Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Samenstelling van blad, stengel en rhizomen in relatie tot optimaal oogst-tijdstip van Miscanthus x giganteus
Kasper, G.J. ; Kolk, J.C. van der; Putten, J.C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1022) - 27
brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - miscanthus - grassen - oogsttijdstip - gewasopbrengst - akkerbouw - plantensamenstelling - suikergehalte - lignine - pectinen - droge stof - koolhydraten - stengels - wortelstokken - fuel crops - grasses - harvesting date - crop yield - arable farming - plant composition - sugar content - lignin - pectins - dry matter - carbohydrates - stems - rhizomes
A plurality of components (such as sugars, lignin, pectin) of Miscanthus x giganteus has been studied in stem, leaf, and rhizomes for the harvest times July and January in view of the optimal harvest time. Additional literature search shows that the end of October is the optimum time for harvesting on the basis of the maximum above-ground dry matter yield and sugar yield, and dry matter yield in the next year. It will have to be investigated whether the optimal harvest time also applies to long-term research.
Plants are less negatively affected by flooding when growing in species-rich plant communities
Wright, Alexandra J. ; Kroon, Hans de; Visser, Eric J.W. ; Buchmann, Tina ; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Fischer, Christine ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Roscher, Christiane ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Weisser, Wolfgang ; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J. ; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2017
New Phytologist 213 (2017)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 645 - 656.
aerenchyma - diversity - flooding traits - grasses - legumes - plant functional groups - soil air porosity - specific leaf area (SLA)

Flooding is expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future. The ecological consequences of flooding are the combined result of species-specific plant traits and ecological context. However, the majority of past flooding research has focused on individual model species under highly controlled conditions. An early summer flooding event in a grassland biodiversity experiment in Jena, Germany, provided the opportunity to assess flooding responses of 60 grassland species in monocultures and 16-species mixtures. We examined plant biomass, species-specific traits (plant height, specific leaf area (SLA), root aerenchyma, starch content) and soil porosity. We found that, on average, plant species were less negatively affected by the flood when grown in higher-diversity plots in July 2013. By September 2013, grasses were unaffected by the flood regardless of plant diversity, and legumes were severely negatively affected regardless of plant diversity. Plants with greater SLA and more root aerenchyma performed better in September. Soil porosity was higher in higher-diversity plots and had a positive effect on plant performance. As floods become more frequent and severe in the future, growing flood-sensitive plants in higher-diversity communities and in soil with greater soil aeration may attenuate the most negative effects of flooding.

Koeien kunnen omschakelen : On-off weiden maakt economisch geen verschil, maar spaart wel arbeid
Galama, Paul ; Holshof, Gertjan - \ 2016
dairy farming - grasslands - grazing - grazing systems - farm management - milk production - dairy cattle nutrition - dry matter - grasses - stalls - strip grazing - returns

Nederlandse melkveehouders ‘mixen’ weidegang met op stal bijvoeren. Maar dat hoeft niet, zo blijkt uit onderzoek met de koeien van het VIC in Zegveld. Met on-off weiden gaat de koe dag en nacht weiden als er gras is, óf staat ze op stal waar ze dan volledig gevoerd wordt. De melkproductie en de bij gevoerde kilo’s droge stof zijn bij on-off weiden hetzelfde als bij beperkt weiden en op stal voeren.

Wisselteelt goed voor grasopbrengst : elf procent hogere grasopbrengst op De Marke dankzij vruchtwisseling met mais
Aarts, Frans - \ 2016
grasslands - yields - rotations - maize - soil fertility - grasses - fertilizer application - agricultural research

Wissel snijmais af met minimaal drie jaar grasland. Dat advies geeft onderzoeker Frans Aarts van Wageningen UR. Verbetering van de bodemvruchtbaarheid leidt dan tot een hogere grasopbrengst, net als het gebruik van de nieuwste grassoorten.

The facilitative role of trees in tree-grass interactions in savannas
Priyadarshini, K.V.R. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Steven Bie, co-promotor(en): Ignas Heitkonig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577008 - 134 p.
plant interaction - trees - grasses - savannas - ecosystems - ecology - planteninteractie - bomen - grassen - savannen - ecosystemen - ecologie

Terrestrial ecosystems support a high plant diversity where different plant types coexist. However, the mechanisms that support plant coexistence are not entirely clear. Savanna ecosystems that are nutrient and water limited are characterized by a unique ecological feature: the coexistence of trees and grasses. Tree-grass interactions in savannas are typically viewed as being competitive and are based on the Gaussian principle of niche or habitat differentiation. Trees and grasses are reported to suppress the growth of each other and the interactions are viewed as competition. However, tree-grass mixtures persist in a range of rainfall conditions in savannas. This study examined tree-grass interactions to understand the ecological processes that may sustain tree-grass coexistence in dry savannas (< 800 mm of rainfall) of southern Africa. Water and nitrogen resource-use patterns of trees and grasses were investigated and the effects of competition between trees and grasses on resource storage in perennial grasses were examined. An ecological perspective of the role of trees in two human land-use types in African drylands is provided and the functionality of trees in these land-use types was reviewed.

Seasonality of plant available water imposes intense water limitation to plants in savannas. Yet, trees and grasses coexist. The water relations between trees and grasses are poorly understood. In Chapter 2, the principal water-sources for trees and grasses in different seasons were identified using the natural variation in H and O stable isotope composition of source waters. Seasonal differences in the stable isotope composition of water in trees and grasses indicated that there was water-source use partitioning as well as overlap. Trees and grasses used water from the topsoil after rainfall indicating overlap of water-sources. Trees shifted to groundwater or subsoil water when there was no water in the topsoil, indicating partitioning of water-use. Grasses always used water from the topsoil. By labelling deep-soil (2.5 m depth) with a deuterium tracer, hydraulic-redistribution in all the studied tree species and water transfer to grasses via the topsoil was confirmed. However, this occurred only in the dry-season. Results indicated possible shifts in tree-grass interactions during different periods of the year. Furthermore, dry-season hydraulic-redistribution indicated potential facilitation affects by trees to their understory grasses.

A key question in savanna ecology is how trees and grasses coexist under nitrogen limitation. In Chapter 3, the sources of nitrogen for trees and grasses in a semi-arid savanna were investigated using natural abundance of foliar δ15N and nitrogen content. 15N tracer additions were used additionally to investigate the redistribution of subsoil nitrogen by trees to grasses. Foliar δ15N values were consistent with trees and grasses using mycorrhiza-supplied nitrogen in all seasons and a switch to microbially-fixed nitrogen during the wet season. Based on seasonal variation in mineralization rates in the Kruger Park region, the use of mineralized soil nitrogen by trees and grasses seemed highly unlikely. The foliar δ15N values were similar for all the studied tree species differing in the potential for nitrogen-fixation consistent with the absence of nodules indicating the lack of rhizobially fixed nitrogen. The tracer experiment showed that nitrogen was redistributed by trees to understory grasses in all seasons. Redistribution of nitrogen by trees and subsequent uptake of this tree redistributed nitrogen by grasses from the topsoil was independent of water redistribution. Although there was overlap of nitrogen sources between trees and grasses, dependence on biological sources of nitrogen coupled with redistribution of sub-soil nitrogen by trees could be contributing to the co-existence of trees and grasses in semi-arid savannas.

An important plant response to competition and resource limitation is an increase in root reserves. In Chapter 4, the root characteristics of perennial grasses in the presence and absence of trees as a proxy of competition in South African savannas in three sites that differed in rainfall were investigated. The hypothesis on which this investigation was based was that competition from trees and water limitation will result in increased storage in roots of grasses under trees. However, no significant effect of variation in rainfall of the different study locations on root characteristics of grasses were found. Furthermore, most root characteristics were not significantly influenced by tree presence with the exception of nitrogen-content. The root nitrogen content showed an increase with rainfall and tree presence through potentially higher mineralization rates and nitrogen availability in the under-tree canopy environment. The study sites occurred in the drier rainfall range in South Africa. Therefore, it is likely that trees and grasses in these dry savannas might have a positive relationship conforming to the stress-gradient hypothesis. Alternatively, grasses and trees might be using complementary water and nutritional resources.

The mix of trees and grasses is critical for the functioning of the savanna biome, which supports a large fraction of the human population and sustains the highest densities and diversities of herbivores in the world. Both, increases and decreases in tree densities have been reported from savannas globally, which are attributed to human activities and climate change. Changes in tree densities could drastically impact ecosystem functioning and lead to land degradation and large economic losses. Consequently, the sustainable and heterogeneous nature of various savanna land-use types is compromised. In Chapter 5, the significant role of trees in dry savannas (< 800mm rainfall) based on nutrient and water-redistribution capabilities of savanna trees is illustrated. An ecological perspective of the role of trees in two human land-use types in African drylands: agroforests and rangelands which include silvo-pastoral systems and mixed-game-livestock farming systems, is provided. The causes for the loss of trees in these land-use types is evaluated and the role of trees for better land and sustainable natural resource management is highlighted.

Chapter 6 synthesises the conclusions of all the preceding chapters highlighting the importance of facilitative interactions in tree-grass coexistence in savannas that are mostly overlooked. A simple Gaussian model of niche or habitat differentiation may not be a holistic and functional explanation of plant coexistence but rather the role of biotic interactions that include symbionts, parasites, or predators that will influence not only the competitive ability of plants but also facilitation, may be more pragmatic. Plant-plant interactions are complex and a multitrophic approach may be necessary to understand the functioning of these interactions and their roles in ecosystems.

Sensor voorspelt grasopname : koeien nemen meer gras op uit het weiland dan berekend met de vem-dekking
Reenen, Kees van; Zom, Ronald ; Galama, Paul - \ 2016
dairy cows - dairy farming - sensors - grazing - grasses - feed intake - pastures - agricultural research
Grasgroei meten met de grashoogtemeter
Holshof, G. ; Stienezen, M.W.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 925) - 23 p.
grassen - groei - meting - opbrengsten - graslandbeheer - grasses - growth - measurement - yields - grassland management
Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering
Steeg, P. van der; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Roex, E. ; Mommer, L. - \ 2015
Deltares - 42 p.
Grass dike - Dessa GrassMaster - grass reinforcement - dykes - grasses - cladding - hydraulic engineering - reinforcement - revetments - flood control - sports grounds - dijken - grassen - bekleding, bouw - waterbouwkunde - versterking - steunmuren - hoogwaterbeheersing - sportterreinen
Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is discussed.
A description of several aspects of grass dikes is given as well as other known reinforcement grass systems. A comparison between grass on sports fields and grass of grass dikes is made. Based on state-of-the art literature, requirements for Dessa GrassMaster® as a revetment under hydraulic loading are provided. Potential applications are identified and knowledge gaps are given. From the point of view of hydraulic engineering and based on theoretical and existing
knowledge, it is concluded that Dessa GrassMaster® may potentially be used as a dike revetment but more insight in the strength of this system is required/before it will be applied as a revetment. It is currently not clear what effect Dessa-Grasslvlaster'" will have on root volume and distribution in dike grasslands and how this influences overall strength of the grass cover. The strength of Dessa GrassMaster®can be determined by performing physical hydraulic experiments.
Several knowledge gaps concerning ecological, toxicological and environmental issues have been identified that may hamper the implementation of Dessa Grasslvlaster". It is recommended to perform tests to quantify these potential impacts on the environment in order to find solutions to mitigate potential negative effects. This will lead to increased societal acceptability of application of the product on dikes. For comprehensive conclusions, langerterm full-scale tests (2-4 years) are recommended.
Eerste curve grasgroei en bodemtemperatuur : extra grasland special
Remmelink, G.J. ; Philipsen, A.P. ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Tjoonk, L. ; Kuiper, I. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)2. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25.
graslanden - grassen - groeistudies - bodemtemperatuur - droge stof - veehouderij - grasslands - grasses - growth studies - soil temperature - dry matter - livestock farming
De Weideman publiceerde in 2014 wekelijks cijfers over grasgroei en bodemtemperatuur. Deze cijfers zijn aangeleverd door veehouders die wekelijks de bodemtemperatuur en de drogestofopbrengst hebben gemeten. Uit de cijfers is het verloop van de grasgroei voor het weideseizoen van 2014 berekend, voor zowel het weide- als maaistadium. 2014 kenmerkte zich door een lang groeiseizoen.
Beter benutten van eigen gewas maakt import soja overbodig
Sanders, Johan - \ 2014
protein plants - protein foods - protein sources - soyabean oilmeal - soya protein - regional specialty products - grasses - biorefinery - sustainability - imports - european union countries - netherlands - usa - latin america

In de jaren vijftig gold de boer nog als een ‘achterlijke lomperik’, die via speciale streekverbeteringsprogramma’s de twintigste eeuw ingeloodst moest worden. Nu boeren agrarische ondernemers zijn geworden, overheerst de nostalgie naar het landleven in de jaren vijftig.

Uitleg over de weidewig (feedwedge)
Stienezen, M.W.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
melkveehouderij - grassen - graslandbeheer - meetsystemen - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - weiden - dairy farming - grasses - grassland management - measurement systems - management information systems - pastures
De weidewig geeft inzicht in het grasaanbod en de grasbehoefte. Een handige tool, maar dan moet je wel de droge stofbrengst wekelijks meten. In dit filmpje vertelt melkveehouder Tom Keuper wat het gebruik van de weidewig voor zijn bedrijf betekent. Wageningen UR onderzoekster Marcia Stienezen legt uit hoe je de weidewig gebruikt. Het project Amazing Grazing en het netwerk Dynamisch Weiden zetten zich in om het gebruik van de weidewig te stimuleren. www.amazinggrazing.eu
Welk grasmengsel kiezen?
Schipper, M. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)2. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 39.
melkveehouderij - mineralenboekhouding - kringlopen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - graslandbeheer - grassen - zaadmengsels - lolium perenne - gewasopbrengst - akkerbouw - dairy farming - nutrient accounting system - cycling - sustainability - grassland management - grasses - seed mixtures - crop yield - arable farming
In de themagroep ‘Vitale bodem en gewas’ van de kringloopboeren in Midden-Delfland werken melkveehouders aan de optimalisatie van de benutting van mest en bodem richting gewasproductie. Een van de onderwerpen waar de veehouders aan werken is de grasmengselkeuze. Welk mengsel te kiezen uit het brede aanbod?
Kruidenrijk grasland; Meerwaarde voor vee, bedrijf en weidevogels
Geerts, R.H.E.M. ; Korevaar, H. ; Timmerman, A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Praktijknetwerk 'Natuurlijk' kruidenrijk gras voor de veehouderij
graslanden - agrobiodiversiteit - grassen - soortenrijkdom - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bodemchemie - weidevogels - grasslands - agro-biodiversity - grasses - species richness - farm management - soil chemistry - grassland birds
Deze brochure is een initiatief van het praktijknetwerk 'natuurlijk' kruidenrijk gras voor de veehouderij. Kruidenrijke, vochtige graslanden bieden veel betere perspectieven voor grutto's om er te broeden. Over het algemeen geldt, dat de soortenrijkdom onder basisiche, kalkhoudende omstandigheden groter is dan onder zure omstandigheden.
Eerste ervaringen uit demo Tijd voor Onderzaai
Verloop, K. ; Hilhorst, G.J. - \ 2013
Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen 2013 (2013)39.
zea mays - grassen - ondergewassen - festuca arundinacea - lolium multiflorum - zaaien - bodemkwaliteit - demonstraties (vertoning) - akkerbouw - grasses - catch crops - sowing - soil quality - demonstrations - arable farming
Om uitspoeling van nutriënten na oogst van de snijmaïs te beperken en de bodemkwaliteit op peil te houden is een goed vanggewas nodig. Veelal wordt een vanggewas gezaaid na de maïsoogst. Dat is eigenlijk te laat omdat er dan weinig groeizame dagen zijn, waardoor er nauwelijks groene bodembedekking ontstaat
Nieuwe technieken, nog meer reductie
Haan, M.H.A. de; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Vegte, D.Z. van der; Booij, A. - \ 2013
Veeteelt 30 (2013)11. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 36 - 37.
melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - innovaties - proefboerderijen - mestverwerking - methaan - emissie - rundveevoeding - voersamenstelling - nitraat - onderzaaien - grassen - dairy farming - greenhouse gases - innovations - experimental farms - manure treatment - methane - emission - cattle feeding - feed formulation - nitrate - undersowing - grasses
Gras crushen, mest raffineren, toevoegmiddelen voor voer en kuil; op praktijkcentrum De Marke in het Gelderse Hengelo worden verschillende innovatietechnieken uitgeprobeerd om de broeikasgassen verder te verminderen. Praktijkrijp zijn ze nog niet.
Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop
Wouters, A.P. ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2013
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 718) - 98
melkveehouderij - melkvee - ruwvoer (forage) - voer - voedergrassen - grassen - vietnam - dairy farming - dairy cattle - forage - feeds - fodder grasses - grasses
This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs.
Groenbemesten bij snijmais
Vegte, D.Z. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Livestock Research
maïs - groenbemesters - bemesting - onderzaaien - grassen - organische stof - maize - green manures - fertilizer application - undersowing - grasses - organic matter
Filmpje over verbetering van de maisteelt met behulp van groenbemesting.
Adviesbasis voor de bemesting van akkerbouwgewassen : stikstof
Geel, W.C.A. van; Haan, J.J. de - \ 2013
Kennisakker.nl 2013 (2013)20 maart.
stikstofmeststoffen - akkerbouw - graansoorten - aardappelen - suikerbieten - voedergewassen - uien - grassen - groenbemesters - bemesting - nitrogen fertilizers - arable farming - cereals - potatoes - sugarbeet - fodder crops - onions - grasses - green manures - fertilizer application
De stikstofbemestingsrichtlijnen geven de door de jaren heen gemiddelde optimale stikstofgift. De optimale stikstofgift is echter van veel factoren afhankelijk, zoals voorvrucht, bemestingsverleden, vochtvoorziening en ziektedruk. Op basis van de eigen ervaringen en kennis van percelen en gewassen kan de richtlijn dan ook aan de eigen situatie worden aangepast. Daar waar mogelijk zijn in deze adviesbasis richtlijnen gegeven voor dergelijke aanpassingen (o.a. onderwerken van groenbemesters en oogstresten en gebruik van dierlijke mest).
60 jaar sleutelen aan roodzwenkgras. Stand en perspectieven veredeling roodzwenkgras in Nederland.
Schoot, J.R. van der - \ 2012
Greenkeeper 23 (2012)6. - ISSN 1386-2499 - p. 20 - 23.
golfbanen - grassen - rassen (planten) - grasmatverbetering - plantenveredeling - festuca rubra - golf courses - grasses - varieties - sward renovation - plant breeding
Roodzwenkgras is een grassoort die zeer geschikt is voor gebruik in mengsels voor golfbanen, gazons en allerlei andere grasvelden zoals parken, recreatieterreinen en bermen. Mede doordat de soort van nature al een erg goede zodevormer is, zijn met de veredeling van roodzwenkgras minder spectaculaire verbeteringen bereikt dan met de veredeling van Engels raaigras en veldbeemdgras (zie vorige editie van de Greenkeeper). Door de veredeling van roodzwenkgras is de zodedichtheid wel verder toegenomen, met behoud of verbetering van ziekteresistentie en verkleuring bij droogte en in de winter.
Effect van overstuiving op korstmosrijke duinen op Terschelling
Ketner-Oostra, R. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2012
De Levende Natuur 113 (2012)4. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 167 - 173.
duingebieden - duinplanten - vegetatietypen - grassen - nederlandse waddeneilanden - friesland - duneland - duneland plants - vegetation types - grasses - dutch wadden islands
De botanische verscheidenheid in kalkarme droge duinen wordt o.a. door korstmossen gevormd. Sinds de jaren 80 van de vorige eeuw zijn deze duinen in het Waddendistrict sterk veranderd door vergrassing met Helm en Zandzegge en vermossing met Grijs kronkelsteeltje. Kan overstuiving met vers zand deze uniformiteit doorbreken? Jarenlange monitoring van de vegetatie op Terschelling geeft hier het antwoord op.
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