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Organizational conditions for dealing with the unknown unknown : illustrated by how a Dutch water management authority is preparing for climate change
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Brink, M.A. van den - \ 2013
Public Management Review 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1471-9037 - p. 43 - 62.
hoogwaterbeheersing - klimaatverandering - scenario planning - overheidsorganisaties - managementbenaderingen - flood control - climatic change - government organizations - management philosophies - disaster
The central question of this article is the extent to which organizations, governmental authorities in particular, are able to deal with the unknown unknown. Drawing on Weick’s work on sensemaking, we introduce seven organizational conditions that can facilitate organizations to be reliable under trying and surprising situations. We analyse the utility of this framework by analysing how a Dutch water management authority is preparing for the unknowns of climate change, which are nearly impossible to predict and thus hard to prepare for. Our assessment reveals several strengths and weaknesses and helps to develop devices to make governmental authorities more resilient.
De Bestuurlijke kaart van Nederland. Het openbaar bestuur en zijn omgeving in nationaal en internationaal perspectief (5e herz. druk)
Breeman, G.E. ; Noort, W.J. van; Rutgers, M.R. - \ 2012
Bussum : Coutinho - ISBN 9789046903063 - 240
regering - nederland - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuurskunde - bestuur - rijksoverheid - staatsorganisatie - internationale betrekkingen - government - netherlands - government organizations - public authorities - public administration - administration - central government - state organization - international relations
De bestuurlijke kaart van Nederland is een eerste kennismaking met de instituties en organisaties in en rondom het openbaar bestuur. Het boek schetst de inrichting van het openbaar bestuur op de verschillende niveaus. In de eerste hoofdstukken komen de politiek-bestuurlijke instituties op nationaal of rijksniveau aan de orde, gevolgd door de ministeries. Daarna wordt aandacht besteed aan de provincies en de gemeenten, gevolgd door een bespreking van de rechterlijke macht, het functionele bestuur en de maatschappelijke omgeving van het bestuur. Ook komt de internationale context waarbinnen het openbaar bestuur functioneert aan de orde. Daarbij ligt de nadruk op de Europese Unie, aangezien deze van grote invloed is op het functioneren van het Nederlandse openbaar bestuur. Vervolgens wordt ingegaan op mondiaal opererende instituties als de Verenigde Naties. Het boek sluit af met een overzicht van ontwikkelingen en trends in het openbaar bestuur.
Bakti Pamong Praja Papua; Di era transisi kekuasaan belanda ke Indonesia
Visser, L.E. - \ 2008
Jakarta, Indonesia : Kompas Penerbit Buku - ISBN 9789797093853 - 447
geschiedenis - politiek - verandering - regering - overheidsorganisaties - bestuur - nederland - indonesië - papoea-nieuw-guinea - politieke processen - bureaucratie - history - politics - change - government - government organizations - administration - netherlands - indonesia - papua new guinea - political processes - bureaucracy
Een unieke serie verhalen over 17 Papua-bestuurders (tuan bestir), opgeleid in de laat ‘50-er jaren en vaak werkend in afgelegen gebieden en hun contacten met de bevolking tijdens tournees. Ook aan bod komen de woelige jaren ’60, de korte UNTEA-periode, de manipulatie bij de Act of Free Choice en de integratie binnen de Indonesische eenheidsstaat. Velen van hen bleven tot aan hun pensionering in de ’90-er jaren in dienst van het Indonesisch bestuur
Bureaucratic designs : the paradox of irrigation management transfer in Indonesia
Suhardiman, D. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049067 - 281
irrigatie - waterbeheer - bedrijfsvoering - indonesië - overheidsorganisaties - overheidsbeleid - corruptie - kennisoverdracht - bureaucratie - irrigation - water management - management - indonesia - government organizations - government policy - corruption - knowledge transfer - bureaucracy
Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy has been formulated and implemented worldwide, relying on three basic assumptions: that the irrigation agency are motivated to adapt their role in the sector's development; that farmers are willing to take over the system management; and that the process of management transfer is a neutral process, involving primarily managerial and technical aspects.
This thesis illuminates the political dimensions of IMT policy. IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia was shaped by continuous power struggles at the different administrative levels. The way the IMT policy agenda was defined and redefined in respectively Irrigation Operation and Maintenance Project (IOMP) 1987 and the 1999 Water Sector Adjustment Loan (WATSAL) shows that the idea of management transfer did not always coincide with either the irrigation agency's perception or farmers' actual needs in the sector's development. Under IOMP 1987 the irrigation agency transformed IMT into a construction program. Similarly, under WATSAL, IMT was reduced as a policy instrument to eradicate bureaucratic rent-seeking within the irrigation agency. Farmers' perceptions of their position prior and after management transfer remained obscured in both IMT programs.
This study investigates the IMT policy channeling from the national down to the field level, using the seven technical irrigation systems in Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta province, as the research context for IMT implementation. It started at the national level, looking at the way IMT policy characteristics under WATSAL were shaped by the policy elites' perceptions and interests under the WATSAL Task Force (WTF). Later, when the struggle over the principles of IMT occurred in September 2003, this thesis focuses on studying strategies and manouvres used by the policy actors from the different central government ministries to influence the decision making process at the parliament. These central government ministries are the National Development Planning Agency (NDPA), the Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (Kimpraswil), and the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA). From the national level, this study moves further down to regional level, before it analyzes the actual implementation of IMT in the seven irrigation systems in Kulon Progo district, from inter-system level down to farmers' fields.
This thesis consists of nine chapters. After the introduction, chapter 2 started with the discussion of the changing characteristics of the Indonesian state. Following the fall of Suharto's government and the political reform in 1998, the concept of regional autonomy was introduced and widely applied. In practice, regional autonomy was handicapped by
inoperative fiscal decentralization. Despite their decision making authority to direct the regional development, regional governments remained dependent on fund disbursement from the central government. The central government's domination in the country's development was evident from the preservation of 'project approach' as the only structure to channel policy program from the national down to the field level. Adopted in the late 1960s, the project approach continued to serve as the country's development engine in the post Suharto Indonesia. The way IMT policy was implemented relying on project structure and mechanisms linked the organizational functioning of the Federations of Water Users Associations (FWUAs) to the bureaucratic mechanisms and procedures within the government agency.
Chapter 3 discusses how the irrigation agency's bureaucratic identity contradicts with the idea of management transfer and thus how the first assumption in IMT flaws. As IMT policy embodied the shift from infrastructure-oriented to farmer-focused irrigation development, this contradicts with the irrigation agency's interests and organizational foundation in construction and rehabilitation activities. Unlike what is assumed by the international policy makers, the irrigation agency perceived IMT as a threat that could endanger their bureaucratic position and decision making authority in the sector's development. Despite the abolition of the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) in 1999, the bureaucratic identity of the irrigation agency remained unchanged. This was evident from the way the core policy actors in the agency continued to direct the agency's organizational development following the construction-based approach. Following the abolition of the MPW, the core policy actors defended their bureaucratic position with the formation of the State Ministry of Public Works (Meneg PU) next to the newly formed Ministry of Settlement and Regional Development (Kimbangwil). Later, the core policy actors in the irrigation agency resumed their bureaucratic power with the unification of the Meneg PU and Kimbangwil into the Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (Kimpraswil)in2001.
Chapter 4 shows how the decision to transfer the management of government irrigation systems from the irrigation agency to farmers was neither rooted in farmers' opinion nor their capability in system management. Similarly, the idea of management transfer was not based on organizational performance and functioning of these farmer organizations. Rather, the shift from organizational to institutional approach in irrigation development was triggered by the overall dominance of the neo-liberal development approach and the extrapolation of farmers' capability as this was observed in the farmer managed irrigation system (FMIS) as the means to solve the persistent poor performance of government irrigation system. Using the evolution of IMT policy in Indonesia, this thesis illustrates how the manifestation of IMT policy as the new international policy trend in irrigation management was rooted primarily in the international donors' concern of their earlier investments in the sector's development, and thus failed to focus on the actual management problems encountered by the irrigation agency and farmers. Despite the strong focus on farmers in IMT policy, the policy formulation was based primarily on the international policy makers' perception on how farmers' role in system management
could contribute to a better system performance. The way fanners perceived their own role in the overall system management remained obscured.
The way the process of management transfer is shaped by continuous power struggles is illustrated in respectively chapter 5, 6, 7 and 8. In chapter 5, the way IMT policy formulation was shaped by hidden policy agenda illuminates the policy political dimension. Using the evolution of IMT from the IOMP 1987 to the 1999 WATSAL, this thesis illustrates how the idea of management transfer has always been tempered by policy elites' interests and perceptions. In both IOMP 1987 and WATSAL, IMT policy agenda was defined as the result of power struggles between the different segments within the government bureaucracy. Under IOMP 1987, the irrigation agency manoeuvred their construction-based interests by redefining and extending the scope and degree of system rehabilitation as one of the requirement for management transfer. Under WATSAL, the WATSAL Task Force hid the real implications of the Kabupaten Irrigation Improvement Fund (KIIF) concept from the irrigation agency so that they could proceed with the application of 'stimulant fund'. By shifting the access to the sectoral development funds from the agency to FWUAs, the WATSAL policy makers attempted to use the FWUAs as their grass roots weapon to counteract the irrigation agency's bureaucratic power in the sector's development.
The political aspect of management transfer became more apparent from the policy struggle over the principles of IMT which occurred in 2003. Chapter 6 illustrates how the struggle began when Kimpraswil realized the real implications of IMT under WATSAL for their bureaucratic existence. Kimpraswil strategically used the to-be promulgated Water Act at that time as its legal shield to redirect the development path in the irrigation sector, towards recentralization. Despite strong attempts made by both the National Development Planning Agency (NDPA) and the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) to counteract Kimpraswil's position on IMT, the WATSAL IMT program was halted following the promulgation of the new Water Act in February 2004. With the promulgation of the new Water Act in February 2004, Kimpraswil center staged its bureaucratic power and its decision making authority in directing the irrigation sector development. Kimpraswil's successful attempt to limit farmers' involvement at the tertiary level was linked to their ability to steer and direct parliament members' decision on the scope and degree of management transfer as this was incorporated in the Water Act Number 7 of 2004. As the government agency responsible for the sector's development, Kimpraswil had better access and resources to influence the parliamentary decision making process than any other government agencies.
In chapter 7 and 8, the way the district irrigation agency directed the FWUAs organizational development towards their bureaucratic replica once again illuminates the irrigation agency's position on the idea of management transfer. Contradicting with the assumption that the irrigation agency was willing or could be forced to hand over the management responsibility to the FWUAs, in practice, the district irrigation agency remains pretty much interested to preserve their bureaucratic power by sustaining their role in irrigation system management. In the aftermath of the IMT policy struggle, the
district irrigation agency in Kulon Progo decided to continue with the WATSAL IMT program. However, this decision was rooted in the agency's ability to steer the program implementation, in such a way that IMT sustained the agency's bureaucratic power in directing the sector's development. At district level, the way the district irrigation agency contested IMT policy was evident from the way they had directed the organizational development of the FWUAs towards bureaucratization. Like the irrigation agency, FWUA staff were more concerned with the management of the stimulant fund, and the necessary administrative and technical requirements related to the fund allocation, than ensuring farmers' actual water needs. FWUA functioning was focused on FWUA staffs ability to 'pull in' as many as possible development funds under the FWUA management. Like the irrigation agency, FWUA managed the stimulant fund in accordance to their financial interests, rather than to respond to farmers' actual needs for system repairs. IMT has extended the practice of rent-seeking to FWUAs, as FWUAs' access to the stimulant fund linked them with the cycle of bureaucratic rent-seeking in the irrigation agency.
In water distribution context, IMT did not result in transferred decision making authority from the irrigation agency to the FWUAs. Even after IMT, the irrigation agency remained in charge for the inter-system level water distribution and the operation of the major irrigation infrastructure. FWUAs' role in system water distribution was limited to their ability to negotiate their water needs. FWUAs lacked any formal decision making authority to direct the system water distribution. Nevertheless, IMT reshaped the existing pattern of alliances between farmers and the irrigation agency. Unlike before, the establishment of 'spatial authority' as the result of alliances between FWUA staff and some staff in the district irrigation agency seems to diminish the centralized decision making in system management. Reacting to these new patterns of alliances, the district irrigation agency created a decision making platform to include FWUA staff in the overall water distribution arrangement at the inter-system level. The emerging patterns of alliances in water distribution formed the foundation for the establishment of polycentric decision making process in irrigation system management.
The last chapter gives concluding answers on the research questions and discusses the IMT policy paradoxes. It argues that the main reasons behind the national government's partial initiative in IMT policy formulation and implementation, as well as farmers' lack of awareness of the idea of management transfer and thus their marginal involvement in the WATSAL IMT program are rooted in the IMT policy paradoxes. The first paradox concerned the way the international donors treated the irrigation agency as government agent incapable to conduct the sector's development, and at the same time as the reform agent responsible for the sectoral reform. The second paradox in IMT policy formulation concerned how international policy makers took for granted farmers' willingness to take over the irrigation system management, as proposed in the IMT policy.
With reference to the above paradoxes, this thesis brings to light the multiple identities of international donor agencies in relation to their role as the trend setter in irrigation development as the area for further research. Similarly, future research on IMT policy
should focus on farmers' actual role and capability in irrigation system management, and how farmers perceived their position in relation to the idea of management transfer.
Finally, this thesis emphasizes the need to address the issue of bureaucratic reform within the IMT policy discourse. Apart from the irrigation agency's resistance to change, in Indonesia, the need for bureaucratic reform was recognized at both national and regional levels. The question remains on how to persuade the core policy actors in the agency that they could only sustain their bureaucratic power in the sector's development in the long term, only by allowing themselves to change and adapt to the present development needs.

'Netwerken maken boer en tuinder robuuster'
Noorduyn, L. - \ 2006
Syscope Magazine (2006)11. - p. 8 - 9.
samenwerking - landbouwbeleid - ondersteunende voorzieningen voor boerenbedrijven - projectimplementatie - overheidsorganisaties - netwerken - beleidsondersteuning - cooperation - agricultural policy - farm helper services - project implementation - government organizations - networks - policy support
Netwerken waar ondernemers bepalen wat er gebeurt. Dat is een van de instrumenten die het ministerie van LNV inzet om veranderingen in de landbouw vorm te geven. Zowel LNV als onderzoekers hebben daarbij alleen een ondersteunende taak. Netwerken zijn er dan meer om ondernemers te stimuleren dan om beleid in te voeren, zo werd duidelijk tijdens een workshop waarbij LNV-ambtenaren zich bogen over de vraag wat mogelijk is met netwerken. De LNV’ers Barto Piersma en Ton de Kok gaan hier nader op in
Dien Hoetink. 'Bij benadering'. Biografie van een landbouw-juriste in crisis- en oorlogstijd
Kamp, J.E. van - \ 2005
University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9085040531 - 393
biografieën - vrouwen - geschiedenis - crises - oorlog - nederland - kantooremployés - overheidsorganisaties - wetgeving - agrarisch recht - landbouwministeries - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - landbouw - voedselvoorziening - beleid inzake voedsel - handel - voedingsmiddelen - indonesië - duitsland - agrarische handel - politiek - nazisme - biographies - women - office workers - legislation - agriculture - agricultural law - ministries of agriculture - government organizations - government policy - agricultural policy - politics - food supply - food policy - agricultural trade - trade - foods - history - war - germany - indonesia - netherlands - nazism
Geld als water: Een onderzoek naar de strategische beleidsruimte van het Ministerie van LNV voor het combineren van natuur- en waterinvesteringen
Vogelzang, T.A. ; Enserink, B. ; Bavel, M.A.H.J. van; Dicke, W.M. ; Kamps, D.P. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2004
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 3, Natuurlijke hulpbronnen en milieu ) - ISBN 9052429014 - 56
waterbeheer - ruimtelijke ordening - natuurbescherming - overheidsbeleid - investering - hoogwaterbeheersing - wateropslag - ecologie - overheidsorganisaties - waterbeleid - nederland - milieubeleid - rivieren - natuurtechniek - water management - physical planning - nature conservation - government policy - investment - flood control - water storage - ecology - government organizations - water policy - netherlands - environmental policy - rivers - ecological engineering
In dit rapport wordt verslag gedaan van een onderzoek naar de strategische beleidsruimte van het Ministerie van LNV voor het inbrengen van haar belangen in en het zoeken van strategi-sche partners betreffende de reservering van ruimte voor natuurontwikkeling in andere beleidsarena's. Het gaat daarbij primair om de arena van het waterbeleid. Het onderzoek is opgehangen aan een tweetal concrete beleidsprojecten die momenteel in uitvoering zijn, te weten het Nationaal Bestuursakkoord Water en het project Ruimte voor de Rivier. Daarvoor is in eerste instantie het bestuurlijke en politieke krachtenveld rond deze projecten in kaart gebracht en worden de kansen en bedreigingen die beide projecten voor het Ministerie van LNV inhouden beschreven. Vervolgens wordt ingegaan op een aantal thema's en beleidsvel-den die voor natuur- en waterinvesteringen van belang zijn, waarna de mogelijke strategieën voor het Ministerie van LNV om te interveniëren in het gecombineerde natuur- en waterveld geanalyseerd worden. Het rapport sluit af met een aantal conclusies en aanbevelingen.
Ontwikkelingen in consumentenbeleving rond voedselveiligheid: twee jaar VWA: rust aan het front?
Jonge, J. de; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Frewer, L.J. ; Wit, W. de; Timmers, J.C.M. - \ 2004
Voeding Nu 6 (2004)3. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 17 - 20.
voedselveiligheid - overheidsorganisaties - voedingsinformatie - monitoring - consumenten - consumentenonderzoeken - houding van consumenten - voedselkwaliteit - kwaliteitscontroles - onderzoek - eu regelingen - food safety - government organizations - nutrition information - consumers - consumer surveys - consumer attitudes - food quality - quality controls - research - eu regulations
Welke ontwikkelingen in de consumentenbeleving rond voedselveiligheid zijn er sinds de oprichting van de Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit in de afgelopen twee jaar geweest? Een monitor voor het consumentenvertrouwen in voedselveiligheid is er in Nederland nog niet, deze is in ontwikkeling, maar er is wel een beeld te geven met hulp van gegevens uit marktonderzoeken en het Europese Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed
Women's roles in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction: Literature review and institutional analysis
Bouta, T. ; Frerks, G.E. - \ 2002
Doetinchem : Reed Elsevier Business Information BV - ISBN 905901183X
conflict - oorlog - man-vrouwrelaties - rollen (functie) - vrouwen - organisaties - overheidsorganisaties - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - geslacht (gender) - war - gender relations - roles - women - organizations - government organizations - non-governmental organizations - gender
Communicatie en interactieve beleidsvorming
Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2000
Alphen aan den Rijn : Samsom - ISBN 9789014065526 - 138
overheidsbeleid - besluitvorming - regering - bedrijfsvoering - overheid - overheidsorganisaties - politiek - participatie - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - government policy - decision making - government - management - public authorities - government organizations - politics - participation - netherlands - relations between people and state
Vaak gaat het zo: de overheid maakt volgens haar eigen inzicht en deskundigheid een plan en probeert daar via communicatie draagvlak voor te krijgen. In dit boek "Communicatie en interactieve beleidsvorming" legt Van Woerkom uit waarom een dergelijke werkwijze zelden effectief is. Het plan wordt niet geaccepteerd en in de relatie tusse overheid en burger komt (weer) een barst. Sooms laten burgers hun ongenoegen merken. Meestal reageren ze apatisch en onverschillig. Maar ook de overheid is lang niet altijd responsief, al zien we zelden nog een hooghartige reactie van de regent. Gelukkig is in de praktijk menigeen bezig om de relatie te verbeteren. Interactieve beleidsvorming wordt de norm.
Management, structuur en cultuur : over het gebruik van organisatietheorieën in Breda
Polling, J. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.C. van Dalen. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789058080967 - 251
overheidsorganisaties - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - theorie - verandering - bedrijfsvoering - overheid - plaatselijk bestuur - geschiedenis - nederland - noord-brabant - organisatie - government organizations - organizational development - organizations - theory - change - management - public authorities - local government - history - netherlands - organization

This book deals with organizational change in two different ways. One way is the historical description of several attempts to implement organizational change in one particular organization. That organization is the local civil service of Breda, a city in the southern part of the Netherlands with a history that goes back to the thirteenth century. This book covers the period of about thirty years from 1965 until 1996. In this period Breda had between 120.000 and 130.000 inhabitants and the civil service varied between 1200 and 1800 employees. The historical description focuses not only on the changes as such but also on the situation that existed when the attempts to change were undertaken (the environmental conditions). Main goal in this part of the study is to create a basis for an answer to the question: What factors or conditions were decisive for the claimed success of the changes that took place in 1992, where similar attempts at earlier dates seemed to have failed?

The other way to treat organizational change in this study is induced by the question: Which organization theory or theories were used in the reorganizations described in the historical part? In order to obtain an answer to this question it was necessary to go into the character of organizations theory - which is thought to be a body of knowledge - and into the relevancy of organizations theory for practical use - which is thought to be small. A theoretical model for research is proposed in part 2. This model is based upon three major assumptions.

guidelines and directions derived from organizations theory are insufficient to support organizational change in practice. This causes "changers" (those who initiate the desired change) to develop their own, "private" organization theory. An important part of this study is concerned with the reconstruction of those private theories.the private theories of changers are expressed one way or another in the documents used to realise the desired organizational change. In the addendum to this study quotes from the documents used are translated into "central concepts" of the changers. These central concepts are considered to be the framework of the private organization theories.organizational change is realised on one or more of three organizational dimensions: management, structure and culture. These dimensions are influenced strongly by environmental factors. Technologic possibilities available, the actual economic situation, prevailing social values and political and governmental conditions are considered to be the most important environmental conditions.

The last section of part 2 (chapter 6) gives a short analysis of the specific character of Dutch local government and public service. In the local civil service the position of the town clerk in most cities has evolved to that of city manager in the period considered.

The historical account in part 3 is subdivided into 5 chapters, the first being a short and global sketch of the history of the Netherlands since World War II in order to give a general background for the developments in Breda. Each of the other four give a description of one of the successive attempts to reorganize the civil service of Breda. In these chapters attention is also given to several problems of local policy that filled, for the most part, the political agenda.

In part 4, the model developed in part 2 is applied on documents used to realise the desired changes described in part 3. The private theories for each period are reconstructed and compared to the general organization theory existing at the time. An important aspect of this analysis is that private and general organization theory and the desired and realised organization are described in terms of the three dimensions (management, structure and culture) of the proposed referential model in part 2. Each chapter of part 4 closes with a summary of conclusions with respect to that period.

General conclusions derived from the whole study and a few suggestions for further research are gathered in part 5. The most important conclusions can be presented in the following statements.

Writers on organizations agree to a large extent on the fact that environmental conditions have a bearing on the structure and functioning of organizations. Many of them even agree on the fact that organizations theories are influenced by the economic and social forces of their time. Nevertheless proposed organization theories hardly ever try to specify the situation in which they are developed.An explanation for this lack of attention may be found in the emphasis on comparative analysis of organizational research. In comparing organizations in a specific historical period, technological economic, social and political conditions can be viewed as the same for all organizations at the time. In that case those environmental conditions have no bearing on the results of the research and need not be made explicit.Organizational change can be considered as change on the three dimensions: management, structure and culture. In the case observed in this study the same set of rather simple rules was used for creating change in each of the four successive periods on the dimensions management: (replace sitting managers) and structure (enhance line-staff relations, put together what belongs together; though criteria to do this differ from period to period; and decrease span of control).The most important motive to introduce large scale changes in the case observed, therefore, seems to be the need to change organizational culture. In the case considered, the organization started with a power oriented culture. The first attempt on change tried to implement a role oriented culture but failed for the most part as a result of the existing power structure.

The second attempt was accompanied by the wave of democratization of the late sixties and early seventies which undermined the power structure in the organization. The rather low pressure on reinforcing role relations, except for those belonging to project management, caused a major shift towards a task culture in which hardly anybody seemed to have authority. In this situation project management played a major role.

In the third attempt, under pressure of the economic recession, legitimate authority, the political power of mayor and aldermen, reinforced a strong role culture. As a result of this change the existing structural elements of project management were practically eliminated. The position of the chief executive level (the town clerk) was weak.

In the fourth attempt power shifted from the political to the chief executive level. This shift was enabled by the weak political position of mayor and aldermen and the authority bestowed on the town clerk.

Varen wij wel? : stuurmanskunst in een gebiedsgerichte aanpak; lessen en ervaringen van LNV'ers werkzaam bij regionale beleidsdirecties
Velzen, P.A.A. van; Pleijte, M. - \ 1998
Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Vertrouwelijk [achtergrond]rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 7) - 156
beleid - regering - overheidsorganisaties - landbouwministeries - nederland - platteland - policy - government - government organizations - ministries of agriculture - netherlands - rural areas
Economische en bestuurlijke evaluatie van de Bijdrageregeling innovatieprojecten
Diederen, P.J.M. ; Eeden, N. van den; Kuper, J. - \ 1998
Den Haag : LEI-DLO - ISBN 9789052424392 - 89
modernisering - innovaties - landbouw - subsidies - premies - regelingen - investering - kosten-batenanalyse - economische evaluatie - efficiëntie - waarden - prijzen - regering - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuur - nederland - bestuursrecht - modernization - innovations - agriculture - grants - regulations - investment - cost benefit analysis - economic evaluation - efficiency - values - prices - government - government organizations - public authorities - administration - netherlands - administrative law
Emancipatiebeleid vindt nog weinig weerklank bij AOC's.
Kools, Q.H. - \ 1994
Agrarisch Onderwijs 36 (1994)7. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 18 - 20.
sociale verandering - onderwijsplanning - onderwijsbeleid - agrarisch onderwijs - overheidsorganisaties - landbouwministeries - landbouw - natuurbescherming - visserij - emancipatie - social change - educational planning - educational policy - agricultural education - government organizations - ministries of agriculture - agriculture - nature conservation - fisheries - emancipation
European family policy observatory, information grid on The Netherlands 1991.
Presvelou, C. ; Hoog, C. de - \ 1992
Wageningen : Agricultural University - 131
sociologie - verwantschap - gezinnen - europese unie - economisch beleid - sociale wetgeving - sociaal beleid - economie - regering - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuur - nederland - bestuursrecht - sociology - kinship - families - european union - economic policy - social legislation - social policy - economics - government - government organizations - public authorities - administration - netherlands - administrative law
Het landbouwonderwijs en het BOVO-vierluik. Onderzoek naar samenhang landbouwkennissystemen.
Grooters, W. - \ 1992
Agrarisch Onderwijs 34 (1992)6. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 20 - 22.
landbouwindustrie - industrie - landbouw - overheidsorganisaties - landbouwministeries - natuurbescherming - visserij - agrarisch onderwijs - regering - overheidsbeleid - bedrijfsvoering - economie - voorlichting - bedrijven - organisatie van onderzoek - onderzoeksbeleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - informatiesystemen - communicatie - informatie - organisaties - instellingen - wetenschap - associaties - agribusiness - industry - agriculture - government organizations - ministries of agriculture - nature conservation - fisheries - agricultural education - government - government policy - management - economics - extension - businesses - organization of research - research policy - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - information systems - communication - information - organizations - institutions - science - associations
The political and administrative context of environmental degradation in South-India : how changes in politics and public administration determine natural resource management by inhabitants of two villages in a drought-prone area
Douma, Willy ; Kloezen, Wim ; Wolvekamp, Paul - \ 1989
Leiden : Centre for Environmental Studies - 197
meteorologie - droogte - bosbouw - woeste grond - landgebruik - bossen - relaties - ontbossing - bebossing - regering - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuur - participatie - india - bestuursrecht - meteorology - drought - forestry - waste land - land use - forests - relationships - deforestation - afforestation - government - government organizations - public authorities - administration - participation - administrative law
Besturen van besluitvormingsprocessen in het openbaar bestuur : een op de procesbenadering gebaseerd bedrijfskundig conceptueel kader
Mantz - Thijssen, E.L. - \ 1989
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.A. Kampfraath. - Soest : Mantz-Thijssen - 296
overheid - overheidsorganisaties - besluitvorming - public authorities - government organizations - decision making

The period from the sixties onwards, is characterized by an increasing attention given to decision processes concerning activities and facilities with environmental impact. Examples are decision processes concerning the location of regional or national facilities which have considerable adverse effects on the environment. Characteristic of many of these decision processes is that the number of connections that must be involved has strongly increased, as has the number of participants.

To make management of these decision processes more discussable, integrated conceptual frameworks are needed. Conceptual frameworks of this kind are, as far as is known, not yet available.

Twenty years ago, Prof. Drs. A.A. Kampfraath of the Agricultural University of Wageningen developped a management model based on the process approach. This management model has been applied in many fields since then. The model, named Wageningen management model, proves to be applicable as a frame of reference in the most various complex management situations, due to its integrated approach.

The Wageningen management model has been chosen as a starting point for this study.

Since information about the model was spread over a number of more or less recent publications, it was necessary to make a complete, consistent and up-to-date survey of the model. To make the model useful as an integral conceptual framework for management of separate decision processes, it was necessary. moreover, to adjust it to some degree. because the model is mainly focused on managerial questions concerning the implementation processes in the organization as a whole.
Making a recent survey of the model and adjusting it made up a substantial part of the study.

In the conceptual framework a distinction is made between results, processes and conditions on the one hand and management of these elements at the other hand (see figure 8.1):

Results

In most cases a chain of successive decisions will be made, previous to the actual realization such as, for instance, the construction of a road. These decisions have the character of providing a compass for the next decision in succession (a stp-by-step reduction of "the room for decision making"). Such a chain of successive decisions, resulting in a decision to actual realization, is typified as a decision-estafette of compass-providing and final decisions.

Processes which lead to the results.

From a managerial point of view, two aspects may be distinguished in the course of decision processes:
- A substantial dimension. This dimension includes the way of handling the subject matter (like "optimizing" and incremental treatment) and the nature of the various steps (like diagnosis, listing alternatives, comparing alternatives and choice).
- A decision-making technological dimension. This dimension refers to the pattern of being involved of the participants in the decision process. This can be typified by means of the phases distinguished (like pre-consultation, advising public participation and authorization) and by the way of being involved of the participants in the decision process (like authorization by óne or móre participants).

Conditions (c.q. the "bed")

Conditions refer to the affectable circumstances under the influence of which the processes take place.
Five conditions may be distinguished, namely:
- characteristics of the participants;
- organizational rules. which are represented by the set-up of the organizational structure and the procedures;
- provision of information;
- provision of knowledge;
- decision-means, which are represented by systems and technics and space-facilities.

Management

Each decision-estafette and the separate decision processes that are part of it (called the "stream" in the rest of this summary) has, from the point of view of the conceptual framework, its own management.

By definition this management is "meta" in relation to the "stream". With "meta" is meant a level of a higher logical type.

This management encompasses several kinds of decisions, namely:
- Decisions with respect to the creation and the preservation of the "bed" c.q. the conditions.
The necessity to take these decisions leads to two managerial concerns, namely:
. The strategic concern (results/means management).
This implies the care for determining the total results that has to be reached in the managed "stream", in relation to the total of conditions (the "bed") that has to be created for this;
. The conditioning concern (means management).
This implies the care for determining "which" conditions (the "bed") must be available at what time, in response to the choices made in the strategic concern;
- Decisions with respect to the utilization of the "bed" c.q. the conditions.
The necessity to take these decisions also leads to two managerial concerns, namely:
. The effectuating concern (contribution management).
This implies the care for the actual functioning of the conditions (the "bed") for the benefit of effectuating the desired contributions; The operational concern (stream management). This implies the care for determining the results, for the processes that have to be passed through for this (the "stream"), and the desired contributions to it.

Further elaboration on aspects of management has lead to the distinction between points of application and points of orientation. Points of application are those aspects of the "bed" and the "stream" that can be directly influenced. Points of orientation are those aspects of the "stream" that can only be influenced via the points of application, or that have to be taken into account.

Points of application for management can be:
- the substantial dimension of the decision process;
- the decision-making technological dimension of the decision process;
- the decision-estafette;
- the conditions (the "bed").

Points of orientation for management can be:
- the character of the substantial problems which are under discussion in the decision process; for instance a two-lane road that has to be realized;
- the level of perfection of decision making, such as the degree of feedback and the degree of tuning to other decision processes;
- "aspects" of the result, i.e. the quality of the decisions, the time required to reach the decisions and the costs; the social behaviour of and the interactions between the participants during the decision process.

For this study only those elements from the conceptual framework have been extracted which:

a. are under discussion at decision processes concerning the location of facilities which have adverse effects on the environment;
b. do refer to the situation in which one tries to "live" under the circumstances of the given conditions c.q. the .bed".

These elements are:
- management of the "stream" c.q. the fulfilment of the effectuating and the operational concern;
- three of the four points of application for management already named: the substantial dimension of decision processes; the decision-making technological dimension of decision processes and the decision-estafette;
- three of the four points of orientation for management already mentioned: the character of the substantial problems under discussion in the decision process, the level of perfection of decision making and "aspects" of the result of decision processes.

These elements are marked in figure 8.1 (with an asterisk).

With respect to this part of the conceptual framework various publications have been analysed, about:
- decision processes in general;
- decision processes with several organizations as participants and - particularly - decision processes regarding the location of facilities which have adverse effects on the environment;
- management of decision processes.

Analysis of these publications shows that the conceptual framework has a great incorporation power. By means of the conceptual framework, literature can be analysed and connected in a satisfactory way. Analysis further shows that particulary the 'substantial dimension', the 'decision-making technological dimension' and 'the level of perfection of decision making' offer a whole range of possibilities from which a choice can be made and about which a decision has to be taken.

Investigation shows that, despite the fact that there are quite a few rules and norms for decision processes in public administration. there will be considerable room for making choices concerning (elements of) the various points of application and points of orientation. This means that there will be ample scope for influencing the "stream".

It is important to emphasize that. on the basis of the conceptual framework. one should not think in terms of one "hierarchically higher" participant. who is concerned with above-mentioned management. In the first place, more participants (participants from various organizations, various departments etc.) can be engaged in management. In the second place, "A"- and "B"-participants in the managed "stream" can be engaged in management of this "stream" (see figure 8.1).

With this, the most important difference has been indicated between the process approach and the system approach, which is frequently advocated for management problems in public administration.
In the process approach the "stream" is chosen as the starting point for analysis; in the system approach systems are the starting points. The examples in the thesis show that analysis starting from systems does not give insight in (management) of separate decision processes. Moreover, the system approach has the problem of the "finiteness or infiniteness of the iteration of levels", a problem that does not occur in the process approach.

Considering the present serious environmental problems, we must realize that decision processes leading to activities and facilities which have adverse effects on the environment are managed and that this management has a strong influence on the outcome of those decision processes and consequently over the environment.

It is recommended to look at this management móre attentively than so far.

With this, attention is called to the next issues:
- it is recommended to use the process approach more frequently in management of the above-mentioned decision processes;
- it is recommended to give more attention to the management of the "stream" under the circumstances of rules and norms, that is to say, to the effectuating and the operational concern in management; with this, one has to be more aware of the many possibilities that can be taken advantage of in management of these decision processes.
There are, for instance, many possible variants with regard to the unilateral or bilateral tuning of decision processes, such as, for instance, informing participants in advance about a decision to be taken and consulting participants;
- it is important that participants (from various organizations, various departments etc.) who are involved in these decision processes are aware of the fact that they may possibly also be participants in the management of these decision processes;
- finally, it is recommended to work out the remaining elements of the conceptual framework, which have not been elaborated in this thesis.
These elements are:
. the fulfilment of the strategic and the conditioning concern;
. a fourth point of application, namely:
the conditions (the "bed") for the managed decision processes;
. a fourth point of orientation, namely:
the social behaviour of and the interactions between the participants during the managed decision processes.

During this study some epistemological problems have been explored. On the one hand, because of the need to situate the conceptual framework for this study in a larger context, on the other hand to get an impression of the problems which might arise, from an epistemological point of view at specifying and filling up/in the conceptual framework, but also when using it.

The conclusion is that the conceptual framework is situated in the paradigm of the process approach; and further, that the conceptual framework can be regarded as a conceptual model of an empirical system, or more explicitly: as a descriptive and final-normative (prescriptive) model, which demands the normative points of departure from outside the framework.

A final remark:
Although the conceptual framework based on the process approach has been applied in this thesis to management of decision processes with regard to facilities which have adverse effects on the environment, it may also be used for making management of decision processes in other fields discussable.

From planned intervention to negotiated development : the struggle of bureaucrats, farmers and traders in the Mahaweli irrigation scheme in Sri Lanka
Siriwardena, S.S.A.L. - \ 1989
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - S.l. : Siriwardena - 360
irrigatie - regering - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuur - sri lanka - bestuursrecht - irrigation - government - government organizations - public authorities - administration - administrative law
<p>This thesis examines the ways in which farmers, local officials and traders reshape the planned programme of development initiated from "above" by the Mahaweli Settlement Authority in Sri Lanka. This process of reshaping involves both individual and collective struggles aimed at realizing the goals of the three different actors at the point where planned intervention actually takes place. It therefore entails both a contest of interpretation and social interest. The dynamic and emergent character of these "struggles from below" is analyzed, taking into account the interlinkages and interactions of the three groups of actors as they deal with the new circumstances they face as a result of the introduction of new forms of development intervention.<p>A detailed analysis of the reality of ongoing local processes in Mahaweli settlements reveals that many of the assumptions made about the nature of agrarian social change, as viewed from the perspective of the intervention of public authority or powerful outside organizations, are non-valid or empirically unfounded. It is found, for example, that: a) at critical points of linkage, producers apply government policies in accordance with their own practical needs and transform them by attributing to them social meanings that were not set out in the original policy statements; b) local officials, when confronted with the struggles, negotiations and strategic actions of farmers, are forced to alter the policies and procedures of planned intervention in order for themselves to survive within these local arenas or "battle grounds" with farmers; and c) the logic of markets cannot be used to explain the interdependency and types of personalized social relations that emerge between local traders and farmers. Hence, both 'frontline' government officials and local traders are knitted into the fabric of local life, establishing and adjusting their goals in accordance with the exigencies of local pressures and interests.<p>These various complex processes of adaptation have meant that, in many ways, commoditization in the Mahaweli case has reinforced processes of peasantization rather than depeasantization. Farmers use their knowledge and social experience to devise their own livelihood strategies. In this way, the so-called "market-led" commodity economy, promoted by the penetration of merchant capital, has been re-shaped into a "farmer-led" economy, whereby farmers have incorporated traders and officials and their activities into their own livelihood strategies.
Voor de verandering : een op ervaringen gebaseerde studie naar de spanning tussen de theorie en de praktijk van het besturen
Wagemans, M.C.H. - \ 1987
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling, co-promotor(en): A.J.G.M. Bekke. - S.l. : Wagemans - 352
regering - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuur - nederland - bestuursrecht - government - government organizations - public authorities - administration - netherlands - administrative law

This study deals with the application of rational planning and decision making models to the practice of public service bureaucracies and focusses in particular on the question why application so often proves problematic. The study is based on the author's experience of introducing a rational planning model to the Agricultural Extension Service of the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.

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