Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ontwikkeling emissietoetswaarden voor het beoordelen van duurzaam stortbeheer op pilotstortplaatsen : fase 2: Voorstellen voor emissietoetswaarden (Nederlandstalige verkorte versie van RIVM-rapport 607710002)
Brand, E. ; Nijs, T. de; Claessens, J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Comans, R.N.J. ; Lieste, R. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu - 105
dumping - afvalstortplaatsen - emissie - grondwater - risicoschatting - diffusiemodellen - waterverontreiniging - grondwaterverontreiniging - modelleren - waterkwaliteit - waste disposal sites - emission - groundwater - risk assessment - diffusion models - water pollution - groundwater pollution - modeling - water quality
Sinds de jaren negentig wordt internationaal onderzoek verricht naar ‘duurzaam stortbeheer’. Het idee hierachter is dat de bron, de stortplaats zelf, schoner wordt, zodat er minder verontreinigingen uit de stortplaatsen kunnen weglekken. Op deze manier worden de bodem en het nabijgelegen grondwater beschermd. Tot nu toe zijn er nog geen technieken beschikbaar waarvan het effect op grote schaal bewezen is. In dat verband heeft het RIVM, in samenwerking met het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN), onderzoek gedaan voor drie vuilstortlocaties in Nederland. Voor deze locaties zijn ‘emissietoetswaarden’ afgeleid, waarmee kan worden vastgesteld hoeveel schadelijke stoffen er maximaal in het water afkomstig van de stortplaats mag zitten.
Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage : impacts of soil heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation
Sommer, W.T. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; J. Valstar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572942 - 204
watervoerende lagen - thermische energie - opslag - energieterugwinning - economische impact - milieueffect - bodemsanering - grondwaterverontreiniging - aquifers - thermal energy - storage - energy recovery - economic impact - environmental impact - soil remediation - groundwater pollution

Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

Impacts of heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation

Wijbrand Sommer
PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2015)
ISBN 978-94-6257-294-2

Abstract

Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is applied world-wide to provide heating and cooling to buildings. Application of ATES, instead of traditional heating and cooling installations, reduces primary energy consumption and related CO2 emissions. Intensified use of the subsurface for thermal applications requires more accurate methods to measure and predict the development of thermal plumes in the subsurface related to thermal interference between systems and address issues concerning subsurface urban planning and wide spread presence of contaminants in urban groundwater systems.

In this thesis, subsurface heat transport in ATES and the associated influence on storage performance for thermal energy was assessed. Detailed monitoring of subsurface temperature development around the wells of an existing system was achieved by a unique application of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using glass fibre optical cables. The measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity. Heat transport modelling shows that heterogeneity causes preferential flow paths that can affect thermal interference between systems, mainly depending on well-to-well distance and hydrogeological conditions.

At present, design rules are applied in such way that all negative interference is avoided. However, this limits the number of ATES systems that can be realized in a specific area, especially as these systems generally use only 60% of their permitted capacity. To optimize the use of available aquifer volume, the amount of thermal interference that is acceptable from an economical and environmental perspective was studied for different zonation patterns and well-to-well distances. Selecting the hydrogeological conditions of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as a case study, this method shows that it is cost-effective to allow a limited amount of thermal interference, such that 30–40% more energy can be provided than compared to the case in which all negative thermal interference is avoided.

Because many urbanized areas deal with contaminated soil and groundwater, ambitions to increase the number of ATES systems are confronted with the presence of groundwater contaminants. This is of concern, because groundwater movement induced by the ATES system can result in increased mobility and spreading of these contaminants. However, the combination between ATES and soil and groundwater remediation could be a promising integrated technique, both for improving groundwater quality and development of ATES. Opportunities to use ATES as a continuous biostimulation tool for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) have been explored with a reactive transport model.

Gedrag van chloorprofam en 3-chlooraniline in de bodem : bepaling van adsorptie, omzetting en uitloging met tarragrond van aardappelen
Beltman, W.H.J. ; Matser, A.M. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Brand, E. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2523) - 65
aardappelopslagplaatsen - aardappelen - opslag - kiemremmers - adsorptie - uitspoelen - grondwaterverontreiniging - potato stores - potatoes - storage - germination inhibitors - adsorption - leaching - groundwater pollution
Bij de bewaring van aardappelen wordt als kiemremmer de werkzame stof chloorprofam gebruikt. Na verwerking van de aardappelen in de fabriek blijft chloorprofam en haar omzettingsprodukt 3-chlooraniline in de resterende tarragrond aanwezig. De tarragrond wordt hergebruikt in grootschalige bodemtoepassingen. Omzetting, adsorptie en uitloging van chloorprofam en haar metaboliet 3-chlooraniline zijn onderzocht met tarragrond van aardappelen (onbelast en belast met chloorprofam) en met bouwvoorgrond. De omzettingssnelheid van chloorprofam en 3-chlooraniline is bepaald in bouwvoorgrond, in onverzadigde onbelaste tarragrond en in waterverzadigde onbelaste tarragrond. De adsorptieparameters van de Freundlich sorptie isotherm zijn bepaald voor 3-chlooraniline in onbelaste tarragrond en in bouwvoorgrond. De uitloogproeven zijn gedaan met onverzadigde belaste tarragrond en met waterverzadigde belaste tarragrond. De omzettingssnelheden en adsorptieparameters uit deze studie worden gebruikt voor het bepalen van het risico van uitspoeling van chloorprofam en 3-chlooraniline uit grote bodemtoepassingen naar het grondwater.
Leaching of inorganic contaminants towards groundwater : impact assessment of the Dutch Soil Quality Decree on Groundwater
Spijker, J. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Comans, R.N.J. ; Dijkstra, J.J. - \ 2013
Bilthoven : RIVM - 201
grondwaterverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - uitspoelen - metalen - halfmetalen - verontreinigende stoffen - modelleren - anorganische verbindingen - groundwater pollution - soil pollution - leaching - metals - semimetals - pollutants - modeling - inorganic compounds
Dit rapport beschrijft de opzet, evaluatie en resultaten van een modellering van uitloging van metalen en metalloïden uit bodems naar het grondwater. Deze studie had de volgende doelen: 1. het bepalen van representatieve concentraties van metalen en metalloïden in het ondiepe (eerste meter) grondwater; 2. het bepalen van representatieve waarden voor bodemparameters, die de uitloging van metalen en metalloïden bepalen, zoals reactiviteit van opgelost organische koolstof, gehalten aan oxiden en reactiviteit van metalen en metalloïden; 3. het verbeteren van het bestaande modelinstrumentarium voor het modelleren van de uitloging van metalen en metalloïden uit de bodem, inclusief de onzekerheid van deze modellen.
Nitrate concentrations in drainage water in marine clay areas : exploratory research of the causes of increased nitrate concentrations
Boekel, E.M.P.M. van; Roelsma, J. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Hendriks, R.F.A. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Jansen, P.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2421) - 98
zware kleigronden - drainagewater - stikstof - emissie - mestbeleid - grondwaterverontreiniging - clay soils - drainage water - nitrogen - emission - manure policy - groundwater pollution
The nitrate concentrations measured in drainage water and groundwater at LMM farms (farms participating in the National Manure Policy Effects Measurement Network (LLM)) in marine clay areas have decreased with 50% since the mid-nineties. The nitrate concentrations in marine clay areas are on average below 50 mg/L EU target value. A geographical analysis of the monitoring results shows, however, that the nitrate concentrations in 22% of the measurements, mainly taken in the south-western and central marine clay areas, exceed the EU target. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) commissioned a study to investigate the possible causes of the differences in nitrate concentrations between clay regions. This study shows that the differences in nitrate concentrations are largely due to the specific form of land use combined with the volume of seepage water occurring at LMM farms. This accounts for 43% to 62% of the variation in nitrate concentrations in samples taken from drain pipes at LMM farms from 2006 to 2008. Statistical analysis shows that the average nitrogen surplus of the soil balance of the LMM farms in marine clay areas does not explain the differences in measured (average) nitrate concentrations between these farms. However, the number of farms on clay soils of the LMM-dataset is limited (83 farms in total).
Landelijk meetnet effecten mestbeleid resultaten 2009 en 2010
Goffau, A. de; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Buis, E. - \ 2013
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 680717030/2013) - 90
waterkwaliteit - mestbeleid - grondwaterverontreiniging - fosfaten - nitraten - intensieve veehouderij - water quality - manure policy - groundwater pollution - phosphates - nitrates - intensive livestock farming
Het LMM volgt sinds 1992 de landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit op geselecteerde landbouwbedrijven in Nederland. Dit meetnet vervult twee functies: toetsing of het mestbeleid effectief is en invulling van zowel Europese als nationale monitorings-verplichtingen. In de afgelopen twintig jaar is de hoeveelheid stikstof en fosfaat (nutriënten) die via mest op het land is gebracht, grosso modo afgenomen. Als gevolg van het in 2006 aangescherpte mestbeleid versnelde deze daling. De afname is ook zichtbaar in de hoeveelheid nutriënten die uitspoelt naar de ondergrond of afspoelt naar het oppervlaktewater (bodemoverschot). Dit komt tot uiting in een daling van de nitraatconcentratie in het uitspoelingswater.
Belasting van grondwaterlichamen door gewasbeschermingsmiddelen
Kruijne, R. ; Deneer, J.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2447) - 60
grondwater - grondwaterverontreiniging - uitspoelen - pesticiden - residuen - landbouw - tuinbouw - herbiciden - modellen - indicatoren - grondwaterkwaliteit - nederland - groundwater - groundwater pollution - leaching - pesticides - residues - agriculture - horticulture - herbicides - models - indicators - groundwater quality - netherlands
De Nationale Milieu Indicator NMI 3 is gebruikt om een overzicht te maken van de uitspoeling naar het grondwater door het gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in het jaar 2008 in de Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw. Vrachten op jaarbasis zijn gegeven per werkzame stof en per gewas, voor het landbouwoppervlak ter hoogte van grondwaterlichamen, die in de Kaderrichtlijn Water worden onderscheiden. De meest uitspoelingsgevoelige stoffen worden momenteel toegepast als herbicide in de teelt van snijmaïs. Controle van de vrachten met een geavanceerd model heeft geleid tot een bevestiging dat de combinaties van stof en gewas op de juiste manier zijn gerangschikt.
Minerals Policy Monitoring Programme Report 2007-2010: Methods and Procedures
Goffau, A. de; Leeuwen, T.C. van; Ham, A. van den; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Fraters, B. - \ 2012
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Report 680717018/2012) - 99
bodemverontreiniging - mestbeleid - bemesting - fosfaten - nitraten - grondwaterverontreiniging - akkerbouw - veehouderij - monitoring - soil pollution - manure policy - fertilizer application - phosphates - nitrates - groundwater pollution - arable farming - livestock farming
Mineral Policy Monitoring Programme Report 2007–2010 Methods and procedures Since 2006, the role of the Minerals Policy Monitoring Network (LMM) has widened. This change in scope has affected the organisation of the programme, as well as its methods and procedures. In this report RIVM and LEI Wageningen UR have documented these changes in the set-up of the programme and the associated changes in methods and procedures. Monitoring results are reported separately. Objective of the LMM, prior and after 2006 The objectives of LMM are monitoring the water quality on farms and explaining the results in relation to agricultural practice on those farms. Up to 2006, the results of the LMM were primarily used to assess the effectiveness of Dutch agricultural mineral policies. Since then, LMM was expanded with a so-called derogation-monitoring network. This network monitors the impacts associated with the EU derogation, adjudicated to the Netherlands, for the permissible amounts of nitrogen from manure on grassland farms. Modifications The expansion of LMM tasks was accompanied by various modifications in the programme. First, the number of farms monitored has increased considerably. Secondly, since 2006 the network consists of a stationary group of farms. Prior to that, monitoring was done on a revolving group of farms from the total number of participating farms. Thirdly, the sampling frequency for water quality monitoring has gone up. Finally, the interest in the quality of surface water has gradually increased; at the onset, LMM focused largely on groundwater, water from drains and soil moisture
De bodemkwaliteit in Nederland in 2006-2010 en de verandering ten opzichte van 1993-1997 : resultaten van het Landelijk Meetnet Bodemkwaliteit
Wattel-Koekoek, E.J.W. ; Vliet, M.E. van; Boumans, L.J.M. ; Spijker, J. ; Leeuwen, T.C. van - \ 2012
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 680718003/2012) - 418
bodemverontreiniging - bodemtypen - bodemkwaliteit - pesticiden - inventarisaties - grondwaterverontreiniging - akkerbouw - soil pollution - soil types - soil quality - pesticides - inventories - groundwater pollution - arable farming
Conform de eerste doelstelling is de bodemkwaliteit van de tien categorieën geïnventariseerd en zijn die met elkaar vergeleken. De zandgronden onder bos hebben de laagste zuurgraad en hoogste aluminiumconcentratie van alle categorieën. De zandgronden onder landbouw hebben een hogere zuurgraad, waarschijnlijk door bekalking. Zoals verwacht bevatten kleigronden een groter aandeel van deeltjes die kleiner zijn dan twee micrometer, en hebben veengronden een hoger organisch stofgehalte dan zandgronden. Klei- en veengronden hebben significant hogere gehalten ijzer, mangaan en zware metalen dan zandgronden. Insecticiden als lindaan en dieldrin zijn vooral aangetroffen in gronden onder akkerbouw. Hoewel deze gewasbeschermingsmiddelen uit de handel zijn, kunnen er nog steeds resten van worden aangetroffen.
Transport and biodegradation of volatile organic compounds : influence on vapor intrusion into buildings
Picone, S. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; P.F.M. van Gaans. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732767 - 149
vluchtige verbindingen - organische verbindingen - biodegradatie - biochemisch transport - gebouwen - grondwaterverontreiniging - binnenklimaat - volatile compounds - organic compounds - biodegradation - biochemical transport - buildings - groundwater pollution - indoor climate

Vapor intrusion occurs when volatile subsurface contaminants, migrating from the saturated zone through the unsaturated zone, accumulate in buildings. It is often the most relevant pathway for human health risks at contaminated sites, especially in urban areas; yet its assessment is controversial. Field assessment of vapor intrusion risk is complicated by two interrelated main factors that are controlled by the contaminant’s properties: transport processes in the unsaturated zone and biodegradation in the unsaturated zone. Commonly available vapor intrusion models either overlook significant properties at the field scale or, conversely, are too complex to be applicable at this scale. Specifically, moisture variation, liquid diffusion, dynamic processes such as water table variations, and biodegradation are not adequately accounted for. As a result, the soil gas and indoor air concentrations predicted by existing models frequently overestimate measured concentrations by several orders of magnitude.
This thesis addressed transport and biodegradation processes of volatile organic compounds, focusing on aerobic unsaturated zones. The main aims were to i) characterize significant transport processes influencing vapor intrusion and ii) quantify and mechanistically describe biodegradation in unsaturated soils. Field experience, numerical modeling and laboratory experiments with toluene and vinyl chloride as reference compounds were combined to separate out the relevant processes influencing vapor intrusion.
The main conclusions from this thesis indicate that soil moisture variations and aerobic biodegradation are crucial aspects to be jointly considered for the assessment of vapor intrusion. These may contribute to a significant reduction in the risk associated with dissolved volatile organic contaminants. Specific and relevant implications for modeling and monitoring vapor intrusion can be derived. With respect to vapor intrusion modeling, when including unsaturated zone biodegradation, the use of liquid phase biodegradation rates as derived from liquid mixed batches may underestimate by several orders of magnitude the liquid degradation rates in the unsaturated system. Therefore, biodegradation rates derived from unsaturated system appear more appropriate. With respect to monitoring, vertical soil moisture variations and contaminant/oxygen concentration profiles need to be measured in the field, in order to account for the above processes.

Landelijk meetnet effecten mestbeleid resultaten 2007 en 2008
Goffau, A. de; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Fraters, B. - \ 2012
Bilthoven : RIVM - 68
mestbeleid - akkerbouw - veehouderij - grondwaterverontreiniging - bemesting - fosfaten - nitraten - manure policy - arable farming - livestock farming - groundwater pollution - fertilizer application - phosphates - nitrates
In 2007 is de hoeveelheid gebruikte meststoffen op landbouwbedrijven gemiddeld genomen gedaald ten opzichte van 2006. Hierdoor wordt de bodem van deze bedrijven minder met stikstof en fosfaat belast (de zogeheten bodemoverschotten dalen). Deze daling is vooral op melkveebedrijven vastgesteld. Het bovenste grondwater op landbouwbedrijven bevatte in 2007 en 2008 gemiddeld minder nitraat dan in de jaren ervoor. De sterke daling in concentraties van deze stof die tussen 1992 en 2002 is gemeten, stagneerde echter.
Leaching of plant protection products and their transformation products : proposals for improving the assessment of leaching to groundwater in the Netherlands
Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Pol, J.W. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2264)
bodemchemie - pesticiden - uitspoelen - bodemverontreiniging - grondwaterverontreiniging - monitoring - soil chemistry - pesticides - leaching - soil pollution - groundwater pollution
Assessment of leaching of plant protection products to groundwater is an important aspect of the environmental risk assessment of these substances. Analysis of available Dutch groundwater monitoring data for these substances triggered a critical review of the current Dutch leaching assessment. As a result, proposals were developed for improving this assessment. These include: (i) a procedure for correcting systematic errors in measured sorption coefficients, (ii) a preliminary procedure for a quality check of Freundlich exponents, (iii) a flow chart for obtaining parameters describing the relationship between the organic-matter/water distribution coefficient, Kom, and the pH for weak acids, (iv) a procedure for obtaining an average Kom from a population of Kom values including lower and upper limits, (v) a procedure for estimating the total amount of substance in soil from a concentration profile (needed for assessment of degradation half-lives from field experiments). We recommend to test the feasibility of proposals to a few dossiers before implementing them in the leaching assesssment.
Mitigation options for reducing nutrient emissions from agriculture : a study amongst European member states of Cost action 869
Schoumans, O.F. ; Chardon, W.J. ; Bechmann, M. ; Gascuel-Odoux, C. ; Hofman, G. ; Kronvang, B. ; Litaor, I. ; Porto, A. Lo; Newell, P. ; Rubaek, G.H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2141) - 144
waterverontreiniging - grondwaterverontreiniging - emissie - bemesting - stikstof - fosfor - voedingsstoffen - stikstofverliezen - verliezen - landbouwgrond - water pollution - groundwater pollution - emission - fertilizer application - nitrogen - phosphorus - nutrients - nitrogen losses - losses - agricultural land
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires improvement to the quality of surface water and groundwater. In the past many measures have been implemented to reduce the contribution of point sources, and as a result diffuse pollution from agricultural became more important. The main objective of COST Action 869 is to undertake a scientific evaluation of the suitability and cost-effectiveness of different options for reducing nutrient loss to surface and ground waters at the river basin scale, including their limitations in terms of applicability under different climatic, ecological and geographical conditions. In this report an overview is given of different categories of mitigation options and the individual measures has been described in terms of the mechanism, applicability, effectiveness, time frame, environmental side effects and cost in order to help policy makers, watershed managers and farmers to select the most relevant measures for their conditions
Landelijk meetnet effecten mestbeleid : LMM-jaarrapport 2006
Goffau, A. de; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Fraters, B. - \ 2010
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 680717010/20) - 122
akkerbouw - veehouderij - voedingsstoffen - fosfor - nitraten - grondwaterverontreiniging - arable farming - livestock farming - nutrients - phosphorus - nitrates - groundwater pollution
De kwaliteit van het bovenste grondwater (recente neerslagoverschot) op landbouwbedrijven is in 2006 licht verbeterd ten opzichte van het jaar ervoor. Het aantal bedrijven in de zand-/lössregio met een gemiddelde nitraatconcentratie beneden de Europese norm van 50 milligram per liter is in 2006, vergeleken met 2005, met bijna 10 procent toegenomen. In de klei- en de veenregio is in 2006 het aantal overschrijdingen vrijwel gelijk aan 2005. Dit blijkt uit gegevens van het Landelijk Meetnet effecten Mestbeleid (LMM). Het LMM is opgezet om de ontwikkeling in de kwaliteit van het water op landbouwbedrijven te beschrijven en te verklaren in relatie tot beleidsmaatregelen en de landbouwpraktijk. De waterkwaliteit wordt hiervoor gekoppeld aan de landbouwpraktijk in het voorafgaande jaar. Het LEI en het RIVM beheren het meetnet
Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh
Amin, N. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof; Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): Harry Bruning. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858164 - 243
plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsstudies - watervoorziening - milieubescherming - grondwater - grondwaterverontreiniging - watervoerende lagen - pijpleidingen - arsenicum - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - landbouwhuishoudens - waterfilters - drinkwater - sociologie - bangladesh - zuid-azië - rural development - rural areas - development - development studies - water supply - environmental protection - groundwater - groundwater pollution - aquifers - pipelines - arsenic - community involvement - agricultural households - water filters - drinking water - sociology - south asia
To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In this research, therefore, the development of an appropriate technology for an As-free, safe drinking water supply is considered from a local perspective and a societal context. To achieve the goal and objectives of this research, four research questions were formulated (Chapter 1). The first research question is about the technological and socio-economic performance of community-based pipeline water supply systems that use deep aquifers. The second question deals with available and currently implemented household-level arsenic removal technologies in rural Bangladesh. The third addresses the weaknesses, limitations, strengths and advantages of the technologies in terms of a number of technological, social, economic and gender indicators. Fourth, the question is posed of the most promising arsenic removal option for rural house¬holds in terms of its techno¬logical performance and social acceptability and suitability from a gender perspective. The occurrence of As in the Delta region is of geochemical origin and its distribution in the groundwater has distinct regional patterns and depth trends. An overview of the arsenic problem in Bangladesh is given in Chapter 2.

The overall objective of the research was to develop a socially appropriate and gender-sensitive household-level As removal filter. Technical, socio-economic and cultural aspects were incorporated in this research to assess the development of a sustainable innovation through multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. The technical validation of the systems was carried out through laboratory-based research, to address the efficiency, robustness, operational and maintenance convenience, safety and viability of the technology. For the social research, the model by Spaargaren and Van Vliet (2000) was adjusted to address the filter’s suitability in terms of lifestyle, domestic time-space structures, affordability, standards of comfort, cleanliness, convenience and modes of provision. In addition, I also considered the household resource-based affordability during the operation and maintenance phase, in terms of a socio-technological and gender perspective. A conceptual model was developed to guide the research and to answer the research questions (Chapter 1). The socio-economic data on the main concepts of this research work were collected through a survey (Appendix 2).

In this research, a synthesis of knowledge resulting from disciplinary, open-ended collaboration and local perspectives is achieved. Such a transdisciplinary research approach ensures an integration of knowledge through the participation of a variety of stakeholders, including end users, and mutual learning between the different stakeholders, such as users of the Modified Garnet Homemade Filter (MGH Filter), caretakers, village committees, implementing organizations and donors, users of water, households, and women.

The community–based piped water supply in Bangladesh
There are several alternative sources to get safe and As-free drinking water in Bangladesh. A community-based piped water supply system using deep aquifers is one of them. In this research, three community-based piped water supply systems were compared to evaluate their technological and economic sustainability, the sustainability of using deep aquifers for the long term, and the social and gender appropriateness of the systems, based on the users’ perspective (Chapter 4). The technical performance of the three systems in different geological conditions was found satisfactory in terms of their efficacy, water quality, adequacy of the water supply, and operations and maintenance. The water is As- and Fe-free and is of good taste. The concentration of As is below the limiting range of drinking water in Bangladesh (50µgL-1As), as well as within the WHO and new EPA standards (10µgL-1As). The sustainable use of deep aquifers for a longer period is a serious issue. To address the sustainability, hydro-geological factors need to be well understood. Overextraction of water from deep aquifers could induce a downward migration of dissolved As and permanently destroy the deep resource. Only one system is practicing chlorination to disinfect the water in the overhead tank, while the other two systems do not have such a provision. However, the field data reveal that the three systems are technologically acceptable and do not require disposal of contaminated sludge.

The women who are using one of the three water supply systems are satisfied about the water supply systems. They think the systems reliable in their delivery of adequate water and convenient and comfortable for the women users. Women can get water close to their house, which saves collection time and a physical burden. The appointed caretakers are operating the systems efficiently, including maintenance and the collection of the monthly bill from the beneficiaries. The economical sustainability seems to be satisfactory, provided the initial costs are subsidized by external financial assistance with only a little contribution from the communities, which varies from five to seven percent of the total capital cost. The community participation in sharing the installation cost for the system and the monthly bill are fixed, based on the economical condition of the households. However, a drawback of the community-based piped water system is disruption of the system due to its sensitivity to power failure, which is a big problem in Bangladesh. Other shortcomings are the limitations to extend the system to meet the increasing demand of the village people. On the long term, economical sustainability factors need to be considered, such as the availability of funds and the participation of the users in the system’s management, which were absent in all three systems.

Currently available and implemented household-level arsenic removal technologies

The application of arsenic removal technologies to provide safe drinking water in rural areas plays a vital role where other, alternative options and safe aquifers are not easily available and where community-based pipeline water supply systems are not feasible. In this research, physico-chemical and biological as well as conventional techniques for the removal of arsenic were reviewed (Chapter 5). Based on literature, an inventory was carried out of 40 available and currently implemented technologies at the household level in terms of their arsenic removal efficiency, cost and users’ acceptance. All the technologies remove As from the water to a limited extent. Therefore, there is scope for further development of these technologies. A multiple-criteria analysis (MCA) approach was applied to select a technology for the further development of an appropriate arsenic removal filter for household-level use. In the research, based on the integrated assessments, the MCA-GARNET technology was selected for further development.

An assessment of the performances of the three governmentally certified arsenic removal technologies for rural household use was carried out (Chapter 5). This research concludes that the government’s investments in an improved water supply so far have failed to meet the needs of the poor villagers, because they are not able to buy the costly Alcan and Read-F filters. Even the relatively cheap Sono filter proved to be unaffordable for the poorest. Furthermore, assessing the As removal efficiency and life span of these filters is difficult at this preliminary stage, and so is predicting how the disposal of the spent filter materials will be carried out by the users. The As leaching from the sludge/waste generated by the three treatment processes is dependent on the type of removal mechanism and the ultimate sludge disposal methods.

Development of a chemical-free arsenic removal technology for household use

In this research, by the active participation of potential end users and other stakeholders, I have included local knowledge and social and gender perspectives in the process of the development of an innovative As removal filter (MGH filter) (Chapter 6). The MGH filter efficiency and breakthrough point were studied at different operational variables, such as filter bed thickness, types of filter media and flow rate. The toxicity of the spent material was addressed by a TCLP test. The developed filter meets the Bangladesh standard for arsenic in drinking water (50µgL-1). It can reduce the arsenic concentrations of the shallow tube well water samples from 160-959µgL-1 to 0-50µgL-1. It can also remove bacteriological contamination in terms of total coliform and fecal coliform counts from >500 to 0 cfu/100 mL-1 . The filter consists of two-bucket filters in series, each with three filter material layers of 14 cm thickness each, containing sand, brick chip and sand (Figure 7.1). The first-class brick chips of 1.3 cm size and Sylhet coarse sands were found to be the most efficient. The major advantage of this unit is that it does not require any daily addition of chemicals and can be operated at a high flow rate. It needs to be cleaned regularly to prevent bacterial contamination, while its maintenance requires treatment with bleaching powder at 15-day intervals. The filter is cost–effective and viable; the investments and operational cost are about € 10.8-13.4 and € 0.11-0.14 per 100 liters of treated water, respectively.

In this research, a multi-perspective and participatory socio-technological assessment of the filter’s performance during the field level application was carried out in two phases: the trial phase during March 2008 and the evaluation phase during July 2008 (Chapter 7). Eight MGH filters were distributed among eight households in the research area in Kumarbhog. In this research, the multi-perspective assessment comprised interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches to evaluate the performance of the filters for household use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were used. The suitability and acceptability of the filters were evaluated through systematic observation, interviewing, FGDs and eight case studies of the filter users. The compatibility and appropriate¬ness of the filter were viewed from a gender pers¬pective, since access to safe water is an important practical gender need of women, directly related to their domestic and reproductive role.

Women of the selected eight rural households adopted the technology and ran the filters successfully during the trial phase. As elsewhere in developing countries, in Bangladesh too, rural women are the managers of water for household use. They hardly participate in income generation. The male household head controls the allocation of household income and expenditures, which caused problems when women wanted to re-install their filter. The household survey revealed that sometimes, women cannot be bothered to fetch safe water from far away and, instead, drink the con¬taminated water from their own shallow tube wells. Having the appliance inside the house complied well with the social norms and religious restrictions (purdah) that women have to abide by. In these circumstances, the MGH filter was eagerly accepted by the eight households, because it reduced women’s social and physical burden to fetch As-free, safe water far from their home. In the evaluation phase, some filters were unused because the women could not persuade their husbands to purchase the necessary filter bed materials. During the evaluation phase, the performance of the filters declined compared to the trial phase, because not all users followed the instructions on its operation and maintenance, such as proper chlorination and clean¬liness of the appliance. Disposal of spent filter material was carried out in different ways by the MGH filter users, but more investigation is needed to enable an environmentally friendly disposal of the As-rich sludge.

A new filter system has been developed that can be used by women at the household level. In terms of the simplicity of construction, operation and maintenance, As removal efficiency, and bacterial removal efficiency, its technical performance is good. It is also very cost-effective. However, because such a system always needs to be completely safe for producing drinking water, on the long term as well as under local and household conditions other than those investigated in this research project, further evaluation and additional research will be necessary. In this research, the filter was field-tested under controlled conditions for a month and evaluated after three months. Considering the need for arsenic treatment options in Bangladesh and other developing countries, further research on the performance of the MGH technology could have important positive implications for a safe water supply. Therefore, to allow for seasonality, the MGH filter should be pilot-tested and properly developed over a period of at least a year, in different geographical conditions. A social, economic and technical validation of the MGH filter should be included in the pilot-testing in different parts of the country by applying interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches. Because women are the collectors and managers of drinking water, doing the validation in different parts of the country allows for variation in women’s roles and position and the local socio-cultural context. The MGH filter should be submitted for certification by the government of Bangladesh after further testing and development. The technological principle of the MGH filter may be used to research and develop a community-based low-cost arsenic removal water supply system in rural areas. The results of this research testify to the feasibility of a gender-sensitive, socially acceptable and technologically sound, sustainable solution to the problem of the As contamination of water for household use in rural areas in Bangladesh.


Representativiteit van de locatie Loon op Zand in het bufferstrokenonderzoek
Hoogland, T. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Visschers, R. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Effectiveness of buffer strips publication series 9) - 162
zandgronden - bodemeigenschappen - waterverontreiniging - grondwaterverontreiniging - nitraten - fosfaten - uitspoelen - slootkanten - grondwaterstand - grondwaterspiegel - nederland - proefvelden - mestbeleid - nitraatuitspoeling - fosfaatuitspoeling - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - akkerranden - noord-brabant - bufferzones - begroeide stroken - sandy soils - soil properties - water pollution - groundwater pollution - nitrates - phosphates - leaching - ditch banks - groundwater level - water table - netherlands - experimental plots - manure policy - nitrate leaching - phosphate leaching - surface water quality - field margins - buffer zones - vegetated strips
Alterra doet in opdracht van LNV onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van bemestingsvrije perceelsranden op de uitspoeling van stikstof en fosfaat naar het oppervlaktewater. Hiertoe zijn op vijf locaties proefopstellingen geïnstalleerd waar de kwaliteit van het water dat uit het perceel komt gemeten wordt. De proefopstelling bestaat uit twee 5 m brede bakken, een bufferbak en een referentiebak, die in de sloot grenzend aan het perceel gebouwd zijn. Langs de bufferbak ligt een strook van 5 m die niet bemest wordt; langs de referentiebak wordt op gangbare wijze bemest. Bij de proefopstelling in Loon op Zand is het gemeten debiet dat van het perceel de bakken in komt veel lager dan het theoretisch berekende. Bovendien is er een groot verschil in gemeten debiet tussen de beide bakken. Doel van dit aanvullend onderzoek is: (i) te verklaren waardoor het komt dat het afwaterend oppervlak naar de bakken in Loon op Zand zo klein is; (ii) te beoordelen of de locatiekeus achteraf gezien ongeschikt is of dat deze variatie in dit hydrologisch profieltype 'e' gebruikelijk is. Dit onderzoek is beperkt tot de onmiddellijke omgeving van de proefopstelling in Loon op Zand (maximaal 50 m uit de sloot). Hier zijn gedurende enkele maanden grondwaterstanden gemonitoord. De representativiteit van de opstelling is onderzocht met behulp van bestaande datasets afkomstig uit bodem- en grondwaterkarteringen die binnen hydrologisch profieltype 'e' vallen. Er worden hiervoor geen extra grondwaterstandmetingen gedaan. Uit de isohypsenbeelden blijkt dat het freatisch grondwatervlak in de proeflocatie Loon op Zand zeer variabel (grillig) is. Deze grilligheid hangt samen met de sterk wisselende begindiepte en dikte van de lössleemlaag zoals die in het proefperceel in Loon op Zand voorkomt. Een dusdanig variabel grondwaterstandsvlak is alleen met een grote onzekerheid of via gedetailleerd meten, nauwkeurig in beeld te brengen. De invloedsafstand van de sloot op het afwateringspatroon is met ca. 15 m geringer dan verwacht. Dit blijkt uit drie verschillende benaderingen. Uit analyse van de meetgegevens van de bakken volgt eveneens een gering afvoerend oppervlak. De gesimuleerde stromingspatronen naar de afwaterende perceelssloot zijn als gevolg van het grillige grondwatervlak ook zeer grillig en zorgen voor een grote ruimtelijke variatie in afvoerpatronen naar de sloot. Door de variatie in afvoerpatronen kunnen afvoerdebieten naar dicht bij elkaar gelegen opvangbakken grote verschillen vertonen. Om de verhouding tussen de ondiepe en diepe afvoer voor andere locaties in profieltype 'e' vast te stellen is inzicht in de weerstand van de (kei)leemlaag van groot belang. Veelal is het doorlaatvermogen van het onderliggende watervoerende pakket groot en het doorlaatvermogen van het freatische pakket gering, dit maakt dat de grootte van de c-waarde sterk bepalend is voor de verdeling. Uit de rekenresultaten van het NHI kunnen we concluderen dat deze hydrologische situatie, zoals waargenomen te Loon op Zand, in grote delen van het profieltype 'e' voorkomt.
Water flow and pesticide transport in cultivated sandy soils : experimental data on complications
Leistra, M. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2063) - 78
zandgronden - pesticiden - bodemfysica - infiltratie - uitspoelen - oppervlakteafvoer - grondwaterverontreiniging - sandy soils - pesticides - soil physics - infiltration - leaching - overland flow - groundwater pollution
The risk of leaching of agricultural pesticides from soil to groundwater and water courses has to be evaluated. Complications in water flow and pesticide transport in humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soil profiles can be expected to increase the risk of leaching. Much of the precipitation water is intercepted by the crop canopy, after which stemflow and leafdrip lead to peaks in water load at the soil surface. Water infiltration at the soil surface can be highly non-uniform, e.g. due to differences in soil structure, presence of micro-depressions and water-repellency. Water flow in the soil profile is affected by sedimentation pattern, soil forming processes, differences in soil structure, antecedent soil moisture content, etc. The heterogeneous transport of pesticides in soils is reflected by the wide range of concentrations measured at the various depths. The leaching of substances from sandy soil profiles can occur in 'hot spots', which indicates that there are preferential flow and transport paths. A special situation is presented by fields with ridges and furrows (e.g. used for growing potatoes), in which much of the precipitation water can infiltrate in the furrow soil. In view of the conditions inducing preferential pesticide transport in sandy soils, the possibilities to describe/predict this type of transport by modelling should be investigated further.
Landelijk meetnet effecten mestbeleid : LMM-jaarrapport 2005
Swen, H.M. ; Goffau, A. de; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Leeuwen, T.C. van; Reijs, J.W. ; Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W. ; Boumans, L.J.M. - \ 2010
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 680717007/2010) - 120
akkerbouw - veehouderij - voedingsstoffen - fosfor - nitraten - grondwaterverontreiniging - inventarisaties - mestbeleid - bemesting - arable farming - livestock farming - nutrients - phosphorus - nitrates - groundwater pollution - inventories - manure policy - fertilizer application
Het LMM is opgezet om de kwaliteit van het water op landbouwbedrijven te beschrijven en te verklaren in relatie tot beleidsmaatregelen en bedrijfsvoering. De waterkwaliteit wordt bepaald door de hoeveelheid nutriënten (waaronder nitraat) te meten in het water dat uitspoelt uit de ‘wortelzone’ (bovenste meter van het grondwater, bodemvocht of drainwater) en in het slootwater. Metingen op dit punt geven weer welk deel van het nutriëntenoverschot naar het grond- en oppervlaktewater is uitgespoeld. De metingen zijn verricht op de typen landbouwbedrijven die in Nederland het meeste voorkomen (akkerbouw, melkvee en hokdieren) in drie hoofdgrondsoortregio’s (zand/löss, klei en veen). Het LEI volgt de bedrijfsvoering op landbouwbedrijven; het RIVM monitort op deze bedrijven de waterkwaliteit die door de bedrijfvoering wordt beïnvloed. Uit de monitoringgegevens blijkt dat de bemesting en nutriëntenoverschotten op melkveebedrijven sinds eind jaren negentig van de vorige eeuw eerst fors zijn gedaald en sinds 2000 zijn gestabiliseerd. Op akkerbouwbedrijven is een minder duidelijke trend zichtbaar.
Resultaten Biologisch bedrijfssysteem (BIO)
Geel, W.C.A. van; Haan, J.J. de; Verstegen, H.A.G. - \ 2009
biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - proeven op proefstations - rotaties - stikstof - eluviatie - grondwaterverontreiniging - bedrijfssystemen - bemesting - grondwaterkwaliteit - organic farming - arable farming - station tests - rotations - nitrogen - eluviation - groundwater pollution - farming systems - fertilizer application - groundwater quality
Resultaten van een meerjarige proef met verschillende gewassen in een biologisch bedrijfssyteem. Het biologische bedrijfssysteem voldeed aan de EU-nitraatnorm voor het grondwater. De biologische bedrijfsvoering is echter geen totaaloplossing voor de gangbare landbouw. Het hogere prijsniveau van biologische producten compenseert de lagere opbrengsten en hogere kosten. Wel is zinvol om na te gaan welke elementen uit de biologische landbouw de gangbare landbouw kan overnemen
Adsorptive removal of manganese, arsenic and iron from groundwater
Buamah, R. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): J.C. Schippers, co-promotor(en): B. Petrusevski. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855262 - 183 p.
grondwater - grondwaterverontreiniging - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - volksgezondheid - adsorptie - waterzuivering - mangaan - arsenicum - ijzer - ghana - grondwaterkwaliteit - groundwater - groundwater pollution - water management - water supply - public health - adsorption - water treatment - manganese - arsenic - iron - groundwater quality
To determine the scale of the problem of arsenic, iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Ghana a survey was performed in the first phase of the research to provide in depth information with respect to these contaminants. Presence of these mentioned contaminants in groundwater is not peculiar to Ghana alone. Many countries in the world have similar problems with their groundwater. Establishing the existence of the problem also calls for the need to find remedies. Over the years much studies have been done in the Unesco-ihe on the adsorptive mechanisms and techniques for iron and arsenic removal from groundwater. Therefore in this study much emphasis is placed on the adsorptive removal of manganese from groundwater. This research has the following as it objectives: 1. The conduction of a survey for the arsenic, iron and manganese content in selected groundwater aquifers in Ghana. 2. Determination of the arsenic, manganese and iron adsorption capacities of different locally available filter media. 3. Determination of the effect of pH on adsorption capacities of the selected media for arsenic, manganese and iron. To determine the effect of iron (II), manganese (II) presence on arsenic adsorption capacity of selected media – (competition). 4. Studies on the rate of oxidation of Fe (II) and Mn (II) adsorbed onto one or more selected media under different conditions (e.g. dissolved oxygen, pH etc.). 5. Determination of the rate of adsorption of Mn (II) onto one or more selected media under different oxic conditions. 6. To develop a conceptual model that describes the processes involved in adsorptive arsenic, manganese and iron removal. To investigate to what extent these processes can be described in a quantitative way with one or more mathematical models . Generally the study has the following relevance: 1. Provide a base line data on the arsenic and manganese content of selected groundwater aquifers in Ghana. 2. Provide information on the adsorption capacities of locally available filter media for manganese. 3. Contribute to the knowledge on the kinetics and mechanisms of catalytic adsorptive iron, manganese removal. 4. Provide an efficient backwashing procedure for regeneration of adsorptive sites in iron-oxide coated filters operating in the oxidative adsorption mode.
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