Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Vochtgedrag schermsystemen : een zoektocht naar de oorzaak van toenemende problemen met druipend condensvocht in kassen met dubbele schermen
Weel, P.A. van; Vanthoor, B.H.E. - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1436) - 34
kastechniek - kasgewassen - kassen - afschermingsmateriaal - condenseren - greenhouse technology - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - screens - condensation
Het Nieuwe Telen (The New Growing) results in applying more screen layers that stay completely closed. In practise this causes problems with drip. In this research the impact of 2 screen layers and using screen gaps on the amount of drip from the screens or the greenhouse cover is investigated. Solutions to reduce the problems related to drip were proposed and tested in the greenhouse. During spring and winter 2016, measurements were performed at a tomato greenhouse with artificial lighting, blackout screen, energy screen and a Ventilationjet system. The daily amount of the condensation water that drips from the greenhouse ridge, gutter and the Ventilationjet was determined. In contrast to the general expectations, the drip does not come from the screens but from the greenhouse cover and from the Ventilationjets. Condensation occurred at the screens but this did not result in drip from these screens. Only 0.2% of the condensation against the greenhouse cover drips into the greenhouse. If this drip would be re evaporated, the energy costs for heating would increase with 0.0008 m3 gas /m2/week. Investments to reduce drip can thus only be paid back by a better crop quality and not by energy savings. The use of the inlet ventilator of the Ventilationjet system or the use of a screen gap increases the amount of condensation on a cold greenhouse cover. Drip from the greenhouse gutter was solved by applying a condensation gutter and the drip from the duct of the Ventilationjet was solved by applying a collecting tray with drain hose.
Systeemstap naar minimaal energieverbruik Alstroemeria : metingen op praktijkbedrijven en een energiezuinige teeltconcept
Garcia Victoria, N. ; Zwart, Feije de; Weel, Peter van; Steenhuizen, Johan ; Groot, Marco de - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1372) - 66
kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - kassen - alstroemeria - energiebehoeften - energiebesparing - verwarming - aanvullend licht - kunstlicht - simulatiemodellen - isolatie (insulation) - evaporatie - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - greenhouses - energy requirements - energy saving - heating - supplementary light - artificial light - simulation models - insulation - evaporation
Alstroemeria cultivation in The Netherlands requires energy for heating, supplementary light and root cooling. For the program “Greenhouse as Source of Energy” we calculated to which extent the energy demand for growing this crop can be reduced with existing energy saving innovations. Some innovations were tested in practice, others were calculated by means of the greenhouse climate simulation model Kaspro. Results showed that it is possible to save up to 34% energy for heating compared to the reference situation. 40% energy can be saved on electricity for supplementary light and root cooling. However, this strategy leads to a reduced amount of PAR-light in the winter, and 4% less flowers in comparison with the reference. The greatest impact can be achieved by increasing the insulation of the greenhouse by using double screens, reducing the evaporation from the soil, improving the crop hygiene to avoid extra evaporation from crop debris and reduce pest pressure, and implementing controlled dehumidification of the greenhouse air.
Winter light greenhouses at research centre ready for cucumber trial : will new greenhouse lead to 10% more light?
Kempkes, Frank - \ 2016
greenhouses - greenhouse technology - artificial lighting - experimental stations - light transmission - innovations
Simply hanging the fans will not deliver best results : checks and maintenance increase effectiveness
Weel, Peter van - \ 2016
greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - air conditioning - fans - usage

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Vochtbeheersing in kassen en terugwinning van latente energie : Een verkenning naar vochtbeheersing in kassen en de mogelijkheden van het terugwinnen van de energie die opgesloten zit in de gewasverdamping
Weel, P.A. van; Zwart, H.F. de; Voogt, J.O. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Gastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1421) - 76 p.
kassen - kastechniek - tomaten - glastuinbouw - ontvochtiging - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - ventilatie - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - dehumidification - energy consumption - energy saving - ventilation
Dehumidification of a greenhouse by ventilation increases the energy input with 8-10 m3/m2.year of natural gas to compensate the heat losses. This study shows different methods to reduce those energy losses. A 25% reduction in ventilation is obtained by using heat exchangers connected to plastic distribution ducts or by using the Ventilationjet system. The sensible heat from the exhaust air can be used to heat the incoming outside air to greenhouse temperature. Heat exchangers with 100% efficiency to do that are available. The latent heat included in the water vapour leaving the greenhouse can be recovered by means of a condensating wall. A good working priciple is the Dewpoint Heat Exchanger in which outside air is wettened to reach the lowest possible temperature and then used to cool down the greenhouse air far below the temperature where condensation begins. The recovered latent heat must be stored in a water tank to use it in the heating pipes. Another approach is to skip ventilation and use a set of a cold and warm heat exchanger connected to a heat pump or to use a salt water absorber. The absorber opens the possibility to use solar or wind energy to dehumidify the greenhouse and collect 100% of the sensible and latent heat.
Winterlichtkas in Bleiswijk is klaar voor komkommerproef : gaat nieuwe kas meer dan 10% lichtwinst opleveren?
Kempkes, Frank - \ 2016
greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - greenhouse experiments - experimental design - light transmission - building construction
Energiebesparing met LED belichting in gerbera : resultaten van 1ste jaar LED onderzoek
García, Nieves ; Weerheim, Kees ; Helm, Frank van der; Kempkes, Frank ; Visser, Pieter de; Groot, Marco - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Report GTB 1389) - 66
gerbera - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kassen - kastechniek - teelt onder bescherming - energiebesparing - led lampen - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - licht - verlichting - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - protected cultivation - energy saving - led lamps - artificial light - artificial lighting - light - lighting
In the winter 2013-2014 Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture conducted studies on energy saving opportunities in the cultivation of gerbera, CV Kimsey. The research was funded by the program Greenhouse as Energy Source from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and LTO Glaskracht. The contribution of LED lighting, LED interlighting, a lower intensity of the light installation, and light integration was investigated. An electricity savings of 45% was the target. By using LED lighting a 20% electricity savings are possible in exchange for a small production loss (2.3%) and some additional heat demand (9%). By installing 80 instead of 100 μmol light gerbera growers can save another 20% energy costing only 3.9% production without sacrificing quality. The targeted PAR sum for light integration was too high to contribute to electricity savings. The use of 20 μmol LED interlighting in combination with 60 μmol top light (LED or SON-T) resulted in significantly less production (9%) and lower flower quality: shorter and lighter, smaller diameter and a lower % of dry matter) than 80 μmol top light.
Plantmonitoring op basis van fotosynthese sensoren : ontwikkelen en testen van sensoren
Dieleman, Anja ; Bontsema, Jan ; Jalink, Henk ; Snel, Jan ; Kempkes, Frank ; Voogt, Jan ; Pot, Sander ; Elings, Anne ; Jalink, Vincent ; Meinen, Esther - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1405) - 86
teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - sensors - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - energie - energiebesparing - verlichting - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - ventilatie - kunstmatige ventilatie - fluorescentie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - energy - energy saving - lighting - artificial light - artificial lighting - ventilation - artificial ventilation - fluorescence - tomatoes
The basic process for crop growth and production is photosynthesis. Measuring crop photosynthesis is therefore important to monitor the status of the crop and whether the greenhouse climate is set to the needs of the crop. In this project, two monitoring systems for crop photosynthesis were developed and tested. (1) The crop photosynthesis monitor is a soft sensor that can calculate the CO2 uptake of an entire crop. The basis for these calculations are the balance between CO2 supply and CO2 loss via ventilation and crop photosynthesis. By measuring the CO2 concentration and humidity inside and outside the greenhouse, the crop photosynthesis can be calculated. (2) The CropObserver is a fluorescence sensor that measures the light use efficiency of photosynthesis of a large crop area (3 x 3 m2). The crop receives light pulses from a laser in the top of the greenhouse, the sensor measures the fluorescence signal of the crop. Both sensors were tested in a tomato crop in 2014 with promising results. The sensors functioned without problems and delivered patterns of daily photosynthesis which matched the reference measurements reasonably well up to well.
Berg Roses tests smart horizontal fans : 'In the greenhouse temperature differences not easy to solve'
Weel, Peter van - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - air conditioning - temperature - rosaceae - environmental factors - artificial ventilation

Last year Berg Roses trialles the Verti-Fan in combination wirh two screens that permanently had a gap. The gap and the wind had a far greater inmpact than the fans. This year they are starting a trial with vertical fans that can suck air from above a closed screen, and if necescary mix with greenhouse air. "Air movement in a large greenhouse is like a tanker at sea. It can't be stopped" Thats how Peter van Weel of Wageningen UR Greenhouse described the problem.

'Productie Red Naomi goed en houdbaarheid weer in de lift' : Afronding onderzoek naar de 'perfecte roos'
Gelder, Arie de - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - energy consumption - rosaceae - crop production - crop quality - durability - mildews - botrytis - climatic factors - greenhouse technology - agricultural research - cut flowers

Een perfecte roos moet natuurlijk perfect houdbaar zijn. Arie de Gelder, onderzoeker bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw kijkt terug.

Voorkom plantschade door giftige dampen : Tuinen bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw
Eveleens-Clark, Barbara - \ 2016
greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - materials - plastics - toxic gases - toxicity - plant health - tests - fumes

In de glastuinbouw worden tal van materialen gebruikt waarbij de kans bestaat dat deze giftige stoffen afgeven. Deze stoffen kunnen aanzienlijke schade aanrichten aan de planten in de kas. Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw beschikt over een testopstelling om materialen op voorhand te testen op fytotoxiteit van vrijkomende dampen.

Vochtafvoer met droge lucht van boven scherm lijkt effectief : gecontroleerde luchtbeweging weer een stap verder
Weel, Peter van - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - ornamental plants - rosaceae - chrysanthemum - ventilators - dehumidification - air conditioning - greenhouse technology - cropping systems - public-private cooperation

Goede luchtbeweging in de kas is steeds belangrijker. De principes van Het Nieuwe Telen zijn schermen sluiten, de minimumbuis beperken en de luchtcirculatie stimuleren. Maar hoe voorkom je koudeval, trek, een te hoge RV en temperatuurverschillen? Ventilatoren die lucht van boven het volledig gesloten scherm in de kas brengen, lijken het meest effectief. Binnen het project ‘Monitoring’ werken telers, Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw en toeleveranciers nauw samen om de toepassing ervan te optimaliseren.

Alleen ventilatoren ophangen niet genoeg voor gewenste resultaat : controleren én onderhouden vergroot effectiviteit
Weel, Peter van - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems - greenhouse technology - ventilators - dehumidification - recirculating systems - plant maintenance

In Het Nieuwe Telen is luchtcirculatie in de kas een energiezuinig alternatief voor de minimumbuis. Ventilatoren zijn er in vele soorten en maten. Doen die hun werk echter wel goed? Het schort vaak aan controle of ze het gewenste effect hebben. Het aloude principe ‘meten is weten’ geldt ook hier. Een rookproef brengt eenvoudig in beeld hoe de lucht zich beweegt. Leveranciers willen er graag aan meewerken. Verder bevelen ze aan om apparatuur te laten onderhouden.

2SaveEnergy-Gewächshaus- Produktion und Energieverbrauch
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1404) - 46 p.
greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - energy saving - energy consumption - isolation - isolation techniques - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie - isolatietechnieken - tomaten
Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetres, in the year 2015, resulted in a low energy consumption and a better than expected good tomato production. During cultivation, the principles of the new cultivation methods were used. With respect to the common practice, the energy consumption was more than 50% lower at a minimum equal production.
Teelt en energie 2SaveEnergy kas
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1402) - 42 p.
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie - isolatietechnieken - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - energy saving - energy consumption - isolation - isolation techniques - tomatoes
Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetres, in the year 2015, resulted in a low energy consumption and a better than expected good tomato production. During cultivation, the principles of the new cultivation methods were used. With respect to the common practice, the energy consumption was more than 50% lower at a minimum equal production.
‘ Lucht aanzuigen boven scherm moet klimaat verbeteren’ : goede productie in onderzoek naar ‘de perfecte roos’
Gelder, Arie de - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - cut flowers - roses - agricultural research - mildews - spraying - climatic factors - crop production - heat exchangers - ventilators - illumination

Na een goed voorjaar heeft het rozengewas bij het in Bleiswijk gevestigde Improvement Centre in de zomer en het begin van de herfst meeldauw opgelopen. Door verandering van klimaat en verbeterde spuittechniek is dit weer onder controle. De warmtewisselaars kunnen nu lucht boven het energiescherm aanzuigen, zodat de schermen optimaal inzetbaar zijn.

Carefully compile a wish list and measure objectivity : advice on choosing the right diffuse greenhouse roof
Hemming, Silke - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - diffused glass - light transmission - condensation - glass - agricultural research - netherlands - belgium - coatings - scattering - roofs

Growers know that a diffuse roof – with or without an anti-reflective coating – offers added value compared with traditional greenhouse glass. However, it is not so simple to decide which one to choose. Researcher Silke Hemming lists all the relevant aspects. An underestimated factor is measuring samples taken from good representative spots for new large-scale building projects.

Paprikateelt in emissieloze kas haalt gelijke productie met zelfde kwaliteit : ‘bewustwording bij telers moet omhoog’
Beerling, Ellen ; Os, Erik van - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - vegetables - capsicum - sweet peppers - emission reduction - agricultural research - water reuse - drainage water - water filters - disinfection - ozone - substrates - crop production

Als de proef met emissieloos telen één ding heeft duidelijk gemaakt, is het wel dat water meer vertrouwen verdient, menen Wageningen UR onderzoekers Ellen Beerling en Erik van Os. “Als we er bewust mee om gaan, neemt de noodzaak om te lozen aanzienlijk af.” De paprikateelt in het IDC Water in Bleiswijk verliep met volledige recirculatie van water en presteerde zeker niet minder dan de referentieteelt.

Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production
Stanghellini, C. ; Baptista, F. ; Eriksson, Evert ; Gilli, Celine ; Giuffrida, F. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Munoz, P. ; Stepowska, Agnieszka ; Montero, J.I. - \ 2016
[Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462575356 - 54 p.
greenhouse horticulture - organic farming - energy consumption - greenhouse technology - heating systems - sustainable energy - fossil energy - air conditioning - glastuinbouw - biologische landbouw - energiegebruik - kastechniek - verwarmingssystemen - duurzame energie - fossiele energie - klimaatregeling
Review of the major sources for energy consumption in organic greenhouse horticulture and analyse of the options available to reduce energy consumption or, at least, increase the energy use efficiency of organic production in greenhouses. At the moment, the best way to match demand and availability of electricity (solar and wind power) is through the grid, also in view of existing subsidies for electricity sale to the grid. There is some scope for local application of solar thermal energy for heating and/or humidity management, although this requires a large investment in thermal buffering. In combined organic farms there is scope for biomass burning and/or biogas production. Technology developments ensure that currently there are commercial greenhouse operations that benefit from the use of biomass and, in some cases, biogas. Such alternative energy sources are progressively replacing traditional (and more pollutant) fuels.
Emissieloze kas haalbaar met gangbare techniek
Os, E.A. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Staaij, M. van der; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Janse, J. - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)5. - p. 26 - 29.
glastuinbouw - teeltsystemen - emissiereductie - recirculatiesystemen - substraten - cultuur zonder grond - kweekmedia - vergelijkingen - kastechniek - landbouwkundig onderzoek - gewaskwaliteit - greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems - emission reduction - recirculating systems - substrates - soilless culture - culture media - comparisons - greenhouse technology - agricultural research - crop quality
Vorig jaar startte Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw samen met een aantal partijen uit de tuinbouw een project om te onderzoeken of emissieloos telen mogelijk is bij dezelfde productie en kwaliteit. En om te ontdekken welke technieken daarvoor nodig zijn. In dit artikel gaan de betrokken onderzoekers dieper in op deze waterefficiënte emissieloze kas en presenteren zij de eerste resultaten
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