Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ontsnipperingsplan N525 : advies voor het ontwerp en de positionering van een faunapassage
Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2823) - 49
bosfragmentatie - habitatfragmentatie - het gooi - vechtstreek - wildpassages - natuurreservaten - fauna - wildbeheer - forest fragmentation - habitat fragmentation - wildlife passages - nature reserves - wildlife management
De Hilversumseweg (N525), een provinciale weg tussen Hilversum en Laren, vormt een barrière tussen enkele grote bos- en heideterreinen in het centrale deel van het Gooi. Dit betreft aan de noordzijde van de weg de Bussummer- en Westerheide en aan de zuidzijde de Zuiderheide en het Laarder Wasmeer. In het programma Gooi en Vechtstreek van de provincie Noord-Holland is voorzien in het opstellen van een plan van aanpak voor ‘ontsnippering’ van deze verkeersweg. Een natuurverbinding bij de N525 moet het mogelijk maken dat diersoorten vrijelijk tussen de natuurgebieden aan weerszijden van de weg kunnen bewegen zonder het risico te lopen om te worden aangereden. In dit kader verkent de provincie Noord-Holland momenteel, in samenspraak met de gemeenten Hilversum en Laren en het Goois Natuurreservaat, nut en noodzaak van faunamaatregelen bij de N525. Het doel van onderhavig onderzoek is om het waarom, wat en waar van ontsnippering van de N525 te onderzoeken.
Natuurbrug Laarderhoogt en woningbouw op Crailo-Zuid : programma van eisen voor woningbouw nabij de Natuurbrug vanuit ecologisch perspectief
Grift, E.A. van der; Lammerstma, D.R. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2799) - 31
habitatfragmentatie - natuur - kwaliteit - ecologische verstoring - woningbouw - habitatverbindingszones - wildpassages - noord-holland - habitat fragmentation - nature - quality - ecological disturbance - house building - habitat corridors - wildlife passages
Historical changes in the importance of climate and land use as determinants of Dutch pollinator distributions
Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Kissling, W.D. ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Reemer, Menno ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. - \ 2017
Journal of Biogeography 44 (2017)3. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 696 - 707.
biodiversity change - climate change - ecological niche models - environmental variable importance - global warming - habitat fragmentation - habitat loss - species distribution models
Aim: Species distribution models are often used to project species distributions to different environmental conditions. However, most models do not consider whether the importance of abiotic factors may change over time. If they change, this has implications for the assessment of how abiotic changes affect species distributions. Here, we use spatially explicit historical data on species occurrences, climate and land use to test whether the importance of different climatic and land-use drivers as determinants of species distributions has remained constant over a period of > 60 years (1951–2014). Location: The Netherlands. Methods: Using species distribution models and a comprehensive country-wide dataset at 5 × 5 km resolution, we modelled the distribution of a total of 398 pollinator species (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) for three periods (1951–1970, 1971–1990 and 1998–2014). We then evaluated whether the importance of variables related to climate (precipitation, temperature) and land use (landscape composition and habitat fragmentation) in determining pollinator distributions has changed over time. Results: Variables related to landscape composition were highly important in determining pollinator distributions in all periods. Precipitation was generally less important than temperature, and habitat fragmentation less than landscape composition. Land-use variables remained equally important across time for all pollinator groups, except for bees where the importance of habitat fragmentation decreased significantly over time. Among climate variables, the importance of precipitation did not change across time for any pollinator group. However, the importance of temperature increased significantly in recent times for bees and hoverflies. Main conclusions: Determinants of species distributions can change in their importance over time when changes in the magnitude and range of environmental conditions occur. Given future temperature rises, our results imply that species distribution models calibrated with current climatic conditions may not adequately predict the future importance of environmental factors in driving species distributions.
MetaNatuurplanner v2.0 : status A
Pouwels, R. ; Eupen, M. van; Adrichem, M.H.C. van; Knegt, B. de; Greft-van Rossum, J.G.M. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu, Wageningen UR (WOt-technical report 64) - 102 p.
biodiversiteit - modellen - natuurbeleid - ecosysteembeheer - verdroging - habitatfragmentatie - milieuafbraak - klimaatverandering - wateropslag - biodiversity - models - nature conservation policy - ecosystem management - desiccation - habitat fragmentation - environmental degradation - climatic change - water storage
Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en Alterra Wageningen UR hebben de MetaNatuurplanner ontwikkeld om op nationale of regionale schaal de effecten van beleid en beheeringrepen op de biodiversiteit te bepalen. Het model legt relaties tussen de milieu-, water- en ruimtecondities en de duurzame instandhouding van de biodiversiteit en wordt gebruikt voor zowel signalering, beleidsevaluatie en (nationale) verkenningen. De soortresultaten en het realiseren van duurzame leefgebieden worden geaggregeerd tot indicatoren die aansluiten op het Nederlandse en Europese beleid. In deze rapportage worden alle facetten beschreven van het model die nodig zijn om de kwaliteitsstatus A voor modellen van de WOT Natuur & Milieu te verkrijgen.
The diversity–disease relationship : evidence for and criticisms of the dilution effect
Huang, Z.Y.X. ; Langevelde, F. van; Estrada-Peña, A. ; Suzán, G. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2016
Parasitology 143 (2016)9. - ISSN 0031-1820 - p. 1075 - 1086.
abundance - amplification effect - competence–extinction relationship - habitat fragmentation - identity effect - infection prevalence

The dilution effect, that high host species diversity can reduce disease risk, has attracted much attention in the context of global biodiversity decline and increasing disease emergence. Recent studies have criticized the generality of the dilution effect and argued that it only occurs under certain circumstances. Nevertheless, evidence for the existence of a dilution effect was reported in about 80% of the studies that addressed the diversity–disease relationship, and a recent meta-analysis found that the dilution effect is widespread. We here review supporting and critical studies, point out the causes underlying the current disputes. The dilution is expected to be strong when the competent host species tend to remain when species diversity declines, characterized as a negative relationship between species’ reservoir competence and local extinction risk. We here conclude that most studies support a negative competence–extinction relationship. We then synthesize the current knowledge on how the diversity–disease relationship can be modified by particular species in community, by the scales of analyses, and by the disease risk measures. We also highlight the complex role of habitat fragmentation in the diversity–disease relationship from epidemiological, evolutionary and ecological perspectives, and construct a synthetic framework integrating these three perspectives. We suggest that future studies should test the diversity–disease relationship across different scales and consider the multiple effects of landscape fragmentation.

Effect straatverlichting op paddentrek
Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Joosten, K. ; Creemers, R. - \ 2015
RAVON 17 (2015)3. - p. 56 - 58.
padden - migratie - habitats - habitatfragmentatie - habitatverbindingszones - verlichting - kunstmatige verlichting - wildbescherming - toads - migration - habitat fragmentation - habitat corridors - lighting - artificial lighting - wildlife conservation
Al duizenden jaren gaan padden in het vroege voorjaar ’s nachts op pad naar voortplantingswateren om daar te paren en eieren af te zetten. De wereld om hen heen is in al die jaren sterk veranderd. Wegen doorkruisen hun leefgebied en straatverlichting langs de wegen is eerder regel dan uitzondering. En dat heeft effect op de paddentrek, zo blijkt uit een lichtonderzoek.
Rapid diversity loss of competing animal sppecies in well-connected landscapes
Schippers, P. ; Hemerik, L. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Verboom, J. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 17 p.
woodpecker dendrocopos-medius - squirrel sciurus-carolinensis - great spotted woodpeckers - neutral-theory - habitat fragmentation - riverine forest - climate-change - coexistence - abundance - metapopulations
Population viability of a single species, when evaluated with metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools, always increases when the connectivity of the landscape increases. However, when interactions between species are taken into account, results can differ. We explore this issue using a stochastic spatially explicit meta-community model with 21 competing species in five different competitive settings: (1) weak, coexisting competition, (2) neutral competition, (3) strong, excluding competition, (4) hierarchical competition and (5) random species competition. The species compete in randomly generated landscapes with various fragmentation levels. With this model we study species loss over time. Simulation results show that overall diversity, the species richness in the entire landscape, decreases slowly in fragmented landscapes whereas in well-connected landscapes rapid species losses occur. These results are robust with respect to changing competitive settings, species parameters and spatial configurations. They indicate that optimal landscape configuration for species conservation differs between metapopulation approaches, modelling species separately and meta-community approaches allowing species interactions. The mechanism behind this is that species in well-connected landscapes rapidly outcompete each other. Species that become abundant, by chance or by their completive strength, send out large amounts of dispersers that colonize and take over other patches that are occupied by species that are less abundant. This mechanism causes rapid species loss. In fragmented landscapes the colonization rate is lower, and it is difficult for a new species to establish in an already occupied patch. So, here dominant species cannot easily take over patches occupied by other species and higher diversity is maintained for a longer time. These results suggest that fragmented landscapes have benefits for species conservation previously unrecognized by the landscape ecology and policy community. When species interactions are important, landscapes with a low fragmentation level can be better for species conservation than well-connected landscapes. Moreover, our results indicate that metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools may overestimate the value of connectivity and should be replaced by more realistic meta-community based tools.
An assessment of the terrestrial mammal communities in forests of Central Panama, using camera-trap surveys
Meyer, N.F.V. ; Esser, H.J. ; Moreno, R. ; Langevelde, F. van; Liefting, Y. ; Ros Oller, D. ; Vogels, C.B.F. ; Carver, A.D. ; Nielsen, C.K. ; Jansen, P.A. - \ 2015
Journal for Nature Conservation 26 (2015). - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 28 - 35.
rain-forest - habitat fragmentation - conservation status - neotropical forest - atlantic forest - tayassu-pecari - abundance - biodiversity - landscape - density
The Isthmus of Panama, part of the planet’s third largest megadiversity hotspot, and connecting the faunas of North and South America, has lost more than half of its forest due to agriculture and economicdevelopment. It is unknown to what degree the remaining forest, which is fragmented and subject topoaching, still supports the wildlife diversity found in intact forests. Here, we use camera-trap surveysto assess whether forests in Central Panama, the narrowest and most disturbed portion of the Isthmus,still have intact communities of medium- and large-bodied terrestrial mammals. During 2005–2014,we collected camera-trap survey data from 15 national parks and forest fragments on both sides ofthe Panama Canal, and compared these to similar data from two sites in the intact Darién NationalPark in Eastern Panama, the nearest available reference. We found that most sites in Central Panama– including some of the national parks – had lower mammal species richness and evenness than thereference sites, and less structurally-complex mammal communities. Forests in Central Panama had littleor no apex predators and large terrestrial frugivores, with the exception of two sites directly connectedto the reference site. Our results indicate that the terrestrial mammal community in forests of CentralPanama is currently degraded, even inside national parks. These data provide a baseline for evaluating the success of conservation efforts to prevent the Panamanian Isthmus to become a bottleneck for movement of aniamls
Landscape diversity enhances the resilience of populations, ecosystems and local economy in rural areas
Schippers, P. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Koelewijn, H.P. ; Schouten, M.A.H. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Cobben, M.M.P. ; Sterk, M. ; Vos, C.C. ; Verboom, J. - \ 2015
Landscape Ecology 30 (2015)2. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 193 - 202.
climate-change - genetic diversity - patch size - habitat fragmentation - ecological resilience - response diversity - biodiversity - conservation - reserves - services
Context In today’s world, rapid environmental and economic developments and changes pose major threats to ecosystems and economic systems. Objective In this context we explore if resilience can be increased by the spatial configuration of the rural landscape in an integrated ecological-genetic-economic way. Methods We study the concept of landscape diversity from genetic, ecological and economic perspectives. Results We show that small-scale landscapes are potentially more resilient than large-scale landscapes, provided that ecosystem patch sizes are sufficiently large to support genetic diversity and ecosystem and economic functions. The basic premise underlying this finding is that more variation in a landscape generally leads to greater genetic and species diversity. This, in turn, stabilizes populations and strengthens the different ecosystem elements in the landscape. Greater variation in ecosystem elements provides for more varied ecosystem services, which may enhance the resilience of the local economy. Conclusion We conclude that a resilient landscape is shaped within the context of economic and ecological possibilities and constraints, and is determined by landscape diversity and spatial organisation.
Scale and self-governance in agri-environment schemes: experiences with two alternative approaches in the Netherlands
Westerink, J. ; Melman, D. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 58 (2015)8. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1490 - 1508.
social-ecological systems - biodiversity conservation - agricultural landscapes - habitat fragmentation - mosaic management - limosa-limosa - payments - survival - policy - participation
Agri-environment schemes in the Netherlands have been criticized for their lack of effectiveness. Explanations were sought in the limited size of the individual farm and in the shallowness of the measures. We distinguish three scale problems: in the spatial dimension (from farm element to landscape), in the management dimension (from add-on measure to farming system) and in the governance dimension (from little to much space for self-governance by farmers). These scale concepts are used to translate insights from ecology and agro-economy to governance approaches. We analyse case studies of two new approaches: an area approach with group contracts and spatial coordination of agri-environmental measures, and a farming system with substantial adaptations of the farming concept. Both approaches have elements of increased self-governance and could offer inspiration for schemes elsewhere. We propose that appropriate space for self-governance is necessary when choosing another scale approach for making agri-environment schemes more effective.
Insect herbivores should follow plants escaping their relatives
Yguel, B. ; Bailey, R.I. ; Villemant, C. ; Brault, A. ; Jactel, H. ; Prinzing, A. - \ 2014
Oecologia 176 (2014)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 521 - 532.
phylogenetic conservatism - habitat fragmentation - niche conservatism - feeding insects - isolated trees - diversity - community - quercus - parasitoids - associations
Neighboring plants within a local community may be separated by many millions of years of evolutionary history, potentially reducing enemy pressure by insect herbivores. However, it is not known how the evolutionary isolation of a plant affects the fitness of an insect herbivore living on such a plant, especially the herbivore's enemy pressure. Here, we suggest that evolutionary isolation of host plants may operate similarly as spatial isolation and reduce the enemy pressure per insect herbivore. We investigated the effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host trees on the pressure exerted by specialist and generalist enemies (parasitoids and birds) on ectophagous Lepidoptera and galling Hymenoptera. We found that the phylogenetic isolation of host trees decreases pressure by specialist enemies on these insect herbivores. In Lepidoptera, decreasing enemy pressure resulted from the density dependence of enemy attack, a mechanism often observed in herbivores. In contrast, in galling Hymenoptera, enemy pressure declined with the phylogenetic isolation of host trees per se, as well as with the parallel decline in leaf damage by non-galling insects. Our results suggest that plants that leave their phylogenetic ancestral neighborhood can trigger, partly through simple density-dependency, an enemy release and fitness increase of the few insect herbivores that succeed in tracking these plants.
Using Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) for assemblages of mammal and bird species in global biodiversity assessments
Verboom, J. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Stouten, J. ; Pouwels, R. ; Pe’er, G. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Adrichem, M.H.C. van; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 33) - 22
habitatfragmentatie - biodiversiteit - fauna - zoogdieren - vogels - landschapsecologie - habitat fragmentation - biodiversity - mammals - birds - landscape ecology
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are important factors in the decline of biodiversity worldwide. It is important to be able to evaluate the success of policies at different levels, including, increasingly, the global level. Whilst attention has been given to the development of predictive models that focus on individual species within biogeographic regions or smaller areas, however, to assess the impact of land-use change and policy measures on biodiversity at global level, there is an urgent need for generic tools (models, algorithms, databases). In this paper we test the potential of a generic tool, as part of the GLOBIO model, for assessing the impact of habitat loss and fragmentation. It combines existing data for the minimum viable populations of terrestrial bird and mammal species with knowledge of individual area requirements to derive estimates of their minimum area requirements (MAR). This approach focuses on comparing the minimum area requirements (MAR) to the natural habitat areas, assuming that below a certain threshold populations are no longer viable and the species assembly will eventually be reduced. The relationship between nature area and percentage of species meeting Minimum Area Requirements appears to be log-linear between 10 km2 and 10 000 km2 for conservation priority species and has the form Y=-15.45 + 28.61* LOG(AREA). Our results suggest that many existing parks and reserves might be too small for the long-term viability of species that they are meant to preserve. Applying this relationship to a global land cover dataset reveals that substantial proportions of mammal and bird species occur in areas that fail to cover sufficient space to support long term viable populations. This applies even at current state, especially for those areas of the globe where rapid urbanisation and agricultural expansion have taken place and are anticipated to proceed.
Species’ traits influence ground beetle responses to farm and landscape level agricultural intensification in Europe
Winqvist, C. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Öckinger, E. ; Aavik, T. ; Berendse, F. ; Clement, L.W. ; Geiger, F. - \ 2014
Journal of Insect Conservation 18 (2014)5. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 837 - 846.
carabid beetle - habitat fragmentation - biological-control - intraguild predation - functional diversity - spatial scales - arable crops - context - biodiversity - land
Agricultural intensification may result in important shifts in insect community composition and function, but this remains poorly explored. Studying how groups of species with shared traits respond to local and landscape scale land-use management can reveal mechanisms behind such observed impacts. We tested if ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) divided into trait groups based on body sizes, wing morphologies and dietary preferences respond differently to farming practise (organic and conventional), farming intensity (measured as yield) and landscape complexity (measured as the proportion of arable land within a 1,000 m radius) across Europe. We used data from 143 farms in five regions in northern and central Europe. Organic farms did not differ in abundance or richness of any trait group compared to conventional farms. As farm scale intensity (yield) increased, overall abundance of beetles decreased, but abundances of small and medium sized beetles, as well as that of wingless beetles, were unaffected. Overall species richness was not affected by yield, whereas consideration of traits revealed that phytophagous and omnivorous beetles were less species rich on farms with high yields. Increasing the proportion of arable land in the landscape increased overall beetle abundance. This was driven by an increase in omnivorous beetles. The total species richness was not affected by an increase in the proportion arable land, although the richness of wingless beetles was found to increase. Potential effects on ecosystem functioning need to be taken into account when designing schemes to maintain agricultural biodiversity, because species with different ecological traits respond differently to local management and landscape changes.
Linking species assemblages to environmental change: Moving beyond the specialist-generalist dichotomy
Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2014
Basic and Applied Ecology 15 (2014)4. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 279 - 287.
british butterflies - habitat fragmentation - biotic homogenization - nitrogen deposition - climate-change - conservation - diversity - responses - richness - traits
Environmental changes due to land use developments, climate change and nitrogen deposition have profound influences on species assemblages. Investigating the dynamics in species composition as a function of underlying traits may increase our understanding of ecosystem functioning and provide a basis for effective conservation strategies. Here, I use a broad array of species traits for butterflies to identify four main components of associated traits. These reflect the spatial use of the landscape, abiotic vulnerability, developmental rate and phenology, and food specialisation, respectively. The first three trait components each contribute to determine Red List status, but only the developmental rate and phenology component is related to recent population trends. I argue that the latter component reflects the environmental impact of nutrient availability and microclimate, as affected by nitrogen deposition. This perspective sheds a new light on ongoing changes in community composition. Thus, a multidimensional view of trait associations allows us to move beyond the simplistic specialist–generalist dichotomy, renew our view on species-specific studies and help in setting new priorities for conservation.
No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species
Malinowska, A.H. ; Strien, A.J. van; Verboom, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
climate-change - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - population-dynamics - occupancy models - european climate - range expansion - dispersal - trends - impact
Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics) across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i) trends in distribution patterns, (ii) the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii) the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity), or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat). Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.
Infrastructurele knelpunten voor de otter : overzicht van verkeersknelpunten met mate van urgentie voor het nemen van mitigerende maatregelen
Kuiters, A.T. ; Lammertsma, D.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2513) - 69
lutra lutra - migratie - zoogdieren - habitatfragmentatie - wegen - verkeersongevallen - habitats - inventarisaties - migration - mammals - habitat fragmentation - roads - traffic accidents - inventories
De afgelopen jaren zijn op veel plaatsen mitigerende maatregelen genomen om leefgebieden veiliger te maken voor de otter en de kans op verkeersslachtoffers te beperken. Echter, het aantal verkeersslachtoffers neemt ieder jaar toe, deels omdat bestaande voorzieningen in leefgebieden tekort schieten, deels omdat de otter zich aan het verspreiden is naar nieuwe leefgebieden. Om het aantal slachtoffers terug te dringen is het dringend noodzakelijk om op korte termijn verdere maatregelen te nemen. Op verzoek van het ministerie van EZ is een inventarisatie gemaakt van alle verkeersknelpunten binnen en tussen de huidige otterleefgebieden (situatie voorjaar 2013), zijn deze geprioriteerd en zijn oplossingsrichtingen beschreven.
Ontsnipperingsplan Naardermeer : advies voor faunapassages bij de spoorlijn
Grift, E.A. van der; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2521) - 56
habitatfragmentatie - wildpassages - landschap - spoorwegen - ecologische hoofdstructuur - habitatverbindingszones - infrastructuur - noord-holland - habitat fragmentation - wildlife passages - landscape - railways - ecological network - habitat corridors - infrastructure
In opdracht van de Vereniging Natuurmonumenten is onderzocht wat de beste manier is om de versnipperingseffecten van de spoorlijn Weesp-Hilversum in het Naardermeer op te heffen. Het onderzoek geeft antwoord op de vragen: (1) Waarom is ‘ontsnippering’ van het Naardermeer nodig? (2) Wat zijn de doelsoorten en doelen voor de ontsnippering van het Naardermeer? (3) Kennen de doelsoorten verschillende prioriteiten en is er op basis hiervan een ranking aan te brengen van de doelsoorten? (4) Welke eisen stellen de doelsoorten aan het ontwerp en de dichtheid van faunapassages? (5) Op welke locaties binnen het Naardermeer is een faunapassage gewenst? (6) Welk ontwerp wordt voor deze faunapassages aanbevolen per locatie? (7) Wat is de verwachte functionaliteit van de faunapassages? Het resultaat van het onderzoek is een concreet ontsnipperingsplan voor de spoorlijn in het Naardermeer, inclusief een pakket van eisen voor de aanbevolen faunapassages
The impact of large herbivores on woodland–grassland dynamics in fragmented landscapes: The role of spatial configuration and disturbance
Schippers, P. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Vos, C.C. ; Kramer, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2014
Ecological Complexity 17 (2014). - ISSN 1476-945X - p. 20 - 31.
north temperate forests - red deer - population-dynamics - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - distribution patterns - grazing systems - management - regeneration - resilience
The vegetation structure of natural ecosystems is usually considered independent of their size and their location in the landscape. In this study, we examine the effect of size, spatial configuration and disturbances on the dynamic interactions of large herbivores and vegetation in a patchy environment using a metapopulation model. Simulations indicate that small, isolated or unfenced patches have low herbivore numbers and high tree cover whereas large, well-connected or fenced patches support high herbivore densities and are covered by grassland. Recovery of both herbivore numbers and forest cover in response to disturbance is slow (>100 years). These long recovery times are partly attributable to negative feedbacks between herbivore numbers and tree cover. When the population of large herbivores is disturbed, forest is able to expand, subsequently inhibiting herbivore population recovery. Likewise, forest disturbance allows herbivore population expansion, which inhibits forest recovery. Additionally, infrequent and limited disturbances like hunting and forest removal also affect the vegetation cover in patches of nature. Thus, our work indicates that the location and size of patches, together with disturbances, largely determine the structure of the vegetation in fragmented landscapes
Agriculture and nature: Trouble and strife?
Baudron, F. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2014
Biological Conservation 170 (2014). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 232 - 245.
soil fertility management - agri-environment schemes - land-use change - biodiversity conservation - habitat fragmentation - food-production - tropical conservation - farmland biodiversity - protect biodiversity - organic agriculture
Global demand for agricultural products is expected to double in the next decades, putting tremendous pressure on agriculture to produce more. The bulk of this increase will come from developing countries, which host most biodiversity-rich areas of the planet. Whilst most biodiversity is found in production landscapes shared with people, where agriculture represents an increasing threat, international conservation organisations continue to focus on the maintenance and expansion of the network of protected areas. When conservation organisations partner with agricultural programmes, they promote low input, extensive agriculture. Combined with the focus on protected areas, this may exacerbate rather than mitigate conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural production. Two models have been proposed to increase agricultural production whilst minimising the negative consequences for biodiversity: ‘land sparing’ and ‘land sharing’. Although often polarized in debates, both are realistic solutions, depending on the local circumstances. We propose a number of criteria that could guide the choice towards one or the other. We conclude that general principles to be considered in both land sparing and land sharing are: managing spillover effects, maintaining resilience and ecosystem services, accounting for landscape structure, reducing losses and wastes, improving access to agricultural products in developing countries and changing consumption patterns in developed countries, and developing supportive markets and policies.
Population dynamics of Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in the Netherlands: interaction effects of winter weather and habitat fragmentation
Cormont, A. ; Vos, C.C. ; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Turnhout, C.A.M. van; Foppen, R.P.B. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 943 - 952.
ardeidae - fauna - populatiedynamica - klimaatverandering - winter - weersgegevens - habitatfragmentatie - klimaatadaptatie - nederland - population dynamics - climatic change - weather data - habitat fragmentation - climate adaptation - netherlands - climate-change - britain - variability - models - trends
The increased variability in weather as a manifestation of climate change is expected to have negative impacts on population survival in wildlife species, because it will likely lead to increased variation in vital demographic rates (mortality and reproduction) in these populations. For the effective protection of biodiversity, adaptation measures are needed to compensate for the expected increase in weather variability and the negative interaction with habitat fragmentation. As a case study, we studied the fluctuations in Great Bittern numbers (Botaurus stellaris) from 28 monitoring plots scattered over the Netherlands to explore the interaction between the effect of weather and possible remediating effects of the landscape structure. Great Bittern habitat surrounding these plots differs with respect to area, quality, and degree of isolation of this habitat. In western Europe, Great Bitterns are found to be susceptible to continuous loss of suitable habitat due to vegetation succession and fragmentation. Moreover, year-to-year fluctuations in local Great Bittern populations can be caused by severe winter weather or other weather extremes. Our results show that severe winter weather has indeed a significant negative impact on Great Bittern population growth rates. Furthermore, we found that an increased carrying capacity and spatial cohesion (i.e. inverse of habitat fragmentation) contribute to an increase in mean growth rates over the years. As growth rates are higher in large, well-connected habitats, we argue that recovery from negative effects of, e.g. severe winters on Great Bittern population numbers is enhanced in these less-fragmented habitats. We derived generic adaptation measures for enhancing the recovery rate of populations of species in general: one should invest in more large, well-connected nature areas, not only to diminish the negative effects of habitat fragmentation on wildlife populations, but additionally to reduce the impacts of climatic variability.
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