Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Effect of timing of corn silage supplementation to Holstein dairy cows given limited daily access to pasture : intake and performance
Mattiauda, D.A. ; Gibb, M.J. ; Carriquiry, M. ; Tamminga, S. ; Chilibroste, P. - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 9 p.
feeding strategy - grazing - grazing pattern - ingestive behaviour - milk production
The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass–legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level. The three treatments imposed each provided 3.8 kg DM/day of corn silage offered in a single meal at 0800 h (Treatment AM), equally distributed in two meals 0800 and 1700 h (Treatment AM-PM) or a single meal at 1700 h (Treatment PM). The experiment was carried out during the late autumn and early winter period, with 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of measurements. There were no differences between treatments in milk yield, but 4% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be greater in AM-PM than in AM cows, which did not differ from PM (23.7, 25.3 and 24.6±0.84 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). Fat percentage and yield were greater for AM-PM than for AM cows and intermediate for PM cows (3.89 v. 3.66±0.072% and 1.00 v. 0.92±0.035 kg/day, respectively). Offering corn silage in two meals had an effect on herbage DM intake which was greater for AM-PM than AM cows and was intermediate in PM cows (8.5, 11.0 and 10.3±0.68 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). During the 6-h period at pasture, the overall proportion of observations on which cows were grazing tended to be different between treatments and a clear grazing pattern along the grazing session (1-h observation period) was identified. During the time at pasture, the proportion of observations during which cows ruminated was positively correlated with the DM intake of corn silage immediately before turn out to pasture. The treatment effects on herbage DM intake did not sufficiently explain differences in productive performance. This suggests that the timing of the corn silage supplementation affected rumen kinetics and likewise the appearance of hunger and satiety signals as indicated by observed changes in temporal patterns of grazing and ruminating activities.
Models meet data : Challenges and opportunities in implementing land management in Earth system models
Pongratz, Julia ; Dolman, Han ; Don, Axel ; Erb, Karl Heinz ; Fuchs, Richard ; Herold, Martin ; Jones, Chris ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Naudts, Kim - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1470 - 1487.
climate - croplands - Earth observations - Earth system models - forestry - grazing - land management - land use
As the applications of Earth system models (ESMs) move from general climate projections toward questions of mitigation and adaptation, the inclusion of land management practices in these models becomes crucial. We carried out a survey among modeling groups to show an evolution from models able only to deal with land-cover change to more sophisticated approaches that allow also for the partial integration of land management changes. For the longer term a comprehensive land management representation can be anticipated for all major models. To guide the prioritization of implementation, we evaluate ten land management practices—forestry harvest, tree species selection, grazing and mowing harvest, crop harvest, crop species selection, irrigation, wetland drainage, fertilization, tillage, and fire—for (1) their importance on the Earth system, (2) the possibility of implementing them in state-of-the-art ESMs, and (3) availability of required input data. Matching these criteria, we identify “low-hanging fruits” for the inclusion in ESMs, such as basic implementations of crop and forestry harvest and fertilization. We also identify research requirements for specific communities to address the remaining land management practices. Data availability severely hampers modeling the most extensive land management practice, grazing and mowing harvest, and is a limiting factor for a comprehensive implementation of most other practices. Inadequate process understanding hampers even a basic assessment of crop species selection and tillage effects. The need for multiple advanced model structures will be the challenge for a comprehensive implementation of most practices but considerable synergy can be gained using the same structures for different practices. A continuous and closer collaboration of the modeling, Earth observation, and land system science communities is thus required to achieve the inclusion of land management in ESMs.
Restoration of inland brackish vegetation by large-scale transfer of coastal driftline material
Wolters, Mineke ; Vries, Saskia de; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Bakker, Jan P. - \ 2017
Applied Vegetation Science 20 (2017)4. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 641 - 650.
brackish habitat - dispersal - driftline - grazing - saline habitat - salinity - sheep - target species - top soil removal - transfer rate

Question: Does large-scale transfer of coastal driftline material enhance the establishment of inland brackish vegetation?. Location: The Klutenplas of 11 ha, a formerly reclaimed agricultural field, north coast of the Netherlands. Methods: A large quantity of coastal driftline material of local origin was transferred to the restoration site in 2006 after top soil removal in 2005 leaving bare areas for control plots. A priori species composition of the driftline was analysed in a greenhouse germination study. Target species were assigned to saline and brackish ecological species groups and present and historic regional occurrences. Our procedure for selecting target species resulted in a list of 98 species characteristic of terrestrial salt and brackish ecological species groups. The establishment of plant species in the field was recorded annually from 2006 to 2009, with a final survey in 2012. A comparison between locations with and without driftline was made. The entire study site was grazed with sheep. Results: Driftline material contained 39 species, including 26 target species. During the first 4 yr, the mean number of target species in the established vegetation of driftline plots was significantly higher than in control plots. When corrected for spontaneous occurrence by natural colonization in control plots, 44% of the target species in the established vegetation of driftline plots during the first 4 yr could be attributed to the transferred material. After 7 yr driftline and control plots converged to similar levels, probably as a result of dispersal by wind and animals. Conclusions: Transfer of coastal driftline material enhanced the rate of establishment of inland brackish vegetation for at least the first 4 yr.

Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment
Tamou, Charles - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Simon Oosting; Raimon Ripoll Bosch; I. Youssao Aboudou Karim. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431552 - 154
pastoralism - livestock - grazing - crop production - nature conservation - cattle breeds - environment - nature reserves - benin - pastoralisme - vee - begrazing - gewasproductie - natuurbescherming - rundveerassen - milieu - natuurreservaten

The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in the agro-pastoral contact zone in West Africa, enabling competition for land, and affecting the relations between pastoralism and its environment. The general aim of this thesis, therefore, was to understand the relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment. In terms of land use change, cropland area around WBR expanded, whereas grazing area reduced. Population growth and rising demand for food crops and cash crops were the indirect causes of this loss of grazing lands. Competing claims over land existed between crop farmers and pastoralists, among crop farmers, and among crop farmers, pastoralists, and the WBR authority due to past expropriation, unfair and incomplete implementation of the WBR regulations and the increasing shift of pastoral lifestyle to crop farming. In terms of effects of grazing on plant communities, highly grazed sites had more species diversity than lowly grazed sites. This suggests that the current level of grazing was not damaging plant communities’ diversity. Annual species dominated the surveyed vegetation, suggesting that restoration of grazing lands with perennials requires human intervention. Herding involves taking decisions and moving of livestock in search for feed. Herding decisions are based on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of soil, forage and livestock. Pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Perennial grasses were perceived of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana had high perceived quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest perceived quality for meat production, health and strength. In decision making for herding, pastoralists used a holistic approach, combining TEK about soil, vegetation and livestock, in a structured and prioritised reasoning. Changes in the pastoral system can lead to changes in desired livestock traits, which may lead to loss of indigenous breeds. Keteeji was valued for its endurance and tolerance to trypanosomiasis, Bodeeji was highly valued for endurance and Gudali was perceived of high value for meat and milk production, but of low value for endurance. To deal with the changing and unfavourable conditions of their environment, pastoralists preferred cattle breeds performing well on adaptive traits i.e. withstanding hunger, intelligence, and withstanding disease. Our results suggest that pastoralism is under pressure and that its survival depends on policies. In the pessimistic scenario, i.e. without any change, pastoralists will use, likely, the stepping-out strategy in the future. In the optimistic scenario, two possible institutional interventions could help maintaining pastoralism in the region: payments for ecosystem services provided by pastoralism, and association of pastoralism with nature conservation. In practice, however, the implementation of these two interventions is very challenging, which implies an increasing vulnerability of pastoralists and pastoral lifestyle.

Grazing and automation : proceedings 4th Meeting EGF Working Group "Grazing" in Wageningen
Pol-van Dasselaar, A. van den; Vlieger, A. de; Hennesy, D. ; Isselstein, J. ; Peyraud, J.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1003) - 24
dairy cattle - machine milking - grazing - dairy farming - automation - melkvee - machinaal melken - begrazing - melkveehouderij - automatisering
Weidegang weer terug in het agrarisch onderwijs
Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den - \ 2016
agricultural education - grasslands - grazing - on-farm training - dairy farming - cows - agricultural prices

Wel of geen weidegang is geen zwart-witverhaal, maar zorgt standaard wel voor stevige discussies onder agrarische studenten, zo heeft Agnes van den Pol-van Dasselaar ervaren. De lector Beweiding werkt aan het verankeren en versterken van praktijkkennis over weidegang in het onderwijs.

Wandelende maaiers en bemesters in Purmerend : 180 lammeren moeten veldkwaliteit Purmersteijn verbeteren
Schoot, Jan Rinze van der - \ 2016
sports grounds - grazing - lambs - sheep - sward renovation

Al enige tijd liep fieldmanager Jan Butter ermee rond, het idee om de velden te laten begrazen door lammeren. Dit jaar werd die wens werkelijkheid. Op 3 juli werden onder toeziend oog van diverse belangstellenden 180 lammeren losgelaten op complex Purmersteijn. Daar begrazen en bepoepen de beestjes, afkomstig van een plaatselijke boer, zo’n drie weken lang de natuurgrasvelden, in de hoop dat zij de veldkwaliteit helpen verbeteren nog voordat het voetbalseizoen begint

PASsend beweiden
Mosquera, J. ; Philipsen, B. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 983) - 23
melkkoeien - melkvee - begrazing - ammoniakemissie - rundveemest - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - grazing - ammonia emission - cattle manure - cattle farming
Grazing is a possible measure within PAS (Programmatic Approach Nitrogen) to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle farming (PAS 2015.08.02). In order to be applied, all dairy cows should be grazing for at least 720 hours per year. This measure is being assigned an ammonia emission reduction of 5%. The purpose of this desk study is to identify and quantify the effect of grazing on the ammonia emission from/in perspective of the whole manure chain for different grazing strategies.
Koeien kunnen omschakelen : On-off weiden maakt economisch geen verschil, maar spaart wel arbeid
Galama, Paul ; Holshof, Gertjan - \ 2016
dairy farming - grasslands - grazing - grazing systems - farm management - milk production - dairy cattle nutrition - dry matter - grasses - stalls - strip grazing - returns

Nederlandse melkveehouders ‘mixen’ weidegang met op stal bijvoeren. Maar dat hoeft niet, zo blijkt uit onderzoek met de koeien van het VIC in Zegveld. Met on-off weiden gaat de koe dag en nacht weiden als er gras is, óf staat ze op stal waar ze dan volledig gevoerd wordt. De melkproductie en de bij gevoerde kilo’s droge stof zijn bij on-off weiden hetzelfde als bij beperkt weiden en op stal voeren.

Succesvol weiden tijdens voorjaar en najaar in Nederland
Snip, Karst-Jan ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Stienezen, M.W.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 1 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - huisvesting, dieren - begrazing - diervoeding - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal housing - grazing - animal nutrition
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164 p.
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Sensor voorspelt grasopname : koeien nemen meer gras op uit het weiland dan berekend met de vem-dekking
Reenen, Kees van; Zom, Ronald ; Galama, Paul - \ 2016
dairy cows - dairy farming - sensors - grazing - grasses - feed intake - pastures - agricultural research
Wie stuurt de herder? : concurrentie of coöperatie? : natuur- en cultuurproductie met schaapskuddes
Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2708) - 47 p.
schapen - natuurbescherming - heidegebieden - financiën - contracten - begrazing - erfgoed - nederland - sheep - nature conservation - heathlands - finance - contracts - grazing - heritage areas - netherlands
Een verkennend onderzoek naar de positie en betekenis van traditioneel werkende herders in de Nederlandse samenleving. Aan de hand van interviews, een workshop en modelberekeningen is een beeld gevormd van de financiële positie van de herders in de sector, van de knelpunten en van de betekenis die de herders hebben voor natuur en cultuurhistorie. De analyse wijst uit dat de traditioneel werkende herders een maatschappelijke meerwaarde leveren die wordt ondergewaardeerd. Er worden diverse oplossingsrichtingen aangedragen en aanbevelingen gedaan voor een structurele herziening van het huidige systeem met korte termijn contracten.
Een nieuwe economische basis voor de kudde in het Gulpdal? : zoektocht naar draagvlak voor gescheperde begrazing met streekeigen Mergellandschapen
Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Westerink, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel 326) - 46 p.
schapenhouderij - kuddes (herds) - begrazing - natuurbeheer - vegetatiebeheer - landbouwkundig onderzoek - limburg - financieren - landbouwbeleid - sheep farming - herds - grazing - nature management - vegetation management - agricultural research - financing - agricultural policy
Het vinden van een nieuwe economische basis voor gescheperde kuddes is van belang voor het landschap, de natuur en het levend cultuurhistorisch erfgoed. Dit onderzoek draagt bij aan het nadenken over nieuwe richtingen en het vinden en opbouwen van een nieuwe ‘klantenkring’. Binnen het kader van het grotere onderzoeksproject ligt de nadruk van het onderzoek door Wageningen op het in kaart brengen van de belangen van alle betrokken partijen en het van hieruit ontwerpen van een nieuw sociaal contract waarmee de schaapskudde in het Gulpdal duurzaam in stand kan worden gehouden.
Inhaalslag weideonderzoek
Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den; Galama, Paul - \ 2015
livestock farming - selective grazing - rotational grazing - grazing - agricultural research - animal behaviour
Weiden en bodem : nog niet zo simpel
Lenssinck, Frank - \ 2015
grazing - milk production - grazing management - returns - animal health - grassland management - dairy farming

“De zuivel en wij hebben afgesproken dat we weiden, dus doen we dat. Bovendien valt er geld mee te verdienen, alleen als je het goed doet.” Maar geld verdienen met weidegang is niet zo simpel als vaak wordt voorgesteld. Het betekent een nieuwe focus, waarin niet meer gestuurd wordt op een hoge melkproductie, maar op maximale grasbenutting. En op gezonde koeien. Frank Lenssinck van VIC Zegveld en Nick van Eekeren, onderzoeker bij Louis Bolk Instituut, gingen samen met veertien rundveedierenartsen van Veerkracht op zoek naar de rendabele weidende koe.
‘Robot en weidegang: blijf bij je systeem’ : Bert Philipsen pleit voor rust, regelmaat en loslaten
Philipsen, Bert - \ 2015
dairy farming - dairy farming systems - grazing - grazing systems - grazing intensity - milking robots - farm management - livestock farming - cattle husbandry

Robotmelken en weidegang is een kwestie van goed plannen, een doordacht systeem hebben, consequent handelen en loslaten. Dat stelt Bert Philipsen van Wageningen Livestock Research. „Zoek de werkwijze die bij je past. Weet wat je wilt en zoek naar rust en regelmaat. Dan kan robotmelken plus weidegang een succes worden.”

Beweidbare oppervlakte en weidegang op melkveebedrijven in Nederland
Pol, A. van den; Blokland, P.W. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Holshof, G. ; Naeff, H.S.D. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 917) - 57
begrazing - graastijd - graasduur - melkveehouderij - oppervlakte (areaal) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - melkvee - huisvesting, dieren - weiden - grazing - grazing date - grazing time - dairy farming - acreage - farm management - animal production - animal welfare - dairy cattle - animal housing - pastures
Het doel van dit onderzoek was om antwoord te krijgen op de vraag in hoeverre weidegang nu en in de toekomst mogelijk is (zowel technisch als bedrijfseconomisch) op melkveebedrijven in Nederland gezien de grootte van de beweidbare oppervlakte. Uit de resultaten wordt duidelijk dat uitgaande van de beschikbare beweidbare oppervlakte er nog ruimte is voor beweiding binnen de bestaande bedrijfsvoering, met name bij de wat extensievere bedrijven. Ook bij verdergaande schaalvergroting of intensivering blijft er ruimte voor beweiding. De hoeveelheid beschikbaar weidegras per bedrijf zal dan wel afnemen evenals het aantal uren weidegang per dag. Op de meeste melkveebedrijven is een vorm van weidegang mogelijk, al is deze soms beperkt. Dit rapport geeft een theoretisch beeld van de mogelijkheden van weidegang. Het is aan de belanghebbende partijen onderling, waar eventueel grenzen worden getrokken voor de beoordeling van de mogelijkheden van weidegang.
McGraze : Concept model for modern continuous stocking
Klein Koerkamp, Pim ; Li, Peiyun ; Oostdam, Marieke ; El-Din Sherif, Mohie ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 31 p.
dairy farms - grasslands - grazing - pastures - weather - management - stocking density - tools - dairy farming - melkveebedrijven - graslanden - begrazing - weiden - weer - bedrijfsvoering - bezettingsdichtheid - gereedschappen - melkveehouderij
This report analysed the modern continuous stocking system for dairy farms in the Netherlands. This system has to deal with a minimum grass height of 8 or 10cm (depending on the season) in order to obtain maximum grass production. A model should predict the available herbage mass under changing weather conditions and therefore the available fresh grass and the related amount of additional feed needed for the cows. A concept model, called McGraze, is developed for farmers in order to manage modern continuous stocking (Figure 1). McGraze consists of a grass production section and a stoking related section. The grass production section is based on an existing grass production model called LINGRA, which resulted from a literature review to be the most accurate model to predict grass production. LINGRA needs some minor changes in order to fit into McGraze. The stocking related section is key to the final hours of stocking and the related additional feeding, which are the outputs of McGraze. All values used to predict the outputs are a result of a literature study on grass height, grass quality, grass intake and the effect of stocking on grass growth.
Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw, 1990-2013 : berekeningen van ammoniak, stikstofoxide, lachgas,methaan en fijn stof met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 46) - 160 p.
luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaanproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - stikstof - intensieve veehouderij - fijn stof - begrazing - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane production - animal manures - nitrogen - intensive livestock farming - particulate matter - grazing
Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxiden (NO), lachgas (N2O), methaan
(CH4) en fijn stof (PM10 en PM2,5) in Nederland. De emissies voor de periode 1990-2013 zijn berekend met het National Emission
Model for Agriculture (NEMA) met toepassing van nieuwe wetenschappelijke inzichten rond emissiefactoren voor ammoniak uit
stallen en op basis van de nieuwe 2006 IPCC Guidelines. De rekenmethodiek gaat bij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie
uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in de mest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en
overige bronnen bedroeg in 2013 120 miljoen kg NH3, 1,5 miljoen kg minder dan in 2012, voornamelijk door meer emissiearme
huisvesting bij varkens en pluimvee. De N2O-emissie bedroeg zowel in 2012 als in 2013 ruim 19 miljoen kg. De NO-emissie
nam licht toe van 16,7 naar 16,9 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam toe van 487 tot 499 miljoen kg. De emissie van fijn stof
nam licht toe van 6,4 miljoen kg PM10 in 2012 tot 6,5 miljoen kg in 2013 door een toename van het aantal leghennen. De
emissie van PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest
met bijna 70% gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstof-uitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoedieningstechnieken.
Lachgas en stikstofoxiden daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder scherp (ca. 40%) vanwege hogere
emissies door het ondergronds aanwenden van mest (N2O) en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naar vaste
mest bij pluimvee (N2O en NO). Tussen 1990 en 2013 daalde de emissie van methaan met 17%, wat vrijwel geheel verklaard
kan worden door een afname in de dieraantallen
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