regard to all Madagascar samples). The results are discussed with respect to population distribution and migration of A. funestus from mainland Africa and the islands east of the mainland
Comparative performance of the Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the human landing catch in the sampling of Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus and culicine species in a rice irrigation in western Kenya
Mathenge, E.M. ; Misiani, G.O. ; Oulo, D.O. ; Irungu, L.W. ; Ndegwa, P.N. ; Smith, T.A. ; Killeen, G.F. ; Knols, B.G.J. - \ 2005
Malaria Journal 4 (2005). - ISSN 1475-2875 - 6 p.
malaria vectors - mosquitos diptera - gambiae - tanzania - collections - bednet - area
Background: Mosquitoes sampling is an important component in malaria control. However, most of the methods used have several shortcomings and hence there is a need to develop and calibrate new methods. The Mbita trap for capturing host-seeking mosquitoes was recently developed and successfully tested in Kenya. However, the Mbita trap is less effective at catching outdoor-biting Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in Madagascar and, thus, there is need to further evaluate this trap in diverse epidemiological settings. This study reports a field evaluation of the Mbita trap in a rice irrigation scheme in Kenya Methods: The mosquito sampling efficiency of the Mbita trap was compared to that of the CDC light trap and the human landing catch in western Kenya. Data was analysed by Bayesian regression of linear and non-linear models. Results: The Mbita trap caught about 17%, 60%, and 20% of the number of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and culicine species caught in the human landing collections respectively. There was consistency in sampling proportionality between the Mbita trap and the human landing catch for both An. arabiensis and the culicine species. For An. funestus, the Mbita trap portrayed some density-dependent sampling efficiency that suggested lowered sampling efficiency of human landing catch at low densities. The CDC light trap caught about 60%, 120%, and 552% of the number of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and culicine species caught in the human landing collections respectively. There was consistency in the sampling proportionality between the CDC light trap and the human landing catch for both An. arabiensis and An. funestus, whereas for the culicines, there was no simple relationship between the two methods. Conclusions: The Mbita trap is less sensitive than either the human landing catch or the CDC light trap. However, for a given investment of time and money, it is likely to catch more mosquitoes over a longer ( and hence more representative) period. This trap can therefore be recommended for use by community members for passive mosquito surveillance. Nonetheless, there is still a need to develop new sampling methods for some epidemiological settings. The human landing catch should be maintained as the standard reference method for use in calibrating new methods for sampling the human biting population of mosquitoes.
Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts
Ferguson, H.M. ; Read, A.F. - \ 2004
Malaria Journal 3 (2004). - ISSN 1475-2875 - 8 p.
leishmania-mexicana-amazonensis - anopheles-stephensi mosquitos - la-crosse virus - malaria parasite - aedes-aegypti - yoelii-nigeriensis - brugia-malayi - fecundity - gallinaceum - gambiae
Background - Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods - Using a rodent malaria model system, behavioural avoidance of super-infection was tested by examining whether already-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were less responsive to new vertebrate hosts if they were infected. Additionally, a second dose of parasites was given to malaria-infected mosquitoes on a biologically realistic time scale to test whether it impeded the development of a first infection. Results - No effect of a second infected blood meal on either the prevalence or parasite burden arising from a first was found. Furthermore, it was found that not only were infected mosquitoes more likely to take a second blood meal than their uninfected counterparts, they were disproportionately drawn to infected hosts. Conclusions - The alterations in mosquito feeding propensity reported here would occur if parasites have been selected to make infected vertebrate hosts more attractive to mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes are more likely to seek out new blood meals. Although such a strategy might increase the risk of super-infection, this study suggests the cost to parasite development is not high and as such would be unlikely to outweigh the potential benefits of increasing the contact rate between the parasite's two obligate hosts.
Comparative field evaluation of the Mbita trap, the Centers for Disease Control light trap, and the human landing catch for sampling of malaria vectors in western Kenya
Mathenge, E.M. ; Omweri, G.O. ; Irungu, L.W. ; Ndwega, P.N. ; Walczak, E. ; Smith, T.A. ; Killeen, G.F. ; Knols, B.G.J. - \ 2004
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70 (2004). - ISSN 0002-9637 - p. 33 - 37.
anopheline mosquitos - spatial-distribution - culicidae - diptera - gambiae - tanzania - identification - collections - bednet - area
The mosquito sampling efficiency of a new bed net trap (the Mbita trap) was compared with that of the Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (hung adjacent to an occupied bed net) and the human landing catch in western Kenya. Overall, the Mbita trap caught 48.7 +/- 4.8% (mean SEM) the number of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato caught in the human landing catch and 27.4 +/- 8.2% of the number caught by the light trap. The corresponding figures for Anopheles funestus Giles were 74.6 +/- 1.3% and 39.2 +/- 1.9%, respectively. Despite the clear differences in the numbers of mosquitoes caught by each method, both the Mbita trap and light trap catches were directly proportional to human landing catches regardless of mosquito density. No significant differences in parity or sporozoite incidence were observed between mosquitoes caught by the three methods for either An. gambiae s.l. or An. funestus. Identification of the sibling species of the An. gambiae complex by a polymerase chain reaction indicated that the ratio of An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto to An. arabiensis Patton did not vary according to the sampling method used. It is concluded that the Mbita trap is a promising tool for sampling malaria vector populations since its catch can be readily converted into equivalent human biting catch, it can be applied more intensively, it requires neither expensive equipment nor skilled personnel, and it samples mosquitoes in an exposure-free manner. Such intensive sampling capability will allow cost-effective surveillance of malaria transmission at much finer spatial and temporal resolution than has been previously possible.