Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Overheidsmaatregelen biokerosine : mogelijkheden om de vraag naar biokerosine te stimuleren en de effecten op de luchtvaart en de economie
Faber, Jasper ; Smeets, E.M.W. - \ 2017
Delft : CE Delft - 112
biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - kerosine - overheidsbeleid - stimulatie - subsidies - emissiereductie - luchttransport - biofuels - kerosene - government policy - stimulation - emission reduction - air transport
De maatregel met het grootste potentieel om CO2-emissies van de luchtvaart te verminderen is het gebruik van brandstoffen met lage emissies over de levenscyclus, zoals bijvoorbeeld geavanceerde biobrandstoffen gemaakt van residuen uit de bos- en landbouw. Om de luchtvaart te laten bijdragen aan de afname van de wereldwijde emissies is het dus wenselijk een groter aandeel alternatieve duurzame brandstoffen in de luchtvaart in te zetten. Vanwege het prijsverschil tussen fossiele kerosine en biokerosine is hier overheidsbeleid voor nodig. Het doel van deze studie is het beantwoorden van de volgende twee centrale onderzoeksvragen: 1. Met welke beleidsmaatregelen kan de Nederlandse Rijksoverheid de vraag naar en productie van biokerosine laten toenemen? 2. Wat zijn de directe en indirecte effecten van de beleidsmaatregelen?
Opiniestuk sustainable development goals : transities realiseren met duurzaam bodem - en landgebruik
Mol, G. ; Cleen, M. de; Molenaar, Co ; Keesstra, S. ; Visser, S. ; Okx, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 7
duurzame energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biogas - overheidsbeleid - klimaat - bio-energie - reststromen - hernieuwbare energie - energiebeleid - sustainable energy - biofuels - government policy - climate - bioenergy - residual streams - renewable energy - energy policy
In 2015 hebben de Verenigde Naties de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen – beter bekend als de Sustainable Development Goals of kortweg SDGs – aangenomen als de weg waarlangs ze de meest urgente problemen op het gebied van armoede, honger, maar ook onderwijs, economie, en milieu en klimaat wil aanpakken. De ambities, geformuleerd in de 17 SDGs, zijn verstrekkend en hoog. In verschillende Nederlandse beleidsdocumenten1234567 wordt daarom aangegeven dat hiervoor serieuze maatschappelijke transities nodig zijn zoals op het gebied van energie en klimaat, voedselvoorziening en circulaire economie, mobiliteit en leefbare steden. Voor veel van deze transities is duurzaam gebruik en beheer van bodem, water en land een essentieel onderdeel. Dit opiniestuk heeft als doel de rol van duurzaam bodem- en landgebruik te benadrukken en de urgentie ervan agenderen voor de maatschappelijke transities waar Nederland voor staat. En laten zien dat de maatschappelijke opgaven te complex zijn voor een sectorale aanpak. Integrale benadering en goede samenwerking tussen alle stakeholders zijn nodig om te komen tot duurzame oplossingen. Het is raadzaam hier voortvarend werk van te maken; de bodem is een traag systeem, dus 2030 – het jaar waarin de SDGs moeten zijn gerealiseerd – is al morgen.
Seed for change : the making and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia
Hassena Beko, Mohammed - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen, co-promotor(en): Bram de Jonge; Otto Hospes; Niels Louwaars. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436687 - 151
governance - agricultural policy - policy processes - agricultural sector - seed production - government policy - ethiopia - east africa - landbouwbeleid - beleidsprocessen - landbouwsector - zaadproductie - overheidsbeleid - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality seed from formal sources in Ethiopia is very limited. The current Ethiopian government has focused on agricultural development and has developed different policies both for agriculture in general and for the seed sector in particular. Following the developmental state approach, the government intensified its involvement in the seed sector to enhance agricultural development. Despite the policies and efforts of the government, a shortage of seed, a mismatch between demand and supply, the carryover of seed despite not satisfying the demand of farmers, and poor seed quality have been persistent challenges to the Ethiopian seed sector. Many studies have identified technical gaps that limit the development of the seed sector, and some of the studies have also discussed the extent to which policy responds to existing problems, and the extent to which what is in the policy documents is implemented. However, the causes of these ‘gaps’ are seldom discussed. The lack of such knowledge limits the understanding of the challenges, making it difficult to properly support the seed sector. For these reasons, this research has gone beyond the mere identification of ‘gaps’, aiming to analyse how actors and institutions influence seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia.

The goal of this research is twofold: to narrow the knowledge gap about policy making and implementation in the Ethiopian seed sector, and to contribute to the debate concerning how to make the seed sector function better. The central research question is: how did actors and institutions influence the formulation and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia from 2008 to 2016? The empirical research to answer this overall research question addresses two processes: policy making and policy implementation. These include the process of revising the 2000 Ethiopian seed law and the process of implementing direct seed marketing. By analysing these two processes, the thesis unravels how actors and associated institutions have influenced seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia. The major sources of data were interviews of actors in the seed sector, and desk research of different reports. Guided by theoretical concepts, the research used qualitative methods to generate and analyse data.

Given the complexity of societal phenomenon, several analytical lenses have been used to examine the data in this research. In order to explain how actors negotiate the content of a policy document, including defining the problem and solution, the concept of discourse analysis is used, focusing on frame, the rounds model, and the policy arena. Similarly, to explain the process of implementing the existing policy and the outcome, the concepts of multi-level perspective on transition, transition management, non-decision making, and institutional lock-in are used. While using these analytical lenses to explain seed policy making and implementation, the concept of institutions has remained a central concept.

Chapter 2 analyses the negotiation process, looking into the topics of seed sector governance and variety registration. The analysis reveals that different policy arenas provide opportunities for different actors to place their preferred policy options on the table, and to get them incorporated into the draft working document. While this is a positive step towards a deliberative policy making, the final decision is made by the executive branch of the government. Such a process can be explained by two informal institutions. These are the loose connection between the drafting arenas and the decision-making arenas, and the blurred separation of power between the executive and the legislature. At the Council of Ministers (CoM), where the critical decisions are made, the ministry presents its perspective, particularly on issues where disagreement exists between the ministry and other actors. The council uses the content of the draft and the justification of the ministry for endorsing the draft policy document. Moreover, the parliament can change the content of the draft policy document only if the ministry agrees with the change, regardless of the arguments and justifications provided by other stakeholders. Thus, the inputs of stakeholders are considered as long as the ministry agrees with the suggestions, and the policy decision remains in the hands of the ministry.

Chapter 3 presents the different frames used by different actors to describe the problem of seed quality. While government officials attribute the problem of seed quality to the lack of alignment between the seed sector governance and the regional government structure, experts and bureaucrats attribute the problem to the lack of coordination at national level. As a result, they respectively suggest the decentralization and centralization of seed sector governance. These frames are embedded in the overall interest and strategy of the actors promoting the frames. The centralization frame reflects the interest of experts and bureaucrats to have a say with regards to the seed sector. They have lost this power because of the federal structure that was established formally in 1995. On the contrary, the decentralization frame is embedded in the government’s aim to implement the constitution that established the federal structure in 1995. Despite the fact that the process of revising the seed law took about four years, these actors could not agree on either of the options or find an alternative. This shows a lack of deliberation and reflexivity during the process of revising the seed law, reflecting the fact that seed policy discussion has been part of a larger debate about (de)centralization in Ethiopia since 1991. Thus, in addition to the issue of seed quality, the frames of centralization and decentralization are shaped by the old (unitary) and the new (federal) institutions of the Ethiopian government system.

Chapter 4 focuses on the process of introducing and expanding direct seed marketing (DSM) in Ethiopia. Despite the fact that seed marketing is included in the policies on paper, the seed of major food crops is distributed through government channels resulting in inefficiency of seed distribution. The regional seed core groups introduced DSM in 2011, and by 2016 about one-third of the hybrid maize seed, the main seed marketed in Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ region (SNNPR), was sold through DSM. The presence of actors outside the seed distribution system was instrumental for introducing the concept of DSM. To start the piloting of this existing policy, the core group needed to get approval from the heads of the bureaus of agriculture (BoAs). However, such approval was not required for other new ideas, like establishing an independent regulatory body, showing how the informal institutions guide what has to be approved by bureau heads, regardless of the formal policy. In addition to the demonstrated potential of DSM to overcome the problem of seed distribution inefficiency, strategic management of the stakeholders' process was critical in expanding the area under the pilot. Many actors, including the executives, supported the expansion of DSM to many areas.

Despite the expansion of DSM, its demonstrated potential to overcome the problem of seed supply inefficiency, the support it received from the government officials, and the general policy of market-based approach, the government has not endorsed the use of DSM beyond the pilot. Chapter 5 points out that the government excluded the issue of seed marketing from the seed regulation enacted in 2016, showing that the government has no intention to make seed marketing one of the seed delivery channels in the near future. The major reasons for this are: bureaucrats do not want to contribute to the decision making of DSM because they assume that the government has a strong political interest to remain in seed distribution; bureaucrats need the seed distribution system to achieve the targets set by the government; there is a symbiotic relationship between actors, the extension service as well as seed producers, and the seed distribution system, and so actors want to maintain the distribution system Such institutionalized thinking and practices have created an institutional lock-in that prevents bureaucrats from presenting the recommendation to government officials, thereby leading to non-decision about the future of DSM.

Chapter 6 summarizes the action of actors in affecting policy making and implementation as influenced by two conflicting sets of institutions. The first set relates to market-based thinking versus centralized planning as leading principles for economic development. Both are used as a discourse for promoting economic development and its operationalization, which are shaping how actors view and overcome the problems of the seed sector. This also explains why policies on paper are not implemented and why new initiatives are not formally endorsed. The tension between these divergent institutions has increased because of the dual use of seed by the government: the government has used the seed to both promote economic development and maintain strong political ties with farmers. The second set of conflicting institutions relates to authoritarian versus participatory decision making. On the one hand, is the government practice of authoritative decision-making, where only the input of stakeholders is considered when it fits in with the existing policy direction of the executives. On the other hand, it is common practice to organize stakeholders to contribute to policy making and implementation. The practice of considering the policy input of others only when it fits in with the policy direction of the decision-makers, creates a sense of being forced to accept, increasing the tension between how the government decides and the role of stakeholders.

Given the tension between the conflicting institutions, and circumstances in Ethiopia, this research suggested that choosing one approach over the other will not guarantee the development of the seed sector. There is no guarantee that the outcome of a deliberative policy making process will be a different policy option than the one opted for by one of the actors. However, the co-development of a solution for the shared seed sector problem will guarantee better ownership and thus better implementation than an imposed policy. It is also important to note that deliberative policy making and implementation is not an easy task given the current stakeholders’ landscape and the culture of authoritative decision making. Thus, the change towards deliberative policy making and implementation is not something that emerges overnight: it is a process that matures over time. This calls for the strategic management of a process of change that leads to the transformation of the seed sector into a self-reliant and resilient sector. By identifying the underlying institutions behind the challenges of the seed sector and suggesting options for improvement, this thesis contributes to the debate on how to make the seed sector function better. At a higher level, it also contributes to the debate on policy making and implementation processes in Ethiopia.

Green deals : van ruimte maken naar richting geven
Ganzevles, Jurgen ; Oorschot, Mark van; Potting, J.M.B. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. - \ 2017
Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals (2017)juni. - p. 35 - 39.
overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - overeenkomsten - emissiereductie - samenwerking - evaluatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - government policy - environmental policy - agreements - emission reduction - cooperation - evaluation - sustainable development
Green Deals zijn vrijwillige afspraken tussen de Rijksoverheid en maatschappelijke partijen om innovatie en verduurzaming te bevorderen. Met deze aanpak geeft de overheid ruimte aan vernieuwing vanuit de maatschappij. Maar wat leveren Green Deals nu eigenlijk op? Partijen blijken warm te lopen voor samenwerking en vernieuwing. Maar wat mist is het vooraf goed doordenken van de ver wachte milieuwinst en het moni- toren er van tijdens de uitvoering van deals. Door meer richting te geven, zowel aan het begin als aan het einde van individuele deals, kan de Rijksoverheid bevorderen dat de Green Deals verder bijdragen aan maatschappelijke doelen.
D3.3: Good practice guidelines for stakeholder and citizen participation in bioeconomy strategies
Davies, Sara ; Ribeiro, Barbara ; Millar, Kate ; Miller, Stephen ; Vironen, Heidi ; Charles, David ; Griestop, Laura ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Kiresiewa, Zoritza ; Hoes, A.C. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Bianchini, Chiara - \ 2016
EU - 35 p.
biobased economy - government policy - public participation - case studies - decision making - multi-stakeholder processes - overheidsbeleid - publieke participatie - gevalsanalyse - besluitvorming - multi-stakeholder processen
This document has been developed as part of Work Package 3 of the BioSTEP project, which has examined current participatory practices, involving both stakeholders and citizens, in bioeconomy strategies in six case studies, namely: Two case studies at national level (Finland and Germany); Four case studies at regional level (Bio-based Delta in the Netherlands, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, Scotland in the United Kingdom, and the Veneto in Italy). Key documentary sources include international and national practice-based literature on stakeholder and public engagement, as well as other BioSTEP publications. Two earlier reports (Charles et al., 2016; Davies et al., 2016) provide a detailed overview of participation in these six case studies of national and regional bioeconomy strategies. Building on this work, as well as on a review of existing research on stakeholder and citizen engagement in the bioeconomy, this document sets out guidance and suggestions for designing and undertaking engagement with stakeholders and citizens in relation to national and regional bioeconomy strategies.
Nationale parken in transitie : governance-implicaties van een veranderend beleidskader
Pleijte, M. ; During, R. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 47) - 8 p.
nationale parken - natuurbeleid - decentralisatie - overheidsbeleid - provincies - regionaal beleid - nederland - national parks - nature conservation policy - decentralization - government policy - provinces - regional policy - netherlands
De nationale parken verkeren in een transitie. Met de decentralisatie van het natuurbeleid heeft het Rijksinds januari 2013 veel Rijkstaken voor nationale parken laten vallen. Het Rijk is alleen nog verantwoordelijkom nationale parken in te stellen en te begrenzen. Provincies konden zelf beslissen of zij die vervallenRijkstaken al dan niet overnamen. Hierdoor is onduidelijk geworden wie nu verantwoordelijk is voor denationale parken en waar ze hun middelen vandaan moeten halen. Dit heeft geleid tot een zoektocht naarregionale inbedding en nieuwe financieringsvormen. Daarbij zijn grote verschillen ontstaan tussen nationaleparken. Het merendeel van de nationale parkorganisaties is hierdoor bezig met overleven.
Het stimuleren van ondernemen met natuur: handelingsopties voor de overheid
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 83) - 90
natuur - ondernemingen - regering - overheidsbeleid - ondernemerschap - milieueconomie - nature - enterprises - government - government policy - entrepreneurship - environmental economics
De Rijksnatuurvisie wil ondernemers meer betrekken bij natuur. De ambitie is dat natuur altijd meegenomen wordt inhandelingen en beslissingen, ook van ondernemers. Dit wordt ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ genoemd. De vraag diecentraal staat in dit rapport is welke beleidsmaatregelen genomen kunnen worden om natuurinclusief ondernemen(verder) te stimuleren. Het antwoord op deze vraag wordt mede bepaald door de wisselwerking tussen publieke enprivate taken en verantwoordelijkheden voor natuur. Een tweede vraag is: in welke mate worden de kosten vannatuurinclusief ondernemen gedragen door de private sector en in welke mate door de publieke sector? Op basis vanvijftien interviews met personen uit het veld kwamen een aantal aandachtspunten en behoeften naar voren die vanbelang blijken voor het verder uitrollen van het concept ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’. Zo is er behoefte aan duidelijkafgebakende experimenteerruimte om ondernemers het belang en de toepassing van natuurinclusief ondernemen telaten ervaren. Er leeft een gevoel van willekeur door verschillen in (lengte van) procedures tussen gemeenten enprovincies. Verder wordt een intermediair zoals voorheen de Dienst Landelijk Gebied wordt gemist voorgrondaanwerving, inrichting en voorfinanciering. Daarnaast is behoefte aan (ecologische) kennis bij ondernemers enaan ‘oplossingen’ voor de hoge grondprijs die natuurinclusieve landbouw belemmeren, en er werd gewezen op hetbelang van een gebiedsgerichte aanpak. En tot slot: natuurinclusief ondernemen impliceert vaak multifunctioneelgrondgebruik, maar dit stuit nogal eens op wetgeving gericht op bescherming van natuur. Hoewel aan de term‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ het private belang ten grondslag ligt, blijkt een overheidsrol nog altijd onontbeerlijkhierbij. Zo wordt natuurinclusief ondernemen deels betaald met publiek geld, bijvoorbeeld via subsidies en fiscalevrijstelling. Ook al blijkt uit dit onderzoek de behoefte aan een overheidsrol, tegelijkertijd is duidelijkheid vereist.Wanneer kan natuur privaat opgepakt worden, en wanneer moet het publiek ondersteund worden? Een nieuwevenwicht tussen publieke en private inbreng bij beheer en behoud van natuur is nog niet gevonden---In its policy vision on nature, ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014), the government calls on entrepreneurs to take agreater interest in nature. The government’s ambition is for nature to be taken into account in all actions and decisions,including those by entrepreneurs. This is called ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’. The key research question in this report iswhich policy measures can be introduced to stimulate nature-inclusive enterprise. The answer to this question isdetermined in part by the interplay between public and private tasks and responsibilities for nature. A second questionis how the costs of nature-inclusive enterprise should be divided between the private and public sectors. Interviews with15 stakeholders revealed a number of issues and requirements that would help to roll out the concept of ‘natureinclusiveenterprise’ further. For example, there is a need for room to experiment, within clearly defined limits, to allowentrepreneurs to experience the value of nature-inclusive enterprise and how it can be put into practice. There is afeeling that the situation is somewhat arbitrary at the moment because of differences in the procedures, particularlytheir length, between municipalities and provinces. For land acquisition, landscape works and prefinancing, therespondents felt the need for an intermediary organisation like the former Government Service for Land and WaterManagement (DLG). In addition, entrepreneurs are in need of ecological expertise as well as ‘solutions’ to the high priceof land, which frustrates nature-inclusive farming. The importance of an area-based approach was also raised. Finally,nature-inclusive enterprise often implies multifunctional land use, but this tends to conflict with the nature conservationlegislation, which is geared more to protection. Although the term ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’ reflects the underlyingprivate sector interest, government still has an essential role to play. For one thing, nature-inclusive enterprise is stillpartly financed with public money, for example via grants and tax exemptions. The study also indicates that while thisgovernment intervention is welcomed, there is also a desire for certainty. When can nature be integrated into thebusiness case and when should it be supported by the public sector? A new balance between public and privateinvolvement in nature conservation has not yet been found.
Rijksprojecten: hét natuurinclusieve werken? : een analyse van relaties tussen rijksprojecten en de Rijksnatuurvisie
Pleijte, M. ; Beunen, R. ; During, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 82) - 116
infrastructuur - natuurbeleid - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - projecten - landbouw - nederland - infrastructure - nature conservation policy - environmental policy - government policy - projects - agriculture - netherlands
In de Rijksnatuurvisie ‘Natuurlijk Verder’ zijn de concepten natuurcombinaties en natuurinclusiefgeïntroduceerd. In deze studie is nagegaan of rijksoverheden in rijksprojecten zelf met natuurcombinaties ennatuurinclusief werken en welke mogelijkheden er zijn om deze manier van werken te versterken. Om hetonderzoek uit te voeren, is gebruik gemaakt van inzichten uit Evolutionary Governance Theory. Dit is eentheoretisch kader om de co-evolutie van discoursen, actoren en institutionele kaders te analyseren. Voor vierbeleidsvelden, te weten windenergie, landbouw, water en infrastructuur is nagegaan hoe rijksoverhedenwerken. Het onderzoek laat zien dat de begrippen natuurinclusief werken en natuurcombinaties steeds meeraandacht krijgen in het beleid en de programma’s en projecten van de Rijksoverheid. Vooralsnog lijktnatuurinclusief werken nog meer uitzondering dan regel.---The government vision ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014) introduced the policy concepts of naturecombinations and the nature-inclusive approach. This study investigates whether national governmentagencies implement these strategies in national projects and what possibilities exist to strengthen this wayof working. The researchers made use of ideas from Evolutionary Governance Theory, a theoreticalframework for analysing the coevolution of discourses, actors and institutional frameworks. The workingmethods employed by national government agencies were investigated in four policy areas: wind energy,agriculture, water management and infrastructure. The study shows that nature-inclusive working andnature combinations are gradually being adopted in national government policies, programmes and projects,but that so far nature-inclusive working has been more the exception than the rule.
Quick scan of implementation actions for sustainable forest management in The Netherlands
Hendriks, C.M.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 33 p.
forest administration - international cooperation - government policy - forest policy - sustainable development - biobased economy - bosbeheer - internationale samenwerking - overheidsbeleid - bosbeleid - duurzame ontwikkeling
Duurzaam bosbeheer (Sustainable Forest Management: SFM) is van groot belang voor de duurzame instandhouding van het bosareaal met de bijbehorende biodiversiteit en ecosysteem diensten zoals hout productie, opslag van koolstof en recreatie. Voor de bescherming van bossen en functies zijn in diverse internationale fora afspraken gemaakt over SFM. Nederlandse regering heeft de afspraken om SFM te stimuleren in het kader van deze fora onderschreven en uitgewerkt in het beleid. Vanwege de vele verdragen, programma’s en afspraken ontbreekt momenteel een overzicht van acties die in Nederland daadwerkelijk invulling geven aan (internationale) afspraken over SFM . Om te kunnen verantwoorden hoe Nederland zijn internationale afspraken heeft geïmplementeerd hebben beleidsmakers bij de rijksoverheid behoefte aan meer inzicht in het aantal en het soort implementatieacties met betrekking tot SFM van de Nederlandse bossen . In deze studie wordt met een quick scan een globaal overzicht gegeven van implementatie acties waarmee de Nederlandse Rijksoverheid invulling geeft aan de internationale afspraken voor SFM in het Forest Europe - proces met betrekking tot bossen en bosbeheer in Nederland .
National level maternal health decisions : towards an understanding of health policy agenda setting and formulation in Ghana
Koduah, A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk; I.A. Agyepong. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578951 - 180
family planning - reproductive health - health policy - ghana - government policy - primary health care - gezinsplanning - reproductieve gezondheid - gezondheidsbeleid - overheidsbeleid - eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg

Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5, Ghana still have high mortality rates. At national level, policy decision makers to improve maternal outcomes have over the years developed several public policies to increase financial and geographical access to maternal care; space child birth; provide essential obstetric care; expand midwifery coverage; make equipment available and many more.

The problem of maternal mortality persist and this raises the question of what essentially goes into public policy making given the failure to achieve targets despite several maternal health policies developed for implementation. This thesis thus aims to advance our understanding of who makes maternal health policies and the agenda setting and formulation decision making processes through which they operate, in Ghana; and out of these understanding present potential lessons for policy actors to engage in making better informed policy decisions to improve maternal health.

To understand factors and processes that influence national level maternal policy agenda and formulation decisions; we conceptualised that maternal policy decision making is predominately influenced by how policy actors within specific context use their power sources to define issues and frame accompanying course of action. The main research questions are:

Which policy actors have been involved in maternal health policy agenda setting and formulation and what roles did they play and why?What are the decision making processes related to maternal health policy agenda setting and formulation?How did contextual factors influenced maternal health policy agenda setting and formulation and why?How did policy actors define maternal health issues and why?

To investigate maternal policy agenda setting and formulation decision making in-depth, a multiple case study design with qualitative methods of data collection was used. The case study approach allowed me to look at maternal health policy decisions not merely as inputs and outputs but to better understand within context the processes and policy actors involved. Field work in the Ghanaian health sector, through observation and participation in the work of the Ministry of Health, steered the selection of the cases. Four cases: maternal (antenatal, delivery, and postnatal) fee exemption policy decisions, health sector programme of work maternal health policy decisions, free family planning as part of NHIS policy decision, and primary care maternal health service capitation policy decisions were investigated.

The field work was conducted between May 2012 and August 2014. Multiple data collection methods including document review, interviews and observations were used to collect historical and current information and contribute to the validity and reliability of the research findings. Data were analysed drawing on an analytical framework in which concepts of organizational power, context, policy actors and problem definition were central elements.

Case 1

Historical and contemporary fee exemption policies for maternal (antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal) health services were explored. Specifically we ask: How have maternal user fee exemption policies evolved in Ghana since independence? Which actors have been involved in the policy agenda setting and formulation and why? What contextual factors influenced the process over time, how and why? Nine specific policies were identified along the pathway as, the policies evolved from user fee exemptions to national health insurance premium exemption. The policy was first introduced in 1963 and has remained on the government agenda over four and over decades in a fluid process of ebbs and flows rather than in a static fixed form. Contextual factors and various policy actors were the major influencers of the ebbs and flows. Contextual factors that influenced the ebbs and flows were: political such as Nkrumah’s ideology of free access to health care and education, changes in government, and presidential election year; economic crises and development partners’ austerity measures; worsening health and demographic indicators; historical events; social unrest; and international agendas such as the MDGs. These contextual factors served as a source of power for policy actors to sustain maternal fee exemption agenda over time. The case study showed that various categories of policy influencers (policy agenda advisers and advocates) and final decision makers (policy agenda directors and approvers) operated within these interrelated contextual factors, which sometimes worked as constraints and sometimes opened opportunities. These contextual factors shaped the timely manner in which policy content was formulated and level of deviation from the intended agenda at each specific decision period. For instance, contextual factors such as declined health budget allocation and high maternal mortality presented the ministry of health bureaucrats with an option to formulate the policy content in a less timely manner and away from the intended agenda of 1997 free maternal care presidential directive. Whilst, within the context of austerity measure and Ghana poverty reduction strategy, maternal fee exemption policy for four deprived regions was formulated in a timely manner and closely linked to the poverty strategy.

Case 2

The case explored how and why maternal health policy and programme agenda items appeared and evolved in the framework of the Ghanaian health sector programme of work agenda between 2002 and 2012. Our specific research questions were: Which maternal health policies were prioritised? How did they evolve on the agenda and why? We examined decision maker’s problem definition and decision making processes, theorizing that a policy or programme’s appearance and fate on the POW agenda is predominantly influenced by how decision makers use their source of power to define problems and frame their policy narratives and accompanying course of actions.

Ministry of health bureaucrats and donors used their power sources as negotiation tools to frame maternal health issues and design maternal health policies and programmes within the framework of the national health sector programme of work. The power sources identified included legal and structural authority; access to authority by way of political influence; control over and access to resources (mainly financial); access to evidence in the form of health sector performance reviews and demographic health surveys; and knowledge of national plans such as Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. Bureaucrats and donors used their power sources to define, frame and label issues for attention making some policies such as family planning long term fixtures on the agenda. They used labels such as ‘inadequate obstetric care’, ‘family planning unmet needs’, ‘maternal health a poverty issue’, and ‘poor maternal health a national emergency’ – for actions and to ensure the continuous flow of donor and government funding.

Case 3

The case investigated how and why ‘free family planning as part of the NHIS’ policy attained a position on government agenda in 2012 but has not subsequently moved into formulation and implementation in Ghana. Relying on their power sources such as access to bodies of evidence; bureaucrats, donors, reviewers and reproductive health advocates framed inadequate budgetary allocation and disbursement for family planning and exclusion of family planning services from the national health insurance benefits package - as a major challenge to family planning contribution to maternal health care; and free family planning as potential life and cost saving. Drawing on their legal and structural access to institutionalized public policy processes in Ghana, they proposed the following policy options: include family planning service in the national health insurance benefits package and increase government and donor financial support. The interests of the supporting actors were two fold to eliminate out of pocket payments for family planning service and still sustain the financial needs of the family planning programme through the National Health Insurance Scheme. A window of opportunity opened when a Minister of Health receptive to these problem definitions and policy options publically voiced support for ‘free family planning as part of the NHIS; policy and therefore pushed it high and visibly onto the public policy /government agenda. However, the policy failed to move into formulation and implementation. Factors that influenced this failure included the lack of a stronger, broad based health sector actor support and related inability to agree on and develop policy implementation guidelines; and maintain political access and interest in the issue after it was moved up the agenda.

Case 4

This case explored how and why less than three months into the implementation of a pilot prior to national scale up; primary care maternal services that were part of the basket of services in a primary care per capita national health insurance scheme provider payment system dropped off the agenda. During the agenda setting and policy formulation stages; predominantly technical policy actors within the bureaucratic arena used their expertise and authority for consensus building to get antenatal, normal delivery and postnatal services included in the primary care per capita payment system. Once policy implementation started, policy makers were faced with unanticipated resistance. Service providers, especially the private self- financing used their professional knowledge and skills, access to political and social power and street level bureaucrat power to contest and resist various aspects of the policy and its implementation arrangements – including the inclusion of primary care maternal health services. Arenas of conflict moved from the bureaucratic to the public as opposing actors presented multiple interpretations of the policy intent and implementation and gained the attention of politicians and the public. The context of intense public arena conflicts and controversy in an election year added to the high level political anxiety generated by the contestation. The President and Minister of Health responded and removed antenatal, normal delivery and postnatal care from the per capita package.

Conclusions

The general findings of the thesis are: (1) policy influencers (donors and bureaucrats) and final decision makers (Minister and President) used their power sources and contextual factors to define problems, promote their vested interest and justify actions and inactions; through technical, institutionalised, public and political decision making domains. (2) Policy influencers and final decision makers’ collective actions and inactions through interactions and power relations influenced decisions to their benefit at different levels. They used their control over and access to knowledge, authority and financial, material and human resources to push their interest and influence decisions. Therefore, this thesis concludes that the findings can serve as lessons for policy actors to strategize and make better informed policy decisions. We are in need of a health sector that pays more attention to context, power sources and power relations of final decision makers and influencers and the varied decision making domains in any maternal health policy decision.

Making a difference : boundary management in spatial governance
Westerink, Judith - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Katrien Termeer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578685 - 216
spatial analysis - governance - landscape architecture - space - space utilization - integrated spatial planning policy - landscape planning - urban planning - land use planning - land policy - government policy - netherlands - european union - ruimtelijke analyse - landschapsarchitectuur - ruimte - gebruik van ruimte - gebiedsgericht beleid - landschapsplanning - stedelijke planning - landgebruiksplanning - grondbeleid - overheidsbeleid - nederland - europese unie

In trying to influence spatial development, people engage in discussions about distinctions between places or areas, and the roles of government and society, while they need to relate to other groups of stakeholders. In other words, boundaries (between meanings of places, between government and society, and between different groups of people) are omnipresent in spatial governance. Does the peri-urban area belong to the city or to the countryside? Can nature be integrated into farming? What should be the role of governments in relation to bottom-up initiatives? And how can people collaborate in spite of their differences in background, culture and knowledge? People have devised various tools and strategies to deal with boundaries. This study investigates those boundary arrangements in practices of spatial governance, such as boundary concepts, boundary organisations and social learning. This is done by analysing a number of case studies of spatial governance practices, mainly in the Netherlands.

Chapter 1 introduces the theoretical concepts, research question and aims and the research design. The study distinguishes physical (between meanings of places), institutional (between social institutions) and social boundaries (between groups of people). Such boundaries are socially constructed, not only through their delineation, but also through their contestation and change. In other words, people take actions towards boundaries. For such actions they make use of boundary arrangements. In this thesis, boundary management is performing boundary actions by means of boundary arrangements in order to influence a governance process. The research question is: what is the role of boundary arrangements in the management of physical, social and institutional boundaries in spatial governance?

Chapter 2 analyses how the compact city concept is applied in four urban regions across Europe, how this concept yields trade-offs among dimensions of sustainability. In addition, it analyses strategies that have been developed by planners in the four regions to deal with those trade-offs. The urban – rural boundary is important in this chapter. Chapter 3 compares and analyses two overlapping and competing place concepts for peri-urban areas in The Hague Region, the Netherlands. The urban - rural boundary is central. Chapter 4 reveals discourses of collaborative planning in an urban region characterised by population growth and in a region characterised by population decline, both in the south of the Netherlands. One alternative discourse envisions a leading role for governmental actors in spatial planning, while another discourse envisions a leading role for societal actors. This chapter is mainly concerned with the boundary between government and non-government.

Chapter 5 analyses two Dutch approaches to more effective agri-environmental management: one landscape approach and one farming system approach, both with increased self-governance by farmers. This chapter is about the nature – agriculture boundary as well as the boundary between government and non-government. Chapter 6 tells the story of a collaborative project with farmers’ organisations and regional governments for a rural landscape with more landscape services. Social boundaries among different groups are important, as are the boundary between government and non-government, and the one between nature and agriculture. Chapter 7 analyses three cases in which a landscape concept supported mutual understanding and learning leading to collective action. Dealing with social boundaries in trans-disciplinary landscape planning is the main issue.

Chapter 8 answers the research question, specifies the contribution to scientific debate and provides suggestions for further research. In addition, it gives reflections on the usefulness of the theoretical lens, the research design and the role of the researcher, and specifies societal relevance of the research and policy implications. The chapter includes a typology of boundary arrangements and yields a number of insights for the study of boundaries as well as for the study of spatial governance.

D3.2: Case studies of regional bioeconomy strategies across Europe
Charles, David ; Davies, S. ; Miller, S. ; Clement, K. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Kiresiewa, Zoritza ; Kah, Stefan ; Bianchini, Chiara - \ 2016
EU - 80 p.
regional economics - regional development - economic development - biobased economy - european union - government policy - regionale economie - regionale ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - europese unie - overheidsbeleid
This report provides a summary of issues raised in the four regional case studies: Scotland, South-West Netherlands, Saxony-Anhalt and Veneto. It examines the ways in which the bioeconomy has been defined in regional strategies and the ways in which those regional strategies have been initi-ated and implemented in the four regions. Each of the regions has a distinctive approach, specialis-ing around the particular assets and strengths of the region and its core stakeholders. Typically, re-gional strategies have been developed by regional government or by stakeholder groups sponsored by those governments, and hence the main objectives have been to promote economic development through the application of developments in the bioeconomy. A primary driver of strategy development has been the need to respond to the requirements of the EU smart specialisation strategies.
Biodiversiteit werkt
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Dekker, J.N.M. ; Dijk, J. van; Dorland, Esther ; Groenewoud-Groot, M. van het; Tooren, B.F. van - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 4 - 7.
biodiversiteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kennisvalorisatie - ecosystemen - natuurbeheer - ruimtelijke ordening - overheidsbeleid - biodiversity - agricultural research - knowledge exploitation - ecosystems - nature management - physical planning - government policy
In 2010 is het Onderzoeksprogramma Biodiversiteit werkt gestart. Zoals uit de titel al spreekt, moet de vergaarde kennis een doorwerking krijgen in beleid en praktijk. Toepasbaarheid is een belangrijk aandachtspunt. In dit nummer van LANDSCHAP worden de (voorlopige) onderzoeksresultaten gepresenteerd. Tevens komen enkele stakeholders aan het woord over die toepasbaarheid en geeft NWO haar visie daarop. In deze inleiding beschrijven we de context en opzet van Biodiversiteit werkt.
Zambia kan biodiesel uit soja produceren
Drabik, Dusan - \ 2016
biodiesel - soyabeans - biofuels - government policy - zambia - developing countries - biobased economy
Rapport Honingbijen : Surveillance Programma 2014
Biesmeijer, K. ; Groot, G.A. de; Rijk, T.C. de; Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2015
Leiden : Naturalis Biodiversity Center - 16 p.
apidae - honingbijen - bijenhouderij - diergezondheid - bijenziekten - bijensterfte - varroa - overheidsbeleid - landbouwkundig onderzoek - nederland - pesticiden - milieufactoren - honey bees - beekeeping - animal health - bee diseases - bee mortality - government policy - agricultural research - netherlands - pesticides - environmental factors
Naar aanleiding van het door staatssecretaris Sharon Dijksma geïnitieerde brede-maatschappelijke overleg over de gezondheid van bijen zijn verschillende partijen in actie gekomen en is er een gezamenlijke agenda vastgesteld. Topprioriteit kreeg het vaststellen van de oorzaken voor de sterfte van honingbijenvolken in Nederland. Het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) heeft vervolgens opdracht gegeven aan een consortium onder leiding van Prof. Dr. Koos Biesmeijer van Naturalis Biodiversity Center en de Universiteit van Amsterdam om dit consortium te leiden en vorm te geven. De hoofdfinancier is EZ (51%) met Nefyto als co-financier (49%), het totale budget bedraagt maximaal 1.2 miljoen euro en het project zal lopen van 2014 tot 2018. Hoofddoel: Vaststellen van de status van de gezondheid van honingbijen in Nederland en het in kaart brengen van de risicofactoren die correleren met de wintersterfte van volken, waaronder blootstelling aan gewasbeschermings-middelen, bijenziekten, voedselaanbod, landschap en milieu, en de imkerpraktijk.
Policy instruments and modes of governance in environmental policies of the European Union : past, present and future
Bouwma, I.M. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2015
Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 60) - 42 p.
environmental policy - government policy - nature conservation - european union - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - europese unie
This report reviews the trends in EU policy instruments and governance modes. Prior to discussing these thereport provides definitions for and describes a typology for governance modes and policy instruments. Thereport identifies three major trends in policy instruments and policy modes of the EU based on the availableliterature and a quick scan of five EU environmental directives, regulations or policies (Habitats Directive,Renewable Energy Directive, Timber Regulation, Water Framework Directive & Common Agricultural Policy).The trends are: a move from strict compulsory settings to due diligence in new legislation, a move fromregulatory to networking, information based instruments and knowledge instruments and an increasingreliance on self-governance.
Het ecologisch belang van het Friese Front
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Witbaard, R. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C137/15A) - 24
bodembescherming - mariene gebieden - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - noordzee - nederland - soil conservation - marine areas - government policy - nature conservation - north sea - netherlands
Weinig verdriet bij afscheid rijkslandschapsbeleid
Dirkx, G.H.P. - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 32 (2015)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 189 - 193.
Rijkslandschapsbeleid, - landscape management - government policy - deregulation - regional policy - physical planning - provinces - national landscapes - landschapsbeheer - overheidsbeleid - deregulering - regionaal beleid - ruimtelijke ordening - provincies - nationale landschappen
Met de Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en Ruimte kwam er een einde aan grofweg een halve eeuw rijkslandschapsbeleid.
Hoewel dit tot de nodige commotie leidde, is het de vraag of er veel verloren is gegaan. Het
beleidsveld staat als zwak te boek. Dat is gezien de wijze waarop het was ingevuld, ook niet zo verwonderlijk.
Tijd voor een nieuwe aanpak?
Implementing the green economy in a european context : Lessons learned from theories, concepts and case studies
Saikku, Laura ; Antikainen, Riina ; Droste, Nils ; Pitkänen, Kati ; Loiseau, Eleonore ; Hansjürgens, Bernd ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Leskinen, Pekka ; Thomsen, Marianne - \ 2015
PEER - ISBN 9789521145322 - 33 p.
change - economic development - biobased economy - sustainable development - case studies - government policy - europe - verandering - economische ontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - gevalsanalyse - overheidsbeleid - europa
This report summarises the key results of a PEER project analysing the green economy. The project explored green economy concepts and 10 practical cases from Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark.
Country Report for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture – The Netherlands : CGN Report 34
Brink, M. - \ 2015
CGN
biodiversity - food and agriculture organization - netherlands - food production - government policy - animal genetic resources - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - ecosystems - agricultural production systems - biodiversiteit - voedsel- en landbouworganisatie - nederland - voedselproductie - overheidsbeleid - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ecosystemen - agrarische productiesystemen
The Netherlands Country Report for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture forms, together with country reports from other countries, thematic studies, reports from international organizations and inputs from other relevant stakeholders, the basis for the report on the State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (SoWBFA report). The structure of the Country report follows the FAO’s guidelines, to provide baseline information, highlight knowledge gaps and to facilitate the regional and global synthesis of the information from different countries. The report focuses on developments in the area of Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (BFA) observed in the last 10 years.
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