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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Phosphorus mobilization and biocontrol of plant pathogens combined in one strain – results of a fungus and a bacterial inoculant
Postma, J. ; Nijhuis, E.H. - \ 2015
aardbeien - tomaten - potproeven - gewasbescherming - grondverbeteraars - compost - biochar - schimmelbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - glastuinbouw - mycorrhizae - fosfor - strawberries - tomatoes - pot experimentation - plant protection - soil amendments - composts - fungus control - biological control - greenhouse horticulture - mycorrhizas - phosphorus
How two important crops, strawberry and tomato grown in potting soil, benefit from microbial inoculants.
The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah
Carvalho, M.T.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Holger Meinke, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans; Pepijn van Oort; A.B. Heinemann. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572522 - 160
houtskool - grondverbeteraars - oryza sativa - rijst - landbouwplantenteelt - bodemvruchtbaarheid - stikstofoxide - savannegronden - brazilië - charcoal - soil amendments - rice - crop husbandry - soil fertility - nitric oxide - savanna soils - brazil

Abstract

Keywords: tropical Savannah, biochar, soil fertility, aerobic rice, grain yield, N2O emission

Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (2015). The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English, Dutch and Portuguese, 160 pp.

Rice is a staple food for 3 billion people in the world. In Brazil, rice is a traditional staple food mostly cultivated by smallholder farmers. Rice is better adapted to soil types and climate conditions of the Brazilian tropical Savannah than crops like corn and soybean. However, environmental and socio-economic constraints such as the variable rainfall and the limited access to mineral fertilization is a challenge for sustainable aerobic rice production in Brazil. Yields can vary from 1 to 5 Mg ha-1. In this context, the use of agronomic techniques able to improve soil properties seems a good option to increase quantity and stability of rice production. The use of biochar as a soil amendment represents one such option. Biochar is carbonized biomass, generally a by-product of bioenergy production from biomass. Its use in agricultural soils is inspired by the very fertile Terra Preta soils, which are a result of pre-Columbian human activity in the Amazon region. A key component of the fertility of Terra Preta soils is the high content of C, mostly present in form of pyrogenic C, result of carbonization of organic material. Pyrogenic C is also an important fraction of the soil organic matter present in the weathered soils of the Brazilian Savannah. These soils are mostly acidic, with low soil organic matter content, requiring liming and mineral fertilization if used for agriculture. The biochar tested in the current research is a by-product of charcoal production from eucalyptus wood via slow pyrolysis at 400-500 ○C. It is a porous material with a high C content and K, Ca and Mg availability, which make it a potentially suitable soil amendment for the low fertile soils of the Brazilian Savannah. We applied biochar in a sandy and a clay soil type of the Brazilian Central West region, where over 40% of the Brazilian total crop production is located. We investigated whether biochar amendment improves soil chemical and physical properties and how this in turn affects aerobic rice yields along four cropping seasons after a single biochar application. In both soil types, biochar decreased soil acidity up to 3.5 years after its application. On the clay soil, biochar application decreased the soil water retention capacity but increased the soil organic matter content. The effect of biochar on rice yields on the clay soil were either absent, negative or dependent on the amount of mineral N applied, as well as biochar-induced changes in soil properties, particularly soil water retention and soil organic matter. Most promising results were observed on the sandy soil, where biochar application increased the soil water retention capacity. On the sandy soil, first two seasons were drier than latter two seasons. Accordingly, effects of biochar on rice yields were divergent: the positive effects observed in the first two seasons were absent in subsequent seasons. During this study, weather conditions and rice blast infestations were factors that influenced the observed effects of biochar on rice yields. Further, biochar did not enhance N2O emissions on the clay soil. Based on these results wood biochar could be considered for use in farming systems of the Brazilian Savannah, particularly on sandy soils.

Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns
Sagrilo, E. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper; Ellis Hoffland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571679 - 128
organisch bodemmateriaal - grondverbeteraars - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - vesiculair-arbusculaire mycorrhizae - bodemvruchtbaarheid - glycine max - biochar - stikstoffixatie - kooldioxide - emissie - brazilië - soil organic matter - soil amendments - soil carbon sequestration - vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas - soil fertility - nitrogen fixation - carbon dioxide - emission - brazil

Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

Edvaldo Sagrilo

Summary

Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There is currently a growing interest in research on the use of PyOM as a soil amendment, inspired by the existence of highly fertile, PyOM-rich anthropogenic soils in the Amazon basin. The presence of PyOM in these so-called Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) in quantities larger than in the non-anthropogenic surrounding soils is considered one of the main reasons for their high fertility.

Soil additions of PyOM have been suggested to increase soil fertility and crop yields, simultaneously providing additional important environmental services. The offset of CO2 emissions through sequestration of a larger pool of recalcitrant soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of these services. This would at the same time sustain soil microbial activity, which is directly associated to soil quality, for instance, nutrient cycles and plant growth. This multiple win scenario suggests that the addition of PyOM to the soil would be the solution for the “carbon dilemma”. The dilemma states that the main biological benefits from soil organic matter are a consequence of its decay. Therefore, it is unlikely that increased C sequestration and the benefits from its decay can be simultaneously maximized. Rather than win-win, PyOM would then also be subjected to inevitable trade-offs.

Additions of PyOM can modify the turnover rate of native SOC by either accelerating or decelerating its decomposition through a mechanism known as priming. Although positive priming by PyOM has been reported, negative priming has also been found. The higher amount of non-pyrogenic C in ADE, compared to non-anthropogenic surrounding soils has been considered evidence that PyOM can stabilize SOC in the long-term. A complicating issue in studies is that short-term increases in CO2 emission can be due to decomposition of labile PyOM fractions, erroneously suggesting positive priming of SOC. Addition of PyOM can also lead to modifications in the microbial activity and assemblages. Changes in microbial populations can have impacts on their functionality, favouring mutualistic root symbioses such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) symbiosis and the rhizobial symbiosis with legumes that is responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Although soil amendments with PyOM can stimulate AMF and BNF, results are contrasting and mechanisms are not clear. Most studies of PyOM effects on SOC and on mutualistic root symbioses are from short-term experiments, often conducted in greenhouse or laboratory. Although such studies provide insights in potential factors driving changes in SOC and symbiotic relationships in PyOM-amended soils, they do not assess changes under realistic conditions over periods of time longer that one or a few cropping cycles. Therefore, there is still a gap in our understanding regarding the duration and magnitude of effects over time under field conditions and possible mechanisms involved. This thesis addresses these gaps.

The aim of this research was to provide a better understanding of interactions between PyOM and SOC and the factors controlling symbiotic patterns in a tropical soil amended with PyOM. To reach this aim, I combined greenhouse and field studies. I also used meta-analytic methods in order to quantitatively synthesize data in literature.

In Chapter 2, I combined the results of 46 studies in a meta-analysis. I investigated changes in CO2 emission patterns from an array of PyOM-amended soils and identified the causes of these changes and the possible factors involved. I showed an overall increase of 29% in CO2 emission from PyOM-amended soils. Such increases were only evident in soils amended with a PyOM-C (PyC):SOC ratio >2. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased CO2 emission after PyOM addition is additive and mainly derived from PyOM’s labile C fractions rather than from SOC. Therefore, positive priming is not a main driver of increases in CO2 emission in PyOM-amended soils. This PyC:SOC ratio provided the best predictor of increases in CO2 production after PyOM addition to soil. This meta-analysis indicates (i) the importance of taking into account the amount of applied PyC in relation to SOC for designing future decomposition experiments and that (ii) the recalcitrance of PyOM in soil-PyOM mixtures may be less than usually assumed.

A technical problem of separating PyOM-induced priming on SOC from other non-additive interactions is the uncertainty regarding the origin of the respired CO2 (whether from SOC or PyOM). This issue can only be solved with the use of isotopes. In a field study (Chapter 3), I quantified changes in the PyOM and SOC stocks over four soybean cropping cycles (CC) in a sandy Ferralsol, previously supporting a vegetation with C4 plants, amended with different rates of PyOM (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1). The PyOM was produced from C3 woody species using traditional pyrolysis methods employed in Northeast Brazil. I used 13C isotopic analysis to discriminate the origin of the C in the soil and quantify the decomposition rates of native SOC and PyOM. I showed that decomposition of traditionally produced PyOM is faster (25-60% within first year) than normally assumed (10-20% within 5-10 years), which was higher than that of native SOC (5-14%). The data indicate preferential decomposition of PyOM compared to native SOC. The intensity of that effect depends on the rate of PyOM applied to the soil. Only on the longer term (>1 yr) addition of PyOM seems to stabilize SOC.

In Chapter 4 I explored mechanisms controlling AMF activity and crop yield in PyOM-amended soils through the use of path analysis. I tested the effects of PyOM rates and P fertilization on soybean root colonization by AMF, soil P and plant performance over four cropping cycles (CCs). Data showed a major effect of CC and P, as well an interaction effect of PyOM x CC on mycorrhizal colonization. There was a linear decrease in root colonization by AMF in CC1 with increasing PyOM rates in contrast to a consistent linear increase in CC4. Plant performance was mainly affected by CC, but a significant interactive effect of PyOM x P was also observed on grain yield. Grain yield was highest at high PyOM rates (20 and 40 Mg ha-1) in the P-fertilized treatments in CC4. Soil pH increased in CC1 with increasing PyOM rates, but no effects were observed in CC4. Path analysis indicated that PyOM effects on root colonization by AMF were not mediated by changes in soil pH or P content. My data are consistent with the hypothesis that interference of PyOM in signalling processes is an important driver of change in AMF activity and that positive effects of PyOM on AMF and crop yield develop with time.

In Chapter 5, I assessed the effects of PyOM application rates and P fertilization on BNF in soybean inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum over four cropping cycles. Again I observed that CC had a significant main effect on most dependent variables, while PyOM was not a significant source of variation. There was a significant PyOM × CC interaction effect on shoot N concentration. In CC1 shoot N concentration after application of 5 Mg PyOM was significantly lower than that of plants grown on plots to which 10 or 20 Mg PyOM was applied. In CC4 shoot N concentration was not affected by PyOM. The major effect of CC was explained through changes in nutrient management, more specifically the addition of micronutrients in CC3 and CC4. Alleviation of micronutrient deficiency increased BNF and also resulted in a positive effect of P on BNF. I conclude that under conditions of adequate management, PyOM application does not improve BNF in soybean.

In Chapter 6 (General Discussion) I synthesize the findings of the previous chapters and use data from additional greenhouse and litterbag field experiments to integrate the results. Data from Chapters 2 and 3 show that if any positive priming occurs due to PyOM addition, it is a small short-term event and does not lead to significant losses of native SOC in the long-term. This was confirmed by data from a 2 yr litterbag experiment, which showed no interaction between decomposition of PyOM and fresh organic matter.

Stability of SOC has been considered an ecosystem property rather than a consequence of recalcitrance, but this definition has not yet been extended to PyOM. In this thesis I demonstrated that stability of PyOM can also be influenced by the soil environment. In order to link PyOM effects to SOC and on root symbioses, I performed path analysis integrating root colonization by AMF, SOC content and Ndfa in one model. We found no significant path coefficients linking AMF and BNF. The model indicated a significant positive path coefficient linking AMF root colonization and SOC in CC4, but not in CC1. The data suggest that PyOM may increase SOC stability through increased AMF activity. Soil aggregation and C sequestration are tightly correlated with abundance of AMF in the soil. I propose that the same mechanism through which AMF stabilizes native SOC may also positively influence PyOM stabilization in the long-term.

In conclusion, I have shown that main beneficial effects of PyOM on AMF and crop yield develop with time, but in well-managed soils increased crop yield is not a direct consequence of increased AMF due to PyOM addition. Finally, although PyOM additions represent an effective form of sequestering C, positive effects of PyOM on crop yield are likely to occur after partial decomposition of PyOM. Therefore, although some benefits of adding PyOM can be simultaneously obtained (C sequestration and increased crop yield), they cannot be simultaneously maximized. This means that the carbon dilemma can only be partially solved by adding PyOM to the soil.

Alternatieve methoden voor chemische bodemontsmetting voor de appelteelt op zandgrond
Wenneker, M. ; Steeg, P.A.H. van der; Visser, J.H.M. ; Korthals, G.W. - \ 2014
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruitteelt - 21
malus domestica - appels - bodemmoeheid - plantenparasitaire nematoden - pratylenchus penetrans - grondsterilisatie - biologische grondontsmetting - tagetes patula - biologische bestrijding - biofumigatie - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - compost - grondverbeteraars - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - veldproeven - nederland - apples - soil sickness - plant parasitic nematodes - soil sterilization - biological soil sterilization - biological control - biofumigation - cultural control - composts - soil amendments - integrated pest management - field tests - netherlands
Met name op zandgronden speelt de problematiek van herinplantziekte. Zonder grondontsmetting lijkt herinplant van fruitbomen niet rendabel. Een van de veroorzakers van herinplantziekte is het wortellesieaaltje (Pratylenchus penetrans). Op een appelperceel met een vrij hoge bodembesmetting van het wortellesieaaltje Pratylenchus penetrans (één van de veroorzakers van bodemmoeheid) zijn na het rooien van de bomen in het voor en najaar van 2007 zeven verschillende behandelingen toegepast: Tagetes (‘Afrikaantje’), Tagetes + biologische grondontsmetting, Japanse haver (Avena strigosa) + late biologische grondontsmetting, biofumigatie met Sarepta mosterd, compost, zwarte braak en natte grondontsmetting (controle behandelingen). De methode met Afrikaantjes en die met Afrikaantjes gecombineerd met Biologische grondontsmetting (BGO) bleken de populaties van Pratylenchus aanzienlijk te reduceren, bijna net zo goed als natte grondontsmetting. Afrikaantjes bestrijden de aaltjes en door de combinatie met BGO worden ook andere (bodemmoeheid veroorzakende) ziekteverwekkers bestreden. Compost en late BGO hadden een vergelijkbaar effect als onbehandelde grond. Na biofumigatie was de aaltjespopulatie toegenomen.
Herwaardering van een vergeten bodemverbeteraar : steenmeel voor bodemvruchtbaarheid en klimaatdoelstellingen landbouw
Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Beusekom, M. van; Bergsma, H. - \ 2012
Bodem 22 (2012)4. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 34 - 36.
bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemverbeteraars - grondverbeteraars - mulches - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - soil fertility - soil conditioners - soil amendments - sustainability
Nieuwe ideeën brengen mensen op de been. Vanuit verschillende invalshoeken zijn we bezig steenmelen toe te passen op bodems: om bodems vruchtbaarder te maken, om klimaatdoelstellingen van de agrarische sector te behalen, en om ontwikkelingslanden meer mogelijkheden te geven om eigen grondstoffen te gebruiken. De zoektocht naar geschikte steenmelen vraagt inbreng van verschillende partijen.
CocoMix : Eindrapport SBIR CocoMix Fase 1
Overweg, G. ; Krenz, M. ; Blok, C. - \ 2010
IntroVation B.V. - 40
grondverbeteraars - substraten - tuinbouw - ph - economische haalbaarheid - cocos - vervangmiddelen - turf - groeimedia - soil amendments - substrates - horticulture - economic viability - substitutes - peat - growing media
De doelstelling van het CocoMix project is het ontwikkelen van een substraat waarin geen veen meer is verwerkt. Positief is dat de markt al behoorlijk in beweging is om veen te vervangen. De markt heeft tot op heden een aantal positieve resultaten behaald met verschillende ‘veenvervangers’ (Blok & Verhagen, 2009). Toch blijkt dat altijd nog een percentage veen nodig is om problemen met wortelgroei in de propagationfase te voorkomen. IntroVation is door de SBIR van het ministerie van LNV in staat gesteld een substraat te ontwikkelen dat voor 100% veenvrij is. Kokos is een substraat met een aantal gunstige eigenschappen. Doordat kokos weinig nutriënten bevat (lage EC-waarde) kan de teler de voedingstoffen goed controleren. Daarnaast heeft kokos een gunstig water en luchthuishoudingen kan het na indroging weer makkelijk vocht opnemen. Kokos mist echter een hechtende eigenschap, dit maakt het moeilijk om zwartveen te vervangen. Bovendien is de pH van kokos te hoog en te instabiel. In deze haalbaarheidsstudie wordt voor beide problemen door een innovatieve oplossing aangedragen. Namelijk een pH additief en een bindmiddel. Ook worden mogelijke ontwikkelpartners (OctoPlus en Evonik) voor de tweede fase en krachtige marktpartijen (Horticoop en Jiffy) voorgesteld.
Rijenbemesting met dierlijke mest en kunstmest in snijmais
Haan, J.J. de; Verstegen, H.A.G. ; Geel, W.C.A. van - \ 2009
rijenbemesting - dierlijke meststoffen - kunstmeststoffen - grondverbeteraars - maïs - toedieningswijzen - stikstofmeststoffen - plantenvoeding - mestgiften - globale plaatsbepalingssystemen - band placement - animal manures - fertilizers - soil amendments - maize - application methods - nitrogen fertilizers - plant nutrition - dressings - global positioning systems
Beperkingen bij toepassing Rijenbemesting moet (vooralsnog) bij zaai. Combinatie van zaaien en bemesten is risicovoller. Goede omstandigheden zijn noodzakelijk: niet te losse grond en een goede afstelling van de machine voorkomt zaad in de mest, voldoende draagkracht beperkt insporing. Het aantal werkbare dagen is daarom klein. Wanneer toediening van dierlijke mest in de rij niet goed is zijn opbrengsten 10 tot 20% lager. Daarom wordt rijenbemesting in maïs nog weinig in de praktijk toegepast
Haal meer uit de bemesting met het oog op plant én milieu : nuttige tips voor effectieve bemesting van boomkwekerijgewassen in de volle grond
Reuler, H. van; Geers, F.A.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. (PPO publicatie 426) - 16
boomkwekerijen - kunstmeststoffen - mestgiften - grondverbeteraars - wetgeving - stikstofmeststoffen - normen - richtlijnen (directives) - milieubeheer - bemesting - vollegrondsteelt - mestbeleid - Nederland - forest nurseries - fertilizers - dressings - soil amendments - legislation - nitrogen fertilizers - standards - directives - environmental management - fertilizer application - outdoor cropping - manure policy - Netherlands
In 2006 is de nieuwe mestwetgeving ingevoerd. Het doel daarvan was om te voldoen aan de Nitraatrichtlijn. De stikstofgebruiksnormen voor de boomkwekerij zijn relatief laag. Hierdoor is het voor de kwekers noodzaak om zo efficiënt mogelijk om te gaan met de toegestane stikstofgebruiksruimte
EM: effectieve microben of effectieve magie? : Een onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van Effectieve Micro-organismen (EM)
Bruggen, A.H.C. van; Blok, W.J. ; Vos, O.J. de; Volker, D. ; Diepen, G. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel, Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 245) - ISBN 9789085850878 - 42
micro-organismen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - gewasbescherming - bodembiologie - grondverbeteraars - bodemverbeteraars - compost - compostering - organische stof - bodemweerbaarheid - microorganisms - soil fertility - plant protection - soil biology - soil amendments - soil conditioners - composts - composting - organic matter - soil suppressiveness
In dit onderzoek werden de effecten bepaald van het microbiële middel EM (Effectieve Microorganismen) op het verloop van het composteringsproces en op de ziektewerendheid tegen wortelziekten. EM werd ook toegevoegd aan biologisch beteelde gronden in de vorm van gefermenteerd organisch materiaal (bokashi). Verschillende experimenten en bodemanalyses werden gedaan om te bepalen welk effect EM zou hebben op de ziektewerendheid van de bodems
Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost
Rijn, E. van - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ariena van Bruggen, co-promotor(en): Aad Termorshuizen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045847 - 155
compost - plantenziekteverwekkers - plantenziekten - volksgezondheidsbevordering - bodem - grondverbeteraars - composts - plant pathogens - plant diseases - sanitation - soil - soil amendments
Aaltjes dicteren keuze groenbemester
Hoek, J. ; Timmer, R.D. - \ 2006
Boerderij/Akkerbouw 91 (2006)16. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. 8 - 10.
groenbemesters - gewassen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - grondverbeteraars - gewasbescherming - nematoda - bemesting - green manures - crops - soil fertility - soil amendments - plant protection - fertilizer application
Groenbemesters hebben een gunstig effect op de bodemvruchtbaarheid. Ook een effect is dat groenbemesters aaltjes kunnen vermeerderen. In een volggewas kan dat problemen geven
Vooronderzoek absorptie grondgeluid Polderbaan Schiphol
Akker, J.J.H. van den; Kekem, A.J. van - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1358) - 80
geluidshinder - lawaaibestrijding - absorptie - bodem - grondverbeteraars - nederland - bodemfysica - luchthavens - grondbewerking - noord-holland - airports - noise pollution - noise abatement - soil physics - tillage - absorption - soil - soil amendments - netherlands
Het geluid van startende vliegtuigen vanaf de Polderbaan veroorzaakt overlast in Hoofddorp-Noord, vooral bij noordoostelijke wind in de winter. Dit grondgeluid zou ten dele door poreuze gronden geabsorbeerd kunnen worden. Dit onderzoek gaat na wat de bodemkundige mogelijk¬heden zijn voor het aanleggen van stabiele ploegruggen of grondruggen. Ook worden de land¬bouwkundige en landbouweconomische aspecten behandeld. Daarnaast zijn diverse stakeholders benaderd. In een vervolgonderzoek zullen de effecten van ploegen en grondruggen op geluidsabsorptie nader onderzocht worden
Effects of soil amendments and drought on zinc husbandry and grain quality in Sahelian sorghum
Traore, K. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre (Tropical resource management papers no. 74) - ISBN 9085850673 - 162
sorghum - sorghum bicolor - grondverbeteraars - droogte - graan - kwaliteit - zinkmeststoffen - landbouwplantenteelt - soil amendments - drought - grain - quality - zinc fertilizers - crop husbandry
Effects of soil amendments and drought on zinc husbandry and grain quality in Sahelian sorghum
Traore, K. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085044375 - 162
sorghum - sorghum bicolor - grondverbeteraars - droogte - graan - kwaliteit - zinkmeststoffen - landbouwplantenteelt - soil amendments - drought - grain - quality - zinc fertilizers - crop husbandry
In developing countries, short supply of Zinc is limiting both crop yield and human health. Improving Zn bio-availability in staple foods would greatly improve public health. It¿s therefore a major challenge to design cereal production techniques resulting in higher Zn mass fractions (MF) in combination with a lower phytic acid (IP-6, the main form of phosphorus accumulation in the grain) MF. In northern Burkina Faso, soil and water conservation (SWC) and soil organic amendments (SOAs) techniques adopted by farmers have improved both water and nutrient availability which consequently increased crop yields. Potentially, this improvement in yield may also improve the bio-availability of Zn from staple foods. This research investigated possible modifications of SOAs as currently practiced by farmers, which increase both the quality and the yield of sorghum in the Sahel
Meer calcium, kleinere kluit
Rozen, K. van; Ester, A. ; Mierlo, T. van - \ 2004
Boerderij/Akkerbouw 89 (2004)3. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. 16 - 17.
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - rooien - oogsten - bodemstructuur - kluiten - versmeren - klei - aardwormen - grondverbeteraars - bodemverbeteraars - bekalking - gips - bodemchemie - kunstmeststoffen - ammoniumsulfaat - bemesting - flevoland - potatoes - grubbing - harvesting - soil structure - clods - puddling - clay - earthworms - soil amendments - soil conditioners - liming - gypsum - soil chemistry - fertilizers - ammonium sulfate - fertilizer application
In de Flevopolder komen grote aantallen regenwormen voor, wat bij het aardappelrooien kan leiden tot grote kluiten en versmering. In emmerproeven met grond uit de Flevopolder werd onderzocht in hoeverre toediening van kalk- en zuurwerkende meststoffen deze structuurproblemen kan helpen voorkomen. Vooral gips en zwavelzure ammoniak blijken minder grote kluiten te geven
Perspectieven voor berm-, oever- en slootmaaisel; alternatieve verwerkingsmethoden en werkbare wetgeving
Spijker, J.H. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Harmsen, J. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra - 76
maaien - grasmaaisel - wegbermen - kanaaloevers - slootkanten - kanalen - sloten - aanwendingen - compost - grondverbeteraars - mowing - grass clippings - roadsides - canal banks - ditch banks - canals - ditches - uses - composts - soil amendments
Beheer van organische stof
Ruijter, F. de; Kool, S. de; Dwarswaard, A. - \ 2002
Bloembollencultuur 133 (2002). - ISSN 0165-6406 - p. 10 - 11.
organische meststoffen - bodemstructuur - grondverbeteraars - mineralen - verliezen uit de bodem - dierlijke meststoffen - bemesting - organic fertilizers - soil structure - soil amendments - minerals - losses from soil - animal manures - fertilizer application
Het project Telen met Toekomst (TMT)richt zich op het terugdringen van nutriëntenverliezen. Onderzoek is gedaan naar de hoeveelheid nutriënten in verschillende organische meststoffen (vaste rundveemest, vaste kippenmest, champost, edelcompost, recrocompost, structuurcompost, veencompost, natuurcompost, tarwestro)
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