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Responses to novel situations of female and castrated male pigs with divergent social breeding values and different backtest classifications in barren and straw-enriched housing
Reimert, I. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Ursinus, W.W. ; Kemp, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2014
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 151 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 24 - 35.
different coping characteristics - individual behavioral-characteristics - environmental enrichment - growing-pigs - physiological-responses - animal-welfare - fear reactions - laying hens - multilevel selection - surgical castration
The growth of a pig is not only affected by its own genes, but also by the genes of itspen mates. This indirect effect on a pig’s growth is represented as social breeding value(SBV) in a newly developed breeding model. It has been hypothesized that pigs could affecttheir pen mates’ growth through their behavior. We investigated whether pigs selectedfor a relatively positive (+SBV) or negative genetic effect (-SBV) on the growth of theirpen mates and kept in either barren or straw-enriched pens differ in fearfulness. Effectsof coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Pigs (n = 480)were subjected to a group-wise novel rope test and human approach test and individuallyto a novel environment test in which after 5 min a bucket was lowered from the ceiling.In the novel rope test +SBV pigs were faster than -SBV pigs to touch a rope (P <0.01) andin the novel environment test +SBV pigs showed less locomotion than -SBV pigs afterintroduction of the bucket (P <0.05). Furthermore, straw-enriched pigs were faster thanbarren housed pigs to touch a rope in the novel rope test (P <0.10) and faster to approach(P <0.05) and touch a person (P <0.05) in the human approach test, suggesting that theyare less fearful or more curious than pigs in barren housing. Straw-enriched pigs also hadlower salivary cortisol concentrations than barren housed pigs (P <0.001). Pigs classifiedas high-resisting in the backtest spent more time near the person in the human approachtest (P <0.10) and showed more locomotion (P <0.10) and vocalizations (P <0.001) afterintroduction of the bucket in the novel environment test than low-resisting pigs. Giltsappeared less fearful than barrows, because they were faster to touch a rope in the novelrope test (P <0.05) and faster to approach (P <0.05) and touch a person (P <0.10) in thehuman approach test. In addition, in the novel environment test, gilts were more calm(P <0.05) in the period before the bucket was introduced, paid more attention to the bucketonce it was lowered (P <0.10) and were overall more active (P <0.01). Gilts also had lowerbasal cortisol concentrations than barrows (P <0.001). Overall, these results suggest that+SBV pigs might be less fearful than -SBV pigs. Furthermore, the response of pigs in noveltytests seems to depend also on their housing conditions, coping style, and gender.
The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health
Rooijen, C. van; Bosch, G. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Wierenga, P.A. ; Alexander, L. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 130 - 148.
glycation end-products - distillers dried grains - age-related-changes - slope-ratio assay - available lysine - amino-acid - diabetes-mellitus - extrusion-cooking - model systems - growing-pigs
The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP) that are unavailable for utilisation by the body. Determination of the difference between total and reactive lysine by chemical methods provides an indication of the amount of early MRP present in foods, feeds and ingredients. Previous research reported that the difference between total and reactive lysine in pet foods can be up to 61·8 %, and foods for growing dogs may be at risk of supplying less lysine than the animal may require. The endogenous analogues of advanced MRP, advanced glycation endproducts, have been associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as diabetes and impaired renal function. It is unknown to what extent advanced MRP are present in pet foods, and if dietary MRP can be associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes and impaired renal function in pet animals. Avoidance of ingredients with high levels of MRP and processing conditions known to favour the Maillard reaction may be useful strategies to prevent the formation of MRP in manufactured pet food. Future work should further focus on understanding the effects of ingredient choice and processing conditions on the formation of early and advanced MRP, and possible effects on animal health.
A simple amino acid dose-response technique to quantify amino acid requirements of individual meal-fed pigs
Kampman-van de Hoek, E. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013)10. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 4788 - 4796.
body protein-turnover - growing-pigs - oxidation technique - lysine requirement - young-pigs - indicator - nitrogen - variability - growth
Two experiments were conducted to develop a simplified dose-response technique to estimate the Lys requirement of individual, meal-fed growing pigs. In Exp. 1, we studied adaptation processes that occur during such a dose-response study in meal-fed pigs, and in Exp. 2, we studied the accuracy of this simplified technique to estimate changes in Lys requirement estimates of pigs following changes in energy intake. In Exp. 1, the effect of the Lys supply strategy on the Lys requirement was assessed in 14 barrows fed an increasing [low to high (LH)] or decreasing [high to low (HL)] total Lys supply, with total Lys levels varying from 0.36 to 1.06 g/MJ DE in 7 equidistant steps of 4 d each. Urinary urea and ammonia excretion and whole body N turnover were measured. In Exp. 2, the accuracy of the dose-response technique to determine a shift in Lys requirement was assessed in 20 barrows fed at either 2.2 [low energy (LE)] or 2.7 [high energy (HE)] times the energy requirements for maintenance, with total Lys supply decreasing from 1.10 to 0.37 g Lys/MJ DE in 9 equidistant steps of 3 d each. In Exp. 1, a lower increment in protein synthesis, breakdown, and whole body N turnover with increasing dietary Lys supply was observed in LH pigs than HL pigs (P <0.01) and the estimated Lys requirement was 0.06 g/MJ DE greater (P = 0.01) in LH pigs than HL pigs. These results indicated that pigs at a decreasing Lys supply strategy require less time for metabolic adaptation to a change in Lys supply than those at an increasing Lys supply. In Exp. 2, the estimated Lys requirement was 2.6 g/d greater (P <0.001) in HE pigs than LE pigs. The variation in AA requirement estimates between individual pigs was low (4.9% in LH pigs and 3.0% in HL pigs in Exp. 1 and 8.1% in LE pigs and 6.0% in HE pigs in Exp. 2). The present studies indicated that a dose-response technique with a decreasing Lys supply in time and a step length of 3 d with urinary N excretion as response criteria provides a simple, accurate technique to quantitatively estimate a change in AA requirements of individual meal-fed pigs.
Ileal and faecal protein digestibility measurement in humans and other non-ruminants - a comparative species view
Hendriks, W.H. ; Baal, J. van; Bosch, G. - \ 2012
British Journal of Nutrition 108 (2012)Suppl. S2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. S247 - S257.
amino-acid transporter - large-bowel fermentation - gastrointestinal transit times - intestinal epithelial-cells - peas pisum-sativum - raw potato starch - dietary-protein - growing-pigs - apparent digestibility - radiopaque markers
A comparative non-ruminant species view of the contribution of the large intestinal metabolism to inaccuracies in nitrogen and amino acid absorption measurements is provided to assess potential implications for the determination of crude protein/amino acid digestibility in adult humans consuming lower digestible protein sources. Most of the amino acids in the hindgut are constituents of the microorganisms and significant microbial metabolism of dietary and endogenous amino acids occurs. Bacterial metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds leads to a significant disappearance of nitrogen in the large intestine. Literature data show that some 79 % of the nitrogen entering the large intestine of the horse is absorbed. For dogs, sows, and growing pigs these estimates are 49, 34 and 16 %, respectively. The coefficient of gut differentiation of humans compares closely to that of dogs while the coefficient of fermentation in humans is the lowest of all non-ruminant species and closest to that of cats and dogs. Large intestinal digesta transit times of humans compare closest to adult dogs. Significant amino acid metabolism has been shown to occur in the large intestine of the adult dog. Use of the growing pig as an animal model is likely to underestimate the fermentation of amino acids in the human large intestine. Based on the significant degree of fermentation of nitrogen-containing components in the large intestine of several non-ruminant species, it can be expected that determination of amino acid digestibility at a faecal level in humans consuming low quality proteins would not provide accurate estimates of the amino acids absorbed by the intestine.
Asynchronous Supply of Indispensable Amino Acids Reduces Protein Deposition in Milk-Fed Calves
Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Alferink, S.J.J. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Jacobs, A.A.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)12. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2075 - 2082.
bound lysine - growing-pigs - preruminant calves - alpha-ketoisocaproate - leucine oxidation - balance technique - healthy-adults - delayed lysine - fat deposition - wheat gluten
A balanced supply of indispensable amino acids (AA) is required for efficient protein synthesis. Different absorption kinetics (e.g., free vs. protein-bound AA) may, however, create asynchrony in postabsorptive availability of individual AA, thereby reducing the efficiency of protein deposition. We studied the effects of AA asynchrony on protein metabolism in growing, milk-fed calves. In 2 experiments, each with a change-over design including 8 calves, a milk replacer deficient in Lys and Thr was used. In Expt. 1, l-Lys and l-Thr were parenterally supplemented, either in synchrony (SYN), asynchrony (ASYN), or partial asynchrony (PART) with dietary AA. In Expt. 2, l-Lys and l-Thr were orally supplemented, either in SYN or ASYN with dietary AA. In Expt. 1, digested protein was used less efficiently for growth for ASYN (31.0%) than for SYN (37.7%), with PART being intermediate (36.0%). Indicator AA oxidation tended (P = 0.06) to be higher for ASYN. In Expt. 2, the efficiency of protein utilization was lower for ASYN (34.9%) than for SYN (46.6%). Calves spared AA from oxidation when the limiting AA were provided in excess after a short period (
Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout
Subramanian, S. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Kaushik, S.J. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Geurden, I. - \ 2012
PLoS One 7 (2012)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
european sea-bass - voluntary feed-intake - salmon salmo-salar - oncorhynchus-mykiss - food-intake - digestible energy - growing-pigs - utilization efficiency - oreochromis-niloticus - dicentrarchus-labrax
The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg-0.8 d-1) and growth (g kg-0.8 d-1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism.
Effect of increasing temparature on space requirements of group housed finishing pigs
Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2012
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 138 (2012)3-4. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 229 - 239.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - temperatuur - groepshuisvesting - varkensstallen - varkenshouderij - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal housing - animal behaviour - temperature - group housing - pig housing - pig farming - lying behavior - growing-pigs - allowance - humidity - welfare
For groups of pigs to cope adequately with their housing conditions they need sufficient static space (occupied by the body of the pig), activity space (for movement between different functional areas and behaviours relating to these) and interaction space (for appropriate social behaviour). Estimates for static space have been presented for thermoneutral conditions, but are expected to increase substantially as temperature increases. The present paper models the relationship between ambient temperatures above the comfort zone, and thermoregulatory lying behaviour in finishing pigs. Estimates of the effect of posture on floor occupation were obtained and presented as ‘k-values’ (k = floor area occupied (m2)/body weight2/3 (kg)) to correct for the effect of pig size. A literature review was conducted to collect information on three aspects of lying behaviour: lying frequency, posture (lateral, semi lateral or ventral lying) and level of space sharing (huddling) in response to increasing temperatures. The lowest and highest values found were: increase in lying down: 0.2–0.66%, reduction in space sharing: 1.7–4.9% and increase in lateral vs sternal lying: 0.8–2.3% per °C temperature increase. Extrapolation of k values in the comfort zone to T = 31 °C suggests a range of k-values from k = 0.0331 to k = 0.0385 for static space. In the second part of this paper we analyse video data from a pig building in which groups of 18 pigs were kept in large pens (1.67 m2 per animal) at temperatures ranging from 16 to 32 °C. We find a value of k = 0.0339 at T = 31 °C for static space, which is at the lower end of the range predicted from literature. A possible explanation for this relatively low additional space requirement is that the animals coped by increasingly using the slatted area (with sprinkler system) as a lying area. The study confirms earlier suggestions that the amount of space required by EU legislation is insufficient for pigs at the end of the finishing period, even at relatively low temperatures. In situations where the average room temperature exceeds the comfort zone, pigs need additional space to cope with their housing system, or alternative methods to cool themselves down.
Review of wallowing in pigs: Description of the behaviour and its motivational basis
Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2011
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 1 - 13.
boar sus-scrofa - animal-welfare - growing-pigs - habitat selection - natural behavior - pregnant sows - outdoor runs - feral pigs - model - temperature
Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs,commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper reviews wallowing in pigs and related species. The behaviour is described and its motivational basis is examined. Underlying the review was a literature search for scientific citations. In total 48 papers were identified containing citations about wallowing behaviour in pigs and wild boar, and 12 papers contained citations about wallowing in related species. Wallowing is observed in many related species including rhino's, elephants, bovids (e.g. American bison) and deer. Pigs also share several taxonomic characteristics with water-loving mammals such as water buffalo's, hippo's and whales. The common perception is that pigs wallow mainly for cooling, sunburn protection and the removal of ecto-parasites. Little scientific evidence exists for other functions than thermoregulation. Pigs lack functional sweat glands and wallowing in mud is an effective behavioural control mechanism in pigs to prevent hyperthermia. Wallowing, however, may also serve other functions, e.g. in scent-marking and sexual behaviour. In addition, wallowing in pigs, like dustbathing in poultry, may be indicative of positive welfare and, perhaps, the performance of the behaviour is ‘hardwired’ and rewarding in itself. If so, wallowing could be an important element of a good life in pigs
Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam
Pham, K.T. ; Nghia, D.H. ; Ngoan, L.D. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)8. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 1034 - 1042.
growing-pigs - energy-intake - body-weight - ambient-temperature - feed-intake - gilts - barrows - quality - boars - requirements
This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong Cai)??Large White were used. At the start of the experiment, Mong Cai pigs weighed 12 kg at 11 weeks of age, F1 pigs 12.1 kg at 8 weeks of age and F2 pigs 12.2 kg at 8 weeks of age. Four diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (10.1, 13.1, 16.1 and 18.9% in DM) were formulated from rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal and fish meal. Calculated digestible energy content of the diets ranged from 13.5 to 13.8 MJ per kg DM. Pigs were housed individually in pens of 2.5 m2 each and had ad libitum access to feed in a trough as well as water in bowls. The final weights after a growing period of 150 days were 66, 86 and 96 kg for MC, F1 and F2, respectively. Feed intake of MC pigs was highest at 13.1% CP while F1 and F2 had the highest feed intake at 16.1% CP. The results showed that for MC the maximum gain was obtained at levels between 13 to 16% CP. For the F1 the maximum gain was at dietary protein levels of 16-17%. For F2 the max gain was obtained at CP levels of 16 to 18%. Feed conversion was highest in MC pigs (~4.0) followed by F1 (~3.3) and F2 (~3.1), and within genotypes was lowest at the optimum CP level (p
The effect of diet composition on tryptophan requirement of young piglets
Jansman, A.J.M. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Melchior, M.B. - \ 2010
Journal of Animal Science 88 (2010)3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1017 - 1027.
chronic lung inflammation - amino-acid pattern - growth-performance - growing-pigs - lysine requirement - protein accretion - terminal ileum - metabolism - ratio - digestibility
The aim of the study was to evaluate the requirement for Trp in relation to diet composition in piglets in the period after weaning (BW range of 9 to 24 kg). Two Trp deficient (relative to the Dutch (CVB, 1996) and NRC (NRC, 1998) requirement values for piglets of 10 to 20 kg BW) basal diets were formulated; one based on corn and soybean meal and a second one based on wheat, barley, soybean meal, peas and whey powder (10.0 g/kg apparent ileal digestible (AID) Lys; 1.4 g/kg AID Trp; 1.5 g/kg standardised ileal digestible (SID) Trp). Both basal diets were supplemented with 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g L-Trp per kg diet to obtain diets with 1.7, 2.0 and 2.3 g AID Trp per kg (1.8, 2.1 and 2.4 g SID Trp per kg), respectively. Each of the 8 treatments was evaluated in 8 replicates (pens with eight male or female piglets). Average daily feed intake, ADG, and G:F were measured as response criteria. Over the 28-d experimental period, ADG and G:F were greater for the treatments on the wheat/barley diet compared to those on the corn/soybean meal and were increased by the level of Trp in the diet (P <0.05). Average daily feed intake was only increased by the level of Trp supplementation (P <0.05). Increasing the Trp level increased ADFI for the corn/soybean meal diet up to 2.3 g AID Trp per kg (2.4 g SID Trp per kg) and up to 2.0 g AID Trp per kg (2.1 g SID Trp per kg) in the wheat/barley diet (P <0.05). For both diets types supplementation of free L-Trp increased the G:F up to 1.7 g AID Trp per kg (1.8 g SID Trp per kg). Non-linear regression analysis of the response curves for ADFI using an exponential model for estimating a requirement value for Trp (defined as the Trp level resulting in 95% of the maximum response) revealed a requirement estimate of 2.3 g AID Trp per kg for the corn/soybean meal based diet and 2.1 g AID Trp per kg for the wheat/barley based diet, equivalent to 2.4 and 2.2 g SID Trp per kg diet, respectively. For ADG, a requirement estimate of 2.1 g AID Trp per kg for both types of diets was derived, equivalent to 2.2 g SID Trp per kg diet. The Trp requirement for young piglets seems to be greater than indicated by some commonly used recommendations and does not seem largely dependent on diet ingredient composition
Postprandial oxidative losses of free and protein-bound amino acids in the diet: interactions and adaptation
Nolles, J.A. ; Verreijen, A.M. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Schreurs, V.V.A.M. - \ 2009
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 93 (2009)4. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 431 - 438.
growing-pigs - nitrogen-utilization - free lysine - breath test - humans - metabolism - assimilation - catabolism - retention - casein
Postprandial oxidation of dietary free amino acids or egg white protein was studied using the [13CO2] breath test in rats, as well as in humans. Thirty-eight male rats were assigned to four dietary test groups. Two diets only differed in their protein fraction. Diet I contained 21% egg white protein. For the breath test egg white protein, intrinsically labelled with [1-13C]-leucine, was used as a substrate. Diet II contained the same amino acids as diet I, though not as egg white protein but in free form. Free [1-13C]-leucine was used to label this diet. In addition, two 1:1 mixtures of both diets were used. During the breath test either the free amino acid or the protein fraction was labelled as in diets I or II. The animals were breath-tested following short-term (day 5) and long-term adaptation (day 20) to their experimental diet. For all diets, including the mixed diets, postprandial oxidative losses on day 5 were significantly higher for the free leucine compared with the protein-derived leucine. Differences between free and protein-derived leucine oxidation had, however, largely disappeared on day 20. The human subjects were breath-tested without any adaptation period to the diets. The oxidative losses of free leucine were also higher than those of protein-derived leucine. None of the studies showed any indication for an interaction between the oxidation of protein-derived amino acids and free amino acids. It is concluded that free and protein-derived amino acids in the diet are mainly metabolized independently
Synchronising the availability of amino acids and glucose increases protein retention in pigs
Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2007
Animal 1 (2007)5. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 666 - 674.
energy-metabolism - carbohydrate-metabolism - preruminant calves - deposition rates - feeding pattern - fat deposition - growing-pigs - separation - kinetics - insulin
Effects of synchronising the availability of amino acids and glucose within a day on protein and energy metabolism were studied in growing pigs. Ten pigs of on average 54 (s.e. 1.0) kg live weight were assigned to each of two dietary treatments (synchronous v, asynchronous nutrient supply) in a change-over design. On the synchronous treatment (SYN), pigs received two balanced meals: one at 0800 h and one at 1600 h. On the asynchronous treatment (ASYN), pigs received virtually all protein at 0800 h and all carbohydrates at 1600 h. The dietary supply of ingredients and nutrients to pigs was similar for both treatments. Pigs were housed individually in respiration chambers. Faecal apparent nutrient digestibility was determined and nitrogen and energy balances were measured. Faecal apparent digestibility of energy, organic matter and non-starch polysaccharides was higher (P <0.05) for SYN than for ASYN. The efficiency of utilisation of digestible protein with protein gain was higher (P = 0.001) for SYN (56.7%) than for ASYN (47.1%). The substantial decrease (P <0.05) in respiratory quotient and 13 C enrichment of the expired CO2 after the morning meal indicated higher amino acid oxidation for ASYN than for SYN. Heat production and energy retention as fat were not affected by nutrient synchrony, In conclusion, an asynchronous availability of glucose and amino acids within a day increases amino acid oxidation, resulting in a substantial reduction in protein utilisation but with virtually no effect on fat retention.
Reviewing the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves - a reductionist approach
Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2006
Reproduction Nutrition Development 46 (2006). - ISSN 0926-5287 - p. 121 - 137.
portal-drained viscera - amino-acid utilization - milk-fed calves - kg live weight - growing-pigs - dietary-protein - energy-intake - lysine utilization - body-weight - arginine supplementation
The efficiency of protein utilization for growth in preruminant calves is decreasing with increasing body weight. In contrast to calves weighing less than 100 kg of body weight, heavy preruminant calves do not respond in protein retention to an increased intake of indispensable amino acids in dose-response studies. The marginal efficiency of protein utilization is low compared with pigs and milk-fed lambs at a similar stage of maturity. A reductionist approach was taken to perceive the potential mechanisms for the low protein utilization in preruminant calves. Neither an imbalance in the dietary protein to energy ratio nor a single limiting indispensable amino acid was responsible for the low efficiency. Also, amino acids were not specifically used to detoxify ammonia. Alternative hypotheses to explain the low efficiency are discussed and result in (i) a reduced post-absorptive supply of amino acids: e.g. by fermentation of milk in the (premature) rumen or preferential amino acid utilization by specific tissues; or (ii) a reduced post-absorptive amino acid utilization: e.g. by decreased insulin sensitivity, utilization of amino acids for gluconeogenesis or an asynchronous nutrient supply. In conclusion, several mechanisms for the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves were excluded. Other physiological processes which are potentially involved remain to be studied, because the large potential for improving protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves asks for further exploration of their amino acid metabolism
Algorithms determining ammonia emission from buildings housing cattle and pigs and from manure stores
Sommer, S.G. ; Zhang, G.Q. ; Bannink, A. ; Chadwick, D. ; Misselbrook, T. ; Harrison, R. ; Hutchings, N.J. ; Menzi, H. ; Monteny, G.J. ; Oenema, O. ; Webb, J. - \ 2006
Advances in Agronomy 89 (2006). - ISSN 0065-2113 - p. 261 - 335.
digested animal slurry - deep-litter systems - amino-acid pattern - dairy-cow house - nitrous-oxide - laying hens - atmospheric ammonia - mechanistic model - fattening pigs - growing-pigs
Livestock excreta and manure stored in housing, in manure stores, in beef feedlots, or cattle hardstandings are the most important sources of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. There is a need to quantify the emission, to assess the effect of emission on NH3 and ammonium (NH4+) deposition to ecosystems and on the health risks posed by NH4+-based particles in the air. To obtain a reliable estimate of the emission from these sources, the processes involved in the transfer of NH3 from the manure to the free atmosphere have to be described precisely. A detailed knowledge of the processes of NH3 transfer from the manure and transport to the free atmosphere will contribute to development of techniques and housing designs that will contribute to the reduction of NH3 emission to the atmosphere. For this reason, this review presents the processes and algorithms involved in NH3 emission from livestock manure in livestock buildings and manure stores for pigs and cattle. Emission from poultry buildings and following land application of manure, although significant sources of NH3, have been reported in earlier reviews and are not included here. A clear description of the features that contribute to the total NH3 emission from buildings will include information on stock class, diet and excreta composition, the distribution of emitting surfaces and knowledge of their mass transfer characteristics in relation to the building as a whole, as well as environmental variables. Other relevant information includes the quantity and composition of excreta produced by different classes of livestock and the influence of feeding regime; the influence of environmental variables on the production of NH3 from excreta; how excreta is distributed and managed in livestock buildings; and factors that affect mass transfer of NH3 in the building to the atmosphere outside. A major factor is the pH of the manure. There is a great need for algorithms that can predict pH as affected by feeding and management. This chapter brings together published estimates of NH3 emissions and abatement techniques, and relates these to the factors listed above (excreta, NH3 production, building, and mass transfer).
Methods for evaluation of the thermal environment in the animal occupied zone for weaned piglets
Wagenberg, A.V. van; Metz, J.H.M. ; Hartog, L.A. den - \ 2005
Transactions of the ASAE 48 (2005)6. - ISSN 0001-2351 - p. 2323 - 2332.
health-status - growing-pigs - temperature - performance - ventilation - metabolism - buildings - velocity - draft
Two evaluation methods are introduced for expression of the quality of the thermal conditions in the animal-occupied zone (AOZ) in rooms for weaned piglets. One method uses only the AOZ temperature, while the other uses the kata-value (KV), which combines air velocity and temperature and indicates the heat loss to the environment. AOZ thermal conditions should be within the thermo-neutral zone (TNZ) of the piglets. The methods use two new numerical indicators, based on the duration and the magnitude of excess of AOZ thermal conditions outside the TNZ: one referring to the number of degree-hours (°Ch), and the other to the number of kata-value-hours (KVh) during a batch. The objective was to evaluate the two methods in a door-ventilated room for weaned piglets. In the experiment, temperature was measured in all ten pens of a room and air velocity in three pens during eight successive batches, together lasting about one year. Pens closer to the air inlet had higher temperatures and lower KV than pens in the back of the room. Momentary temperature difference between pens reached up to 7°C. During the first days of most batches, pen conditions in the back of the room were "too cold." At the end of most batches, pen conditions in the middle of the room were "too warm." The value of the two indicators varied per pen and per batch from 0 to 319°Ch (0 to 219 KVh) "too cold" and from 0 to 602°Ch (0 to 793 KVh) "too warm." For "too warm" conditions, there was a significant (P <0.001) and strong correlation between the two indicators (R2 > 0.96), but not for "too cold" conditions (R 2 > 0.48). Therefore, measuring air velocity in addition to temperature in the AOZ for recognition of "too cold" conditions had surplus value. Excluding outliers from one extremely warm batch, the maximum value of the indicator for "too warm" was 65°Ch. This indicator significantly affected the feed conversion ratio, which increased with 0.0024 kg/kg per °Ch, and daily growth and daily feed intake, which decreased with 0.0022 kg/animal and 0.0030 kg/animal, respectively, per °Ch. The methods presented are useful tools in the technical evaluation of climate systems and for a more optimal climate control in the AOZ.
Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities
Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy, ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Kemp, B. ; Canh, T.T. - \ 2005
Journal of Animal Science 83 (2005)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1385 - 1396.
high ambient-temperatures - heat-production - growing-pigs - behavior - stress - swine
The effects of relative humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature (T) on physiological responses and animal performance were studied using 12 groups (10 gilts per group) in pens inside respiration chambers. The microclimate in the chamber was programmed so that T remained constant within a day. Each day, the T was increased by 2°C from low (16°C) to high (32°C). Relative humidity was kept constant at 50, 65, or 80%. The pigs¿ average initial BW was 61.7 kg (58.0 to 65.5 kg), and their average ending BW was 70.2 kg (65.9 to 74.7 kg). Respiration rate (RR), evaporative water (EW), rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), voluntary feed intake (VFI), water-to-feed ratio (rW:F), heat production (HP), and ADG were analyzed. The animals had free access to feed and water. We determined the T above which certain animal variables started to change: the so-called inflection point temperature (IPt) or "upper critical temperature." The first indicator of reaction, RR, was in the range from 21.3 to 23.4°C. Rectal temperature was a delayed indicator of heat stress tolerance, with IPt values ranging from 24.6 to 27.1°C. For both these indicators the IPt was least at 80% RH (P <0.05). Heat production and VFI were decreased above IPt of 22.9 and 25.5°C, respectively (P <0.001). For each degree Celsius above IPt, the VFI was decreased by 81, 99, and 106 g/(pig·d) in treatments 50, 65, and 80% RH, respectively. The ADG was greatest at 50% RH (P <0.05). Ambient temperature strongly affects the pigs¿ physiological changes and performance, whereas RH has a relatively minor effect on heat stress in growing pigs; however, the combination of high T and high RH lowered the ADG in pigs. The upper critical temperature can be considered to be the IPt above which VFI decreased and RT then increased. Temperatures of the magnitude of both these IPt are regularly measured in commercial pig houses. We conclude that the upper critical temperatures for 60-kg, group-housed pigs fed ad libitum are between 21.3 and 22.4°C for RR, between 22.9 and 25.5°C for HP and VFI, and between 24.6 and 27.1°C for RT. It is clear that different physiological and productive measurements of group-housed, growing-finishing pigs have different critical temperatures.
Individual coping characteristics, rearing conditions and behavioural flexibility in pigs
Bolhuis, J.E. ; Schouten, W.G.P. ; Leeuw, J.A. de; Schrama, J.W. ; Wiegant, V.M. - \ 2004
Behavioural Brain Research 152 (2004). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 351 - 360.
male great tits - environmental enrichment - basal ganglia - growing-pigs - physiological-responses - memory-systems - breeding gilts - apomorphine - rat - exploration
Several studies suggest that classification of piglets early in life based on the degree of resistance they display in a so-called Backtest may be indicative of their coping style at a later age. In the present study behavioural flexibility was investigated in pigs diverging for Backtest response and housing environment during rearing. Pigs were housed either without a rooting substrate (barren housing, 13) or in identical pens enriched with deep straw bedding (enriched housing, E) from birth. During the suckling period piglets were subjected to the Backtest. Each piglet was restrained on its back for I min and the resistance (i.e. number of escape attempts) was scored. Pigs classified as 'high-resisting' (HR) or as 'low-resisting' (LR) were subjected to a simple (left/right) spatial discrimination (T-maze) task at 8 weeks of age. The effect of a single, subtle intramaze change was determined after acquisition of the task. In addition, pigs were subjected to reversal learning to assess their ability to modulate established behaviour patterns. Housing and its interaction with Backtest classification influenced the behavioural response to the intramaze change: E pigs were considerably more distracted than B pigs. Housing condition affected LR pigs more than HR pigs, as indicated by the interaction effects on various recorded behaviours. These interactions indicate that behavioural responding of pigs with diverging coping characteristics cannot simply be generalised across rearing conditions. Furthermore, FIR pigs were less successful in reversal learning than LR pigs, suggesting that they have a higher propensity to develop inflexible behavioural routines. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lying characteristics as determinants for space requirements in pigs
Ekkel, E.D. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2003
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 80 (2003). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 19 - 30.
growing-pigs - finishing pigs - performance - allowance - temperature
An experiment was carried out to study the lying postures, space occupation and percentage of space-sharing (as a consequence of huddling behaviour) in pigs. Information about these lying characteristics is essential for the calculation of lying space requirements, e.g. for pen design legislative purposes. The study included two replicates of eight groups of eight pigs each. Pigs were housed at thermoneutral conditions in 8 m(2) partly (40%) slatted pens from 25 to 100 kg live weight. Lights were on from 06:30 until 18:30 h. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Behaviour of the pigs was recorded for 48 h on video tape at approximately 30, 50, 80 and 100 kg live weight. General activity, lying posture (sternum, half recumbent, fully lateral recumbent) and space-sharing percentage were scored by 20 min scan sampling. The results confirmed that pigs of all weight categories lie down for a great part of the day: the average numbers of pigs that were lying were 83.8, 85, 86.3 and 87.5% at 30, 50, 80 and 100 kg live weight. Especially at night (18:30-06:30 h), the fully recumbent lying posture is predominant. The percentages of lying pigs that lied in the fully recumbent position in that period were 65.7, 66.4, 67.7 and 69.1 for 30, 50, 80 and 100 kg pigs, respectively. In our study, we observed that pigs spent little time in contact with conspecifics: space-sharing percentages were 20-40%. There was a significant period effect for the space-sharing data; pigs showed more 'social lying behaviour', i.e. tended to huddle more during the night in comparison to the day since the space-sharing percentages were higher during the night (P <0.01). Based on the observations carried out in this study, average space occupation figures were calculated for lying pigs: 0.30, 0.46, 0.64, 0.76 m(2) for 30, 50, 80 and 100 kg pigs. The present study confirms the suggestion of Petherick (1983) that, as a starting point for discussions about space requirements for pigs, the floor area occupied by lying pigs at thermoneutral conditions should on average be based on the estimated floor area for half recumbent pigs, i.e. area = 0.033 x bodyweight(0.66). (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.