Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Environmental impact of mineral fertilizers: possible improvements through the adoption of eco-innovations
Hasler, Kathrin - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436922 - 156
environmental impact - business management - fertilizers - agricultural production - germany - milieueffect - bedrijfsmanagement - kunstmeststoffen - landbouwproductie - duitsland

Agricultural production has kept pace with the population growth (FAO, 2012). One major input for a productive agriculture are fertilizers. Despite their effect on yield and quality, they also have considerable effects on the environment leading to emission of greenhouse gases, acidification, eutrophication and use of scare resources (Ruttan, 2002; Kitzes et al., 2007). However, unlike other agricultural inputs, fertilizers cannot be substituted and a reduction in the fertilizer use can lead to major yield decreases or a production shifting to less suitable areas. By considering the above mentioned statements this thesis aims to expand the knowledge of the environmental impact of fertilizers in general and innovation supply chain thinking, knowledge exchange and innovation adoption within the fertilizer supply chain in particular with the main research question:

To what extended can the environmental impact of fertilizers be improved by accelerate the adoption and diffusion of (eco)-innovations within the fertilizer supply chain?

To answer this question, the thesis was divided into two main theoretical perspectives. The first part focuses on the environmental impact of mineral fertilizers and relevant alternatives. The second part focuses on innovation adoption and diffusion.

In these thesis LCA calculations of different fertilizer types (e.g. urea, ammonium nitrate) and production types (single nutrient fertilizers, bulk blends or complex fertilizers) try to examine the amount of emissions during fertilizer production, transportation and application. With literature data of emissions during the fertilizer production, completed with data from expert interviews along the fertilizer supply chain a holistic LCA calculation was conducted. The results showed that especially urea should be used with special care in temperate climate zone and produced with best production technologies. Additionally, the production and application of phosphorus should always be part of agricultural LCA studies, because this plant nutrient also can have effects on the results in the impact categories use of scare resources and salt water eutrophication. With an optimized fertilization strategy, the environmental burden can be reduced by up to 15%.

Chapter 3 focuses on greenhouse gas emissions. The carbon footprint, used with special care and an accurate developed framework, can be a good tool to estimate these greenhouse gas emissions (Finkbeiner, 2009; Hillier et al., 2009; Pandey et al., 2011). By calculating the carbon footprint with a basic LCA approach a scientific accepted method was used. The carbon footprint of different mineral fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate and urea ammonium nitrate), stabilized nitrogen fertilizers (using different inhibitors), secondary raw materials (feather meals, blood-and-bone-meals and leguminous crops meals) and a combined irrigation and fertilization were compared in order to find a more sustainable solution. Here especially the uses of a double inhibitor to delay the nitrogen transformation in the soils can have an effect on the carbon footprint results.

The second part of this thesis concentrates on the fertilizer supply chain and the adoption of eco-innovations. Eco-innovations are one option to reduce the environmental impact of fertilizers without compromising on fertilizer productivity. Although numerous eco-innovations in the domain of fertilizers are available, they have no sufficient adoption rate. Here a systematic literature review combined with the types of eco-innovations within an expanded technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to estimate the main drivers. The study distinguishes between disruptive and continuous as well as process, product and other types of innovations to get a better understanding for specific situations. The distinction between the types of innovations was made, because it was assumed that the nature of the specific innovation influences the adoption. The results lead to the assumption that disruptive innovations are mostly pushed by a high quality support and a well-functioning information flow; continuous innovations are more pushed by a good access to credits and an informative environment.

Chapter 5 tries to explaining the low adoption of eco-innovation in the German fertilizer supply chain in particular. Expert interviews along the fertilizer supply chain (researcher, producer, traders) and a detailed questionnaire with closed and open questions were used to estimate the necessity to change. Furthermore, the knowledge of different eco-innovations was used to evaluate the knowledge sharing of the fertilizer supply chain. Findings suggest that drivers for eco-innovations are perceived differently by the various actors in the fertilizer supply chain. The overall knowledge on eco-innovations decreases downstream the chain.

Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction
Venus, Thomas Johann - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Dusan Drabik; M.J. Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436670 - 148
genetically engineered organisms - food products - nutrition labeling - labelling - crops - plant breeding - germany - european union - regulations - markets - businesses - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - voedselproducten - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren - gewassen - plantenveredeling - duitsland - europese unie - regelingen - markten - bedrijven

This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and extended to other differentiated products where similar concepts apply.

The main body of the dissertation consists of four chapters. In the first chapter, we estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements (‘coexistence measures’) for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than 300 euros per hectare per measure, and most of them are greater than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than the estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, which were the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbors do not cause a problem and that opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers’ attitudes toward genetically modified crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbor agreements.

The coexistence costs have implications for the supply of products in which GMOs are excluded from the production process (i.e., non-GM labeling). This is the topic of the second chapter. In that chapter, we discuss and illustrate the complexity of non-GM food labeling in Germany. We show how a multi-stakeholder organization that sets a voluntary private production and certification standard can combine the opposing and agreeing interests of its members. This cohesion reduces the fears of retailers of NGO pressure in the case of mislabeling. Whereas non-GM labeling in Germany started as a niche for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and small processors, it was further driven by anti-GMO organizations. Today, retail chains label some of their store brands and are now the drivers. We also discuss how informing consumers through non-GM labeling addresses imperfect information, but at the same time, can create new information imperfections if consumers are not well informed about the labeling system itself.

Non-GM labeling, together with the EU-wide mandatory labeling of GMOs and their requirements on coexistence, have implications for the potential regulation of crops derived by new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). In the third chapter, we analyze the market and welfare effects of regulating crops derived by NPBTs as genetically modified or conventional products. We consider the mandatory scheme for labeling GM products and a voluntary non-GM scheme for labeling livestock products derived from non-GM feed. We develop a partial equilibrium model that explicitly takes into account both the coexistence costs at the farm level and the segregation and identity preservation costs at the downstream level. By applying the model to EU rapeseed, we find that regulating NPBTs as GM (as compared to non-GM) in combination with mandatory and voluntary labeling increases prices and therefore makes producers better off. We also show that higher coexistence costs make the price increasing effect even stronger. Voluntary non-GM labeling applied to feed makes consumers in this sector overall worse off, but it benefits farmers and rapeseed oil consumers overall as long as segregation costs are low. Consumers of biodiesel and industrial products, such as lubricants produced from GM rapeseed, benefit from high segregation costs. We show that the effects of farm-level coexistence costs largely differ from the effects of downstream market segregation costs.

In the last of the four chapters, we consider the effects of market power and analyze the decision of investing in quality updating when high-quality product demand is growing. We model a decision of a duopoly that initially offers a product perceived as lower quality (e.g., GM product) to invest in an emerging high-quality (e.g., labeled non-GM) product. We investigate whether the smaller or the larger firm invests first. Either preemption or a war of attrition can result, depending on demand and cost factors. For each case, we derive the unique Nash equilibrium. We show that a firm’s timing to invest in high-quality production (e.g., implement a voluntary production standard) depends on several factors, such as the difference in firm size between competing firms and the level of vertical differentiation, growth and discount rate, demand parameters, and per-unit production costs. We show that institutions, which set private or public certification standards, can affect firms’ investment in differentiated products because the standard stringency affects the production and compliance costs as well as the level of product differentiation. Hence, through the setting of these standards, private and governmental institutions can impact the market structure as well as the growth of an emerging market. Finally, we discuss policy implications and how an adjustment of the EU-regulatory framework from a process- to a product-based system can make several issues discussed in this thesis problems of the past.

Meer biodiversiteit met brede groene dijken? : een verkenning van de vegetatie op de Waddenzeedijken
Loon-Steensma, Jantsje M. van; Huiskes, Rik - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2802) - 129
dijken - breedte - vegetatie - biodiversiteit - nederlandse waddeneilanden - nederland - duitsland - denemarken - dykes - width - vegetation - biodiversity - dutch wadden islands - netherlands - germany - denmark
In dit rapport worden de vegetaties op het buitentalud van de brede groene Waddenzeedijken in Duitsland en Denemarken vergeleken met de vegetaties op het buitentalud van de gangbare Waddenzeedijken in Nederland, met als doel om inzicht te krijgen in de mogelijke meerwaarde van het Brede Groene Dijk-concept voor biodiversiteit, en voor vegetatie in het bijzonder.
Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van de wasbeer in Nederland
Grift, E.A. van der; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Wegman, R.M.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2764) - 43
procyon lotor - zoögeografie - dierecologie - nederland - duitsland - zoogeography - animal ecology - netherlands - germany
In opdracht van het Bureau Risicobeoordeling en onderzoeksprogrammering (BuRO) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA) is het voorkomen van de Wasbeer (Procyon lotor) in Nederland en de Duitse grensstreek in beeld gebracht en onderzocht of er sprake is van gevestigde populaties. Vooralsnog zijn er geen aanwijzingen dat er binnen Nederland sprake is van een lokaal gevestigde populatie. In de Duitse grensstreek met Nederland zijn de aantallen nog relatief laag, maar als de huidige populatietrends doorzetten, verandert dat naar verwachting op korte termijn. Hoewel concrete gegevens ontbreken, is de kans groot dat inmiddels, op een aantal plaatsen, gevestigde populaties dicht bij de Nederlandse landsgrens voorkomen.
Telersvereniging Paletti Growers kijkt over eigenbelang heen: 'Redeneren vanuit het winkelschap, in plaats vanuit product'
Splinter, Gerben - \ 2015
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - ornamental crops - cut flowers - pot plants - bedding plants - logistics - farm management - associations - salesmanship - supermarkets - consumer satisfaction - entrepreneurship - marketing - germany - netherlands
Gesellschaftliche Beteiligung in Natura 2000-Gebieten : Erfahrungen in Dänemark, England und Deutschland
Kamphorst, D.A. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 41) - 12 p.
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - denmark - england - germany - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - denemarken - engeland - duitsland
Seit 2013 ist das Engagement der Gesellschaft für den
Erhalt der Natur ein ausdrückliches Anliegen der niederländischen
Regierung. Da Nachbarländer der Niederlande ähnliche
Bestrebungen haben, wurden mit der vorliegenden Untersuchung
deren Konzepte sowie die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse in den
folgenden drei Untersuchungsgebieten betrachtet: Exmoor
National Park (England), Naturpark Aukrug (Schleswig-Holstein,
Deutschland) und Lille Vildmose (Dänemark). Wichtige Elemente
eines erfolgreichen Projekts, dessen Zweck die Einbeziehung
der Gesellschaft ist, sind laut der Untersuchung die frühzeitige
Beteiligung örtlicher Interessenvertreter (sogenannte
Stakeholder), spannende Erzählperspektiven, gleichberechtigte
Kooperationen, der flexible Einsatz von Fördermitteln sowie die
Anwesenheit örtlicher Vermittler (Broker).
The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation : A comparison of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental actors
Meijerink, Sander ; Stiller, Sabina ; Keskitalo, E.C.H. ; Scholten, Peter ; Smits, Robert ; Lamoen, Frank van - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 25 - 37.
Adaptation to climate change - Complexity theory - Leadership - Multi-level governance - Water governance - climate adaptation - governance - regional planning - international comparisons - water management - provinces - municipalities - netherlands - germany - uk - klimaatadaptatie - leiderschap - regionale planning - internationale vergelijkingen - waterbeheer - provincies - gemeenten - nederland - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk

This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political–administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental actors. The case studies are located in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Our research question is twofold: to what extent can the five functions of leadership be identified in practices of climate change adaptation, and are there differences in the patterns of leadership between adaptation practices which are initiated by governmental and by non-governmental actors? The study shows that although all leadership functions were fulfilled in all four cases, patterns of leadership were different and the fulfilment of leadership functions posed different challenges to non-governmental actors and governmental actors.

Societal involvement in Natura 2000 areas : Experiences in Denmark, England and Germany
Kamphorst, D.A. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 41) - 10 p.
natura 2000 - nature conservation - environmental policy - germany - denmark - england - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - duitsland - denemarken - engeland
Since 2013, involving society in nature conservation has become an explicit ambition of the Dutch government. As neighbouring countries of the Netherlands have similar ambitions, this research reviewed the policies in these countries and the experiences gained in three study areas: Exmoor National Park (England); Naturpark Aukrug (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) and Lille Vildmose (Denmark). The research shows that early engagement of local stakeholders, a motivating narrative, equality in cooperation, flexibility of subsidies and presence of local brokers are important elements of successful governance aimed at involving society.
Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51 p.
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Joined spray drift curves for boom sprayers in The Netherlands and Germany
Zande, J.C. van de; Rautmann, D. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems (Report / Plant Research International 526) - 82
gewasbescherming - eu regelingen - nederland - duitsland - landbouwwerktuigen - spuitapparatuur - bodemoppervlakbespuiting - spuitstukken - gegevensanalyse - drift - plant protection - eu regulations - netherlands - germany - farm machinery - spraying equipment - ground surface spraying - nozzles - data analysis
This report gives a summary of the outcome of the analyses of the spray drift data for boom sprayers from Germany and The Netherlands.
Editorial: The governance of adaptation to climate change as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenge: a European comparative perspective
Dewulf, A.R.P.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 1 - 8.
klimaatadaptatie - hoogwaterbeheersing - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - duitsland - zweden - climate adaptation - flood control - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - flanders - germany - sweden - environmental-policy integration - framework
There is increasing recognition of the need for society to adapt to the impacts of climate change, especially in the water sector. Adaptation to climatic impacts involves both infrastructural adjustments, such as reinforcing dykes or creating water storage capacity, and broader processes of societal change, such as adjusting land use planning, more efficient water use or agricultural transitions. The aim of this special issue is not to ‘assess’ the current state of play for adaptation strategies and policies in Europe. Our interest is in the many facets of the governance of climate change adaptation, referring to the interactions and arrangements between public and/or private actors that are aimed at purposefully steering collective issues of adaptation to climate change.
Handling adaptation policy choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands
Massey, E. ; Huitema, D. ; Garrelts, H. ; Grecksch, K. ; Mees, H. ; Rayner, T. ; Storbjörk, S. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Winges, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 9 - 24.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - milieubeleid - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - zweden - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - nederland - climate adaptation - regional planning - environmental policy - international comparisons - sweden - germany - uk - netherlands - climate-change adaptation - european-union - scales - interplay
Attention is increasing in academia towards the governance of adaptation, specifically how state and non-state actors are defining the adaptation ‘problematique’ and crafting public policies to address it. Adaptation is the ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’. The challenge for governments is taking this rather vague concept and turning it into viable and implementable public policies. This implies that they have to make choices as to the types of polices to create, the sectors they should cover, ministerial jurisdictions and funding. This article contributes to the discussion on the adaptation governance by presenting a conceptual framework that outlines policy choices governors need to make, by applying this framework to a number of countries, and starting the debate on which choice or choices were particularly instrumental in shaping adaptation policy in particular countries as a whole. It focuses on four countries traditionally seen to be adaptation leaders: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Buuren, A. van; Knieling, J. ; Gottschick, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 89 - 103.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - onderzoeksbeleid - nederland - duitsland - climate adaptation - regional planning - international comparisons - research policy - netherlands - germany - policy - context
Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collaborative action research (CAR) programmes for the governance of adaptation to climate change. Despite the collaborative designs, the initial enthusiasm, the available resources and the many positive outcomes, both programmes encountered several stubborn difficulties. By comparing both programmes, this paper explores the difficulties researchers encounter, analyses the underlying mechanisms and presents some lessons. It found that many difficulties are related to the tensions that exist between the assumptions underlying the new collaborative trajectories and the logics of the existing policy and research institutions. These institutional misfits are decisive to explain ultimate difficulties and successes. Furthermore, the paper concludes that risk aversion, stereotyping and scale fixation strengthen institutional misfits; and that these misfits persist due to lacking bridging capabilities. We suggest some lessons that can help to resolve the difficulties and reconcile CAR into existing institutions: organize the knowledge arrangement as a collaborative process; construct boundary objects as focal point for collaboration; and invest in bridging capabilities. Key words | action research, climate change, governance, institutions, science–policy interface
Modelling of adaptation to climate change and decision-makers behaviours for the Veluwe forest area in the Netherlands
Yousefpour, R. ; Didion, M.P. ; Jacobsen, J.B. ; Meilby, H. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Thorsen, B.J. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 54 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 1 - 10.
management - uncertainty - future - dynamics - germany - belief - face
We apply Bayesian updating theory to model how decision-makers may gradually learn about climate change and make use of this information in making adaptive forest management decisions. We develop modelling steps to i) simulate observation of a multi-dimensional climate system, ii) apply updating rules for beliefs about climate trends, iii) evaluate the performance of adaptive strategies, and iv) apply (i)–(iii) at the local and forest landscape scale to find and compare individual versus joint adaptive decisions. We search for optimal forest management decisions maximizing total biomass production as a measure of management performance. The results illustrate the benefits of updating beliefs to eventually utilize the positive effects and limit negative impacts of climate change on forest biomass production. We find that adaptive decision-making results in switching decisions over time and mostly differ from deterministic decisions ignoring any change in climate. Moreover, we find that the adaptation strategies are indispensable not only because of climate change but also because of the development of the forest biological system over time and the need to revisit decisions.
Discards Sampling of the Dutch and German Brown shrimp fisheries in 2009 - 2012
Steenbergen, J. ; Ullewelt, J. ; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Nijman, R.R. ; Panten, K. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van - \ 2015
IJmuiden : Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO report / Stichting DLO, Centre for Fisheries Research (CVO) 15.003) - 40
garnalen - discards - visserijbeheer - eu regelingen - monitoring - gegevens verzamelen - nederland - duitsland - shrimps - fishery management - eu regulations - data collection - netherlands - germany
In the European Union the collection of discard data is enforced trough the Data Collection Regulation or Framework (DCF) of the European Commission (EC). To comply with this ruling, shrimp trawlers have been monitored since 2008 for the Netherlands and since 2006 for Germany. This report presents the information of both sampling programmes from 2009 to 2012. The initiative to describe the methods and results of the monitoring of brown shrimp fisheries in a joint report anticipates on the harmonised regional sampling of commercial fisheries as described in the DCF.
Dark green electricity comes from the sea: Capitalizing on ecological merits of offshore wind power?
Toonen, H.M. ; Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2015
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015). - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 1023 - 1033.
sustainable fisheries - energy - policy - farms - governance - management - strategies - responses - impacts - germany
European consumers are willing to pay more for “green” electricity, as they highly value renewable energy sources for the contribution to combating climate change. There is a push for getting higher levels of sustainability, leading to a differentiation of Europe‘s electricity market. In this differentiation, the large potential of wind energy is recognized. More specifically, North Sea countries prefer to plan wind arrays (far) out at sea. This article offers a review of the main arguments for offshore wind energy, described in comparison with its onshore counterpart. It is stated that offshore wind farms (OWFs) generate “dark green” electricity as they mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the protection of (some) marine life. Applying an informational governance framework, this article further assesses whether this dark green message has been exploited through further differentiation of the electricity market, and provides an analysis of why this is not (yet) the case. It is concluded that the dominant discourse in onshore wind power development hinders a favorable ecological differentiation toward offshore wind power.
De agrarische handel van Nederland in 2014. Factsheet
Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 8
agrarische economie - import - export - handelsstatistieken - agrarische handel - nederland - duitsland - agricultural economics - imports - exports - trade statistics - agricultural trade - netherlands - germany
De Nederlandse agrarische handel had het in 2014 moeilijker dan in voorgaande jaren. In 2012 en 2013 was er nog een sterke toename in de export van agrarische producten. Voor 2014 wordt er slechts een kleine plus geraamd. Bij de import van agrarische producten is in 2014 zelfs een teruggang. Deze teruggang is vooral veroorzaakt door een lagere import waarde bij granen, oliehoudende zaden en vruchten en dierlijke en plantaardige oliën en vetten. Doordat de agrarische exporten licht stijgen en de agrarische importen dalen, is er ook in 2014, net als in 2013, weer een toename van het agrarisch handelssaldo.
Trends in Soil, Sediment and Groundwater Quality Management
Rijnaarts, H. ; Weiss, H. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 485-486 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 701 - 704.
site - germany
Soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment systems play an important role in quality of life. The harmful effects of chemical pollution of such systems have been a concern for politicians, the public and scientists for decades. More than half a century of experience in soil and groundwater quality management gives the opportunity to abstract some interesting trends in societal responses, and how these relate to cost effective research and management approaches.
Strong and weak family ties revisited: reconsidering European family structures from a network perspective.
Mönkediek, B. ; Bras, H. - \ 2014
The History of the Family 19 (2014)2. - ISSN 1081-602X - p. 235 - 259.
western-europe - household - fertility - attitudes - kinship - bonds - loneliness - behavior - germany - support
Family systems appear to be an important factor framing people's individual behavior. Thus far, family systems have been primarily addressed on a macro regional level with indirect measures. Revisiting Reher (1998) and the family ties criterion, the main question of this paper is to examine to what extent we perceive family structures differently in Europe by taking direct measures of the structures of people's broader social networks into consideration. Based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we derived two indicators of family regimes based on individual-level data regarding the density of ego social networks: contact frequency and geographic proximity among network members. We aggregated these data and mapped them on the NUTS 2 level regions for various locations in Europe. The results of our analyses exhibit that, based on these two network indicators, significant differences in family structures between European regions exist. These results confirm the classification of strong family Southern and comparatively weaker family Northern European regions to a large extent, though substantial regional differences in and between countries are also revealed. Our findings demonstrate that the classification of European regions largely depends on which indicator of network density we consider. This is particularly obvious in the Eastern European regions where the classification markedly differs according to the type of network indicator. Intriguingly, social networks in Central European regions can be characterized as rather loose, often even looser than the ‘traditional’ weak ties in Scandinavia. Family regimes can, therefore, be regarded as a construct of multiple dimensions of which one dimension may be classified as weak while the other can be strong at the same time.
Distribution of anticoagulant rodenticide resistance in Rattus norvegicus in the Netherlands according to Vkorc1 mutations
Meerburg, B.G. ; Gent-Pelzer, M.P.E. van; Schoelitsz, B. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der - \ 2014
Pest Management Science 70 (2014)11. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1761 - 1766.
norway rats - tyrosine139cysteine focus - germany - westphalia - chlorophacinone - warfarin - berk. - tests - gene
BACKGROUND Rodenticide resistance to anticoagulants in Rattus norvegicus will lead to increased difficulties in combating these pest animals. Here, the authors present the results of a survey in the Netherlands where tissue samples and droppings were tested using a newly developed TaqMan PCR test for genotypic variation at codon 139 in the Vkorc1 gene associated with anticoagulant rodenticide resistance. Test results are linked to results of a questionnaire that was conducted among pest controllers. RESULTS Genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus can be encountered in many parts of the Netherlands. In 34/61 rat tails, a genotype was found that is linked to anticoagulant rodenticide resistance (56%). In droppings, 42/169 samples (25%) showed a resistance-mediating genotype. In addition, indications of a clear genetic substructure in the Netherlands were found. In some regions, only resistance-mediating genotypes were found, corroborating results from the questionnaire in which pest controllers indicated they suspected resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. CONCLUSION This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of multiple genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus in the Netherlands. As rodenticides should keep their efficacy because they are a last resort in rodent management, more studies are urgently needed that link specific genetic mutations to the efficacy of active substances. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
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