Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Evaluatie Actieplan Stalbranden 2012-2016
Bokma-Bakker, Martien ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Ellen, Hilko ; Hagen, René ; Ruijven, Charlotte van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1035) - 80
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - varkens - melkvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - stallen - brand - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - pigs - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - horses - stalls - fire - fire prevention - safety
EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats
Meloni, Daniela ; Bozzetta, Elena ; Langeveld, Jan P.M. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Andrèoletti, Olivier ; Lantier, Isabelle ; Keulen, Lucien Van; Bossers, Alex ; Pitardi, Danilo ; Nonno, Romolo ; Sklaviadis, Theodoros ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Peletto, Simone ; Colussi, Silvia ; Acutis, Pier Luigi - \ 2017
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29 (2017)2. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 232 - 236.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy - diagnosis - EU - goats - rapid tests - scrapie - sensitivity - surveillance
We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity, with the IDEXX test significantly more sensitive than the 2 Bio-Rad tests. All tests detected 100% of samples from goats with clinical scrapie, but missed 8% (IDEXX) to 33% (Bio-Rad SG) of samples from preclinical goats. Importantly, only IDEXX picked up all samples from clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected goats, whereas the other 2 rapid tests missed 15% (Bio-Rad SG) to 25% (Bio-Rad SAP). These results show that a fraction of preclinical scrapie infections are likely missed by EU surveillance, with sensitivity of detection strongly dependent on the choice of the rapid test. Moreover, a significant proportion of clinical BSE infections are underestimated by using either Bio-Rad test. Assuming that the same sensitivity on preclinical goats would also occur in BSE-infected goats, our data suggest that IDEXX is likely the most sensitive test for detecting preclinical field cases of BSE infection in goats, although with an 8% failure rate. These results raise some concerns about the reliability of current EU surveillance figures on BSE infection in goats.
Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats
Mengistu, Genet F. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579767 - 130
goats - browsing - nematode control - methane - anthelmintic properties - browse plants - ethiopia - geiten - afgrazen - nematodenbestrijding - methaan - wormdrijvende eigenschappen - graasplanten - ethiopië

The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in vitro fermentation patterns of browse species using inocula from goats and cows kept on identical dietary regime.

The preference of browse species using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy and in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG), relationships between browse species intake and chemical composition were determined in Chapter 2. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days were conducted using goats receiving a daily ration of grass hay and wheat bran, without (trial 1) or with (trial 2) the inclusion of PEG. Preference measured as the first 10 min browse DMI differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (P<0.0001). Browse with higher tannin content, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Preference appeared to be based on digestible fibre fraction, hemicellulose rather than tannin levels in the browse species.

Extracts of the 10 browse species were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Chapter 3). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was applied using H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) in a dose dependent manner with extract concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 µg/ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The role of polyphenols in the inhibition against L3 was evaluated using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). All browse extracts significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited larval exsheathment in a dose dependent manner with the dose required to inhibit 50% of the L3 (EC50) being highest in C. farinosa and lowest in E. racemosa and M. senegalensis. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone treated A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, M. angolensis, R. natalensis and D. cinerea were different (P<0.001) from the control (only PBS), indicating that larval inhibition was largely due to non-phenolic compounds. Absence of significant differences between PVPP treated E. racemosa, M. senegalensis, D. angustifolia and S. singueana, and control suggest that inhibition was mostly attributable to tannins and other polyphenols. Browse species anthelmintic property against H. contortus L3 was due to the presence of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

In vitro gas production (GP), CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of the 10 browse species were determined using PEG 6000 in Chapter 4. Proanthocyanidins (PA) were quantified using a modified HCl-butanol method and PA composition was determined by UPLC-DAD, with detection of other polyphenols by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Substrates were inoculated in buffered goat rumen fluid with or without PEG 6000 for 72 h to measure GP with head space gas sample measurements taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h for CH4. At the end of incubation, VFA, ammonia (NH3) and IVOMD were determined. Increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4 and total VFA were observed after PEG addition indicating PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis and to a lower extent also overall fermentability. Prodelphinidins were the major explaining factors for this reduction but other polyphenols like quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were also involved in CH4 reduction. The effect of PEG addition on IVOMD was variable among browse and could be due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes in the incubation residue. Proanthocyanidins were mainly responsible for the reduced in vitro fermentative activities with possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic components.

Due to unusual fermentation patterns observed in Chapter 4, a comparison was made between goat and cow inocula on in vitro gas and CH4 production and kinetics parameters as well as VFA production in Chapter 5. Leaves of A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, D. cinerea, R. natalensis, freeze-dried maize and grass silage, and a concentrate were inoculated for 72 h to measure GP, in buffered inocula from goats and cows kept on an identical feeding regime. During incubation, headspace gas samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h, and analysed for CH4 with VFA determined at the end of incubation. A triphasic and monophasic modified Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the cumulative GP and CH4 curves, respectively. Total GP and CH4 (P<0.0001), half-time for asymptotic (P<0.012) and rate (P<0.0001) of GP were higher for goat inoculum. The total VFA were higher (P<0.0001) in goats and the proportion of individual VFA differed significantly (P<0.002) between animal species. Differences between goat and cow inocula were attributable to variation in the activity and composition of the microbial population, and differences were more pronounced for fermentation of browse species than grass and maize silages.

A synthesis of the results from the four research chapters is provided in the general discussion (Chapter 6). The present work highlights the browse species characteristics which can be strategically exploited in goat production systems to improve health and feed utilization efficiency.

Preference of goats (Capra hircus L.) for tanniniferous browse species available in semi-arid areas in Ethiopia
Mengistu, G. ; Bezabih, M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2017
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 101 (2017)6. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 1286 - 1296.
Browse preference - Fibre - Intake behaviour - Phenol - Tannin - goats

The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2.5 years receiving a daily ration of grass hay (4% of body weight) and 200 g wheat bran. In trial 1, goats were offered 25 g of each browse species for a total of 30 min with intake, time spent on consumption and the number of visits to specific browse species recorded at 10-min intervals. In trial 2, the same procedure was followed except that 25 g of PEG 4000 was added to the daily wheat bran ration. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in browse species ranged from 69.0-245.5 to 159.8-560.6 g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively. Total phenols and total tannins contents ranged between 3.7-70.6 and 2.5-68.1 mg tannic acid equivalent/g DM, respectively, and condensed tannins 1.7-18.4 Abs550 nm/g DM. Preference indicators measured in the first 10 min of browse species intake differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (p <0.0001). Principal components explained 69.9% of the total variation in browse species DMI. Despite the high tannin levels, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Tannin levels at the observed browse species DMI did not determine preference, instead, preference appeared to be based on hemicellulose. Determining browse species preference is essential to exploit them to improve nutrient utilization and control parasites in goats.

Monitoring van het helingsproces van de navelstrengen van geitenlammeren
Verkaik, Jan ; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Gunnink, Henk ; Hattum, Theo van; Ouweltjes, Wijbrand - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 992) - 21
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - geiten - diergezondheid - transport - animal welfare - animal production - goats - animal health
Initiatives to reduce mutilations in EU livestock production
Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Schöne, Maria ; Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 940) - 86 p.
animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - animal sports - horses - animal ethics - animal health - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - sporten met dieren - paarden - dierethiek - diergezondheid
Research concerning slaughter without stunning of ruminants in The Netherlands
Gerritzen, M.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 417) - 32 p.
animal welfare - animal production - cattle - goats - sheep - animal health - slaughter - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - geiten - schapen - diergezondheid - slacht
Informatiedocument leefoppervlakte : relatie tussen welzijns- en milieuregelgeving
Ellen, H.H. ; Buisonje, F.E. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 849) - 27
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - nerts - konijnen - huisvesting, dieren - milieu - wetgeving - biologische landbouw - milieuwetgeving - emissie - bodemoppervlak - animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - mink - rabbits - animal housing - environment - legislation - organic farming - environmental legislation - emission - floor area
Er is een nauwe relatie tussen het leefoppervlak per dier en de emissie van ammoniak. Over het algemeen geeft meer oppervlak een hogere emissie. Vanuit welzijnsregelgeving zijn veelal minimale oppervlaktes voorgeschreven. In de stalbeschrijvingen van de Rav worden ook eisen gesteld aan de oppervlakte per dier. In dit rapport worden voor de diverse diercategorieën de eisen voor leefoppervlakte vanuit de welzijnsregelgeving vergeleken met die in de stalbeschrijvingen. Een belangrijk aspect is daarbij de definitie van het begrip leefoppervlakte.
Populatieschatting geiten op Bonaire
Lagerveld, S. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Bertuol, P. ; Davaasuren, N. ; Neijenhuis, F. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C115/15) - 48
geiten - tellingen - karteringen - bonaire - goats - censuses - surveys
Op basis van 75 lijntransecten van 500 m worden in dit verslag de eerste kwantitatieve schattingen gedaan van het geitenbestand van Bonaire. Deze transecten werden met behulp van het programma Distance 6.2 via een ‘random systematic design’ over het eiland verdeeld. Het veldonderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden in de periode 6 - 13 december 2014.
Unlocking resources in savannas: how goats and other mixed feeders overcome the negative effects of tannins
Mkhize, N.R. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Ignas Heitkonig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574274 - 110
geiten - tanninen - diervoeding - diervoedering - savannen - afgrazen - graasduur - begrazing - dierfysiologie - plantensamenstelling - afrika - goats - tannins - animal nutrition - animal feeding - savannas - browsing - grazing time - grazing - animal physiology - plant composition - africa

Abstract

This thesis contributes insights on how condensed tannins might mediate the interactions between woody plants and large herbivores in the African savannas. Current understanding in this regard is still based on data from short-term laboratory experiments, mostly with confined animals and a few correlative field studies that only explore relationships between tannin concentrations of plants with their intake. Although these experiments are a necessary first step in isolating and characterising the effects of condensed tannins, they oversimplify the complex interactions that occur between wild herbivores or livestock and plants. The challenge for research is to translate the roles of tannins in plant-herbivore interactions from controlled experiments to field conditions. The aims of this research were: to (1) investigate how condensed tannins influence foraging behaviour and growth performance of free-ranging ruminant herbivores, and (2) determine the effects of supplements on use of woody plants and intake rates of condensed tannins by free-ranging herbivores in a semi-arid savanna.

Field experiments were conducted and data collected on free-ranging goats as models for all mixed feeders that share similar characteristics with goats. Condensed tannin exposure levels to goats were experimentally increased in the field by orally dosing 15 goats with 20g condensed tannin powder extracted from a bark of tannin-rich species. To reduce tannin exposure, 15 goats were dosed with 20 g of PEG in an attempt to neutralize tannin effects, and another group of 15 goats was dosed only with water and served as a control group. Feeding behaviour of goats supplemented with a protein-rich source, an energy-rich source were compared with that of goats that were not supplemented.

The results indicated that mixed feeders exposed to high levels of condensed tannins spend more time grazing and less time browsing compared to animals with low tannin exposure. However, the findings did not support expectation for tannins to reduce overall foraging time. Therefore, it was concluded that condensed tannins do not necessarily suppress foraging, but only influence the amount of time animals spend foraging on either herbaceous or woody forage. These findings also supported hypothesis that herbivores forage in ways that minimize their intake rate of condensed tannins. Animals altered their foraging behaviour depending on the treatment groups they were allocated to, and compiled diets that indicated tannin minimization as a goal. Moreover, there was support for the notion that condensed tannins are digestibility reducers. It was clear that free-ranging animals are able to employ their behavioural adaptations to chemical defences in ways that mitigate the negative physiological effects on their presumed ultimate fitness. This thesis presents possible effects of nutrient-tannin/toxin interactions on herbivores in African savannas. In the supplementation experiment, proteins and energy equally increased browse consumption by herbivores, with a concomitant increase in tannin intake rates.

These results were explained in light of the ongoing bush encroachment in the African savannas. The expected increase in the availability of browse will probably impose a selection pressure for herbivores that can better utilise the encroaching woody plants known to be endowed with tannins and other carbon-based secondary metabolites. These results are used to generalise about the herbivore health, herbivore nutritional, and environmental benefits that are possible from managing our rangelands and herbivores in ways that increase utilization of chemically defended plants. For example, increased consumption of tannin-rich forage will not only improve nutrition, but it will also reduce internal parasite burden, and reduce bloating by ruminant herbivores while simultaneously reducing the methane emissions that lead to global warming.

Slim samenwerken met de natuur: Herbebossing op de Nederlands-Caribische Benedenwindse Eilanden
Debrot, A.O. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2015)april. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 3 - 5.
bebossing - beplantingen - vegetatie - meervoudig landgebruik - begrazing - nadelige gevolgen - geïntroduceerde soorten - geiten - caribische eilanden - afforestation - plantations - vegetation - multiple land use - grazing - adverse effects - introduced species - goats - caribbean islands
Herbebossen in een droog, zonovergoten en zout klimaat, kan dat wel? Ja, zolang je maar slim samenwerkt met de natuur. De vernietigende werking van loslopend vee op de inheemse plantengemeenschappen van droge tropische eilanden is vaak aangetoond. Het goede nieuws is dat met de juiste maatregelen de inheemse flora en fauna een behoorlijke veerkracht kunnen vertonen. Op basis van zeventien jaar ervaring en projecten op meer dan vijftien locaties wordt het hoe hieronder uit de doeken gedaan.
Vaststellen nul-situatie onverdoofd slachten van runderen en kleine herkauwers in Nederland in 2014
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Verkaik, J.C. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 395) - 25 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - geiten - schapen - diergezondheid - slacht - animal welfare - animal production - cattle - goats - sheep - animal health - slaughter
Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of Bluetongue Virus infection
Caporale, M. ; Gialleonorado, L. ; Janowicz, A. ; Wilkie, G. ; Shaw, A. ; Savini, G. ; Rijn, P.A. van; Mertens, P. ; Ventura, M. ; Palmarini, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Virology 88 (2014)18. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 10399 - 10411.
serotype 8 - culicoides-sonorensis - northern europe - british sheep - cattle - goats - ceratopogonidae - pathogenesis - replication - population
Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species, breed, age, BTV serotypes, and strains within a serotype affect the clinical course of bluetongue. Results obtained indicate that in small ruminants, there is a marked difference in the susceptibility to clinical disease induced by BTV at the host species level but less so at the breed level. No major differences in virulence were found between divergent serotypes (BTV-8 and BTV-2). However, we observed striking differences in virulence between closely related strains of the same serotype collected toward the beginning and the end of the European BTV-8 outbreak. As observed previously, differences in disease severity were also observed when animals were infected with either blood from a BTV-infected animal or from the same virus isolated in cell culture. Interestingly, with the exception of two silent mutations, full viral genome sequencing showed identical consensus sequences of the virus before and after cell culture isolation. However, deep sequencing analysis revealed a marked decrease in the genetic diversity of the viral population after passaging in mammalian cells. In contrast, passaging in Culicoides cells increased the overall number of low-frequency variants compared to virus never passaged in cell culture. Thus, Culicoides might be a source of new viral variants, and viral population diversity can be another factor influencing BTV virulence.
Knelpunten bestrijding mond- en klauwzeer en klassieke varkenspest
Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, Marcel van - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2014-022) - ISBN 9789086156818 - 37
mond- en klauwzeer - klassieke varkenspest - huisvesting, dieren - biggen - overschotten - dierenwelzijn - varkens - vleeskalveren - melkvee - schapen - geiten - ziektebestrijding - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - dierziekten - foot and mouth disease - classical swine fever - animal housing - piglets - surpluses - animal welfare - pigs - veal calves - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - disease control - animal health - animal production - animal diseases
Dit onderzoek inventariseert de belangrijkste knelpunten tijdens de uitbraakfase van Mond- en klauwzeer en Klassieke Varkenspest die voortkomen uit de geldende regelgeving en/of uit de structuur van veehouderijsectoren, en beschrijft de mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen.
Zwavelvoorziening op biologische veebedrijven
Beeckman, A. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. ; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2014
BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2014)30.
zwavel - mineraaltekorten - biologische landbouw - eiwit - zwavelmeststoffen - melkveehouderij - vleesvee - schapen - geiten - diergezondheid - sulfur - mineral deficiencies - organic farming - protein - sulfur fertilizers - dairy farming - beef cattle - sheep - goats - animal health
Door luchtverontreiniging kwam zwavel jarenlang gratis uit de lucht. Nu dit milieu­-probleem is opgelost krijgt de landbouw steeds meer te maken met zwaveltekorten. Zwavel is een essentieel element voor de vorming van verschillende aminozuren (o.a. methionine en cysteine) en daarmee van eiwit. Eiwitvorming is zowel belangrijk voor gewas als dierproductie dus zwaveltekorten komen bij beide voor.
Harmonisatie diercategorieën
Groenestein, C.M. ; Bruggen, C. van; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 16) - 36
vee - classificatie - stikstof - fosfor - dierlijke meststoffen - wetgeving - nederland - rundvee - varkens - pluimvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - ezels - livestock - classification - nitrogen - phosphorus - animal manures - legislation - netherlands - cattle - pigs - poultry - sheep - goats - horses - donkeys
Voor wettelijke regelingen, tellingen en monitoringstudies worden in Nederland verschillende indelingen gebruikt voor landbouwhuisdieren. Dat leidt soms tot verwarring en is inefficiënt, vooral omdat gegevens niet eenvoudig uitgewisseld kunnen worden en er aparte bestanden beheerd moeten worden. Op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft de Commissie van Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) een voorstel gemaakt voor een geharmoniseerde en vereenvoudigde indeling van diercategorieën, vooral voor de Uitvoeringsregeling Meststoffenwet. In het voorstel is de huidige indeling van diercategorieën van de Landbouwtelling en de Farm Structure Survey (FSS) van de Europese Commissie als uitgangspunt genomen. In totaal zijn 117 diercategorieën verdeeld over zeven hoofdcategorieën onder de loep genomen. Per hoofdcategorie is een nieuwe, vereenvoudigde indeling voorgesteld. Het resultaat is een voorstel met 60 diercategorieën van in Nederland gehouden landbouwhuisdieren. Het aantal hoofdcategorieën (7) is gelijk gebleven, maar het aantal subcategorieën is fors verminderd. De grootste veranderingen worden voorgesteld bij varkens, van de oorspronkelijke tien categorieën blijven er zes over
Fokken en scrapie resistentie bij de Toggenburger geit
Windig, Jack - \ 2014
goat keeping - goats - scrapie - dutch toggenburg - toggenburg - goat breeds - disease resistance - animal breeding - rare breeds
Paratuberculose in de melkgeitenhouderij : van literatuurscan naar innovatief onderzoek
Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Vellema, P. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Schuiling, E. ; Koets, A. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2014
paratuberculose - herkauwers - melkproducerende dieren - geiten - geitenhouderij - diergezondheid - ziektebestrijding - dierziektepreventie - paratuberculosis - ruminants - milk yielding animals - goats - goat keeping - animal health - disease control - animal disease prevention
De besmettelijke ziekte paratuberculose komt vooral voor bij herkauwers. De Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren (GD) schat dat ongeveer 80 procent van de Nederlandse commerciële melkgeitenbedrijven met de infectie te maken heeft. De ziekte kan op bedrijven tot belangrijke bedrijfseconomische schade leiden, vooral door melkproductieverlies, een verhoogde uitval en vervroegde vervanging. Beheersing van van deze aandoening om de bedrijfseconomische en de welzijnsschade terug te dringen is het doel. Het project ‘Paratuberculose in de melkgeitenhouderij’ geeft die beheersing een nieuwe impuls.
Jaarrapportage onderzoek Animal Welfare Check Points 2013
Visser, E.K. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Lourens, A. ; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Gunnink, H. ; Hindle, V.A. ; Verkaik, J.C. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Gerritzen, M.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 753) - 89
dierenwelzijn - transport - slacht - varkens - vleeskuikens - hennen - rundvee - schapen - geiten - diergezondheid - doden van dieren - dierlijke productie - protocollen - veevervoer - animal welfare - slaughter - pigs - broilers - hens - cattle - sheep - goats - animal health - killing of animals - animal production - protocols - transport of animals
Het project “Animal Welfare Check Points” heeft als doel het ontwikkelen van protocollen voor het beoordelen van het welzijn van slachtdieren tijdens het selecteren en voorbereiden op het primaire bedrijf, tijdens transport en op de slachterij. In de tweede fase van het onderzoek (2013) zijn gegevens verzameld om een idee te krijgen van de gemiddelden en spreiding van de welzijnsparameters in de praktijk. Daarnaast zijn ervaringen opgedaan met de toepassing van de protocollen in de praktijk, en waar nodig zijn protocollen verder aangescherpt.
Traditional land use and reconsideration of environmental zoning in the Hawf Protected Area, south-eastern Yemen
Slecht, E. ; Zaballos, L.G.H. ; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K. ; Scholte, P. ; Buerkert, A. - \ 2014
Journal of Arid Environments 109 (2014). - ISSN 0140-1963 - p. 92 - 102.
monsoonal fog oases - arabian peninsula - mountain pastures - genetic-structure - conservation - goats - populations - forest - kenya
The Al Hawf area at the Yemen–Oman border hosts a unique fog-derived ecosystem which, due to its high diversity of plant and animal species, merits protection. Given the area's remoteness, poor infrastructure, high population growth and limited exchanges across the Omani border, the local livelihoods strongly rely on the exploitation of natural marine and terrestrial resources. Since quantitative data on the intensity of anthropogenic pressure on the terrestrial ecosystem are lacking, the present study analysed the impact of agricultural and pastoral land use on the vegetation of the designated Hawf Protected Area (HPA). To this end structured interviews, village walks and other rural appraisal tools were combined with vegetation surveys and GPS-based monitoring of pasturing livestock herds. The loss of traditional herding systems that regulated selective management of fragile grazing grounds along the altitude gradient in the HPA, particularly for camels, the overexploitation of woody perennials for construction purposes, and the resettlement of former migrant workers are major constraints for the successful implementation of the government-designed management plan. Implementation could be improved by better taking into account the vegetation composition in the area, current and traditional grazing schemes and local people's needs for off-farm income
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