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- A.H.G.G. Ende van den (1)
- J. Fan (1)
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- C. Waalwijk (6)
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- J.S. West (1)
- J. Xu (2)
- J.S. Xu (2)
- Jin Xu (1)
- Jingsheng Xu (1)
- L.J. Yang (1)
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- D.Z. Yu (1)
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- Z. Zhang (2)
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Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: a review
Lee, T.A.J. van der; Zhang, H. ; Diepeningen, A. ; Waalwijk, C. - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32 (2015)4. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 453 - 460.
head blight pathogen - nivalenol-producing chemotypes - small-grain cereals - trichothecene genotypes - new-zealand - genealogical concordance - mycotoxin chemotypes - population-structure - southern brazil - sensu-stricto
Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of these mycotoxins and their producers. The phylogenetic species concept has become a valuable tool to study the global occurrence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. This has revolutionised our views on the terrestrial distribution of trichothecene-producing Fusaria in the context of agronomics, climatic conditions, and human interference by the global trade and exchange of agricultural commodities. This paper presents an overview of the dynamics of the different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species as well as their chemotypes and genotypes across different continents. Clearly not one global population exists, but separate ones can be distinguished, sometimes even sympatric in combination with different hosts. A population with more pathogenic strains and chemotypes can replace another. Several displacement events appear to find their origin in the inadvertent introduction of new genotypes into new regions: 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. graminearum in Canada; 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. asiaticum in Eastern China; 15-acetyl-DON F. graminearum in Uruguay; and NIV-producing F asiaticum in the southern United States
Simultaneous real-time PCR quantification of Fusarium asiaticum, F ussurianum and F vorosii, representing the Asian clade of the F graminearum species complex
Fernandez-Ortuno, D. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Fan, J. ; West, J.S. ; Fraaije, B.A. - \ 2013
International Journal of Food Microbiology 166 (2013)1. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 148 - 154.
head blight pathogen - gibberella-zeae - genealogical concordance - southern brazil - wheat - diversity - barley - quantification - populations - mycotoxins
Due to the repeated discovery of new members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), some of the F. graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.)-specific qPCR assays developed to date have since been shown to be non-specific. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method was developed, targeting a sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51) paralogue, CYP51C unique to the genus Fusarium, for the simultaneous detection of F. asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated for a wide range of Fusarium species, including all tested FGSC members (n=6), originating from different hosts and geographic regions. Alongside a previously published assay for detection of F. graminearum, we were able to show that members of the Asian clade of the FGSC (i.e. F. asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii) were the primary etiological agent in wheat seeds samples originating from Central-East China. The grain samples from the UK tested negative for the presence of the FGSC's Asian clade and positive for presence of F. graminearum. It is likely that only F. graminearum s.s. is present in the UK, but the presence of other FGSC members cannot be ruled out and need further investigation
Geographic differences in trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in the Northwest and North of Iran
Davari, M. ; Wei, S.H. ; Babay-Ahari, A. ; Arzanlou, M. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Zare, R. ; Ende, A.H.G.G. van den; Hoog, G.S. de; Diepeningen, A.D. van - \ 2013
World Mycotoxin Journal 6 (2013)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 137 - 150.
head blight pathogen - dna-sequence database - species complex - genealogical concordance - wheat - populations - mycotoxins - barley - deoxynivalenol - diversity
The diversity and prevalence of Fusarium species and their chemotypes on wheat in the North-West and North of Iran was determined. Wheat in these areas is severely affected by Fusarium head blight, with Fusarium graminearum as prevalent species causing 96% of the infections in the North-West and 50% in the Northern provinces. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characters and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, and parts of translation elongation factor 1-alpha and RNA polymerase subunit II sequences. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses show little haplotype variation between the F. graminearum strains collected from the different locations, but the isolates differ significantly in their trichothecene chemotypes as determined with a multilocus genotyping assay. E graminearum strains producing 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were abundant in Ardabil (North-West of Iran), while in Golestan province (North of Iran) at the other side of the Caspian Sea especially nivalenol producing strains and a variety of other Fusarium species were observed. Strains producing 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol were rarely found in both areas. This is the first detailed study on Fusarium infections in Iranian wheat, showing large differences in prevalent etiological agents and in mycotoxin chemotypes geographically.
Rapid identification of fusarium graminearum species complex using Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA)
Davari, M. ; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Babai-Ahari, A. ; Arzanlou, M. ; Javad Najafzadeh, M. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Hoog, G.S. de - \ 2012
Journal of Microbiological Methods 89 (2012)1. - ISSN 0167-7012 - p. 63 - 70.
head blight pathogen - dna-sequence database - genealogical concordance - padlock probes - north-america - wheat - mycotoxins - cereals - barley - populations
Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) of DNA is a sensitive and cost effective method for the rapid identification of pathogenic fungi without the need for sequencing. Amplification products can be visualized on 1% agarose gel to verify the specificity of probe-template binding or directly by adding fluorescent dyes. Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is currently the world's largest threat to the production of cereal crops with the production of a range of mycotoxins as an additional risk. We designed sets of RCA padlock probes based on polymorphisms in the elongation factor 1-a (EF-1a) gene to detect the dominant FHB species, comprising lineages of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). The method also enabled the identification of species of the Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC), the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti (FIESC), and the Fusarium tricinctum (FTSC) species complexes, and used strains from the CBS culture collection as reference. Subsequently probes were applied to characterize isolates from wheat and wild grasses, and inoculated wheat kernels. The RCA assays successfully amplified DNA of the target fungi, both in environmental samples and in the contaminated wheat samples, while no cross reactivity was observed with uncontaminated wheat or related Fusarium species. As RCA does not require expensive instrumentation, the technique has a good potential for local and point of care screening for toxigenic Fusarium species in cereals
Population Analysis of the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Wheat in China Show a Shift to More Aggressive Isolates
Zhang, H. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Chen, W. ; Xu, Jin ; Xu, Jingsheng ; Zhang, Y. ; Feng, J. - \ 2012
PLoS One 7 (2012)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
head blight pathogen - multilocus genotype data - genealogical concordance - mycotoxin chemotypes - genetic diversity - gibberella-zeae - eastern china - f-asiaticum - clade - scab
A large number of Fusarium isolates was collected from blighted wheat spikes originating from 175 sampling sites, covering 15 provinces in China. Species and trichothecene chemotype determination by multilocus genotyping (MLGT) indicated that F. graminearum s. str. with the 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15ADON) chemotype and F. asiaticum with either the nivalenol (NIV) or the 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype were the dominant causal agents. Bayesian model-based clustering with allele data obtained with 12 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) markers, detected three genetic clusters that also show distinct chemotypes. High levels of population genetic differentiation and low levels of effective number of migrants were observed between these three clusters. Additional genotypic analyses revealed that F. graminearum s. str. and F. asiaticum are sympatric. In addition, composition analysis of these clusters indicated a biased gene flow from 3ADON to NIV producers in F. asiaticum. In phenotypic analyses, F. asiaticum that produce 3ADON revealed significant advantages over F. asiaticum that produce NIV in pathogenicity, growth rate, fecundity, conidial length, trichothecene accumulation and resistance to benzimidazole. These results suggest that natural selection drives the spread of a more vigorous, more toxigenic pathogen population which also shows higher levels of fungicide resistance
Population genetic analysis of Fusarium asiaticum populations from barley suggest a recent shift favoring 3ADON producers in southern Chin
Zhang, H. ; Zhang, Z. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Xu, J. ; Xu, J.S. ; Yang, L. ; Yu, D. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Feng, J. - \ 2010
Phytopathology 100 (2010)4. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 328 - 336.
head blight pathogen - gibberella-zeae - graminearum clade - united-states - wheat scab - chemotypes - diversity - deoxynivalenol - culmorum - markers
Fusarium asiaticum is the predominant causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in southern China. The genetic diversity was assessed by analyzing 448 single-spore F. asiaticum isolates from 18 sampling sites that were 10 to 2,000 km apart, using seven highly informative variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers. This analysis showed a significant degree of population subdivision (P <0.001) among populations from upper, middle, and lower valleys of the Yangtze River, with little gene flow (Nm = 1.210). We observed a strong association between this genetic population subdivision and the mycotoxin produced. Our results show that the dramatic cline in trichothecene chemotypes may be explained by a recent and significant invasion of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) producers in FHB pathogen composition in the middle valley. Using Bayesian statistics, we found a biased gene flow from 3ADON to nivalenol (NIV) populations. In addition, we observed significant genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium between NIV- and 3ADON-producing isolates at the same sampling sites. The impact of the changed agronomy and trade of cereal commodities on the spread of the new Fusarium population and the consequent increase of FHB observed in southern China are discussed.
Genetic diversity studies on Fusarium asiaticum isolates collected from barley in China show a clear substructure associated with their geographic origin
Zhang, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Li, C. ; Arens, P. ; Xu, J. ; Xu, J.S. ; Yang, L.J. ; Yu, D.Z. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Feng, J. - \ 2010
European Journal of Plant Pathology 127 (2010)2. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 239 - 248.
head blight pathogen - graminearum clade - genetic diversity - wheat fields - populations - scab - deoxynivalenol - mycotoxins
Abstract Fusarium head blight (FHB) can affect wheat and barley and is a devastating disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. Here we report on a large-scale survey on the genetic diversity of isolates collected from barley in China. Ten VNTR markers were tested on a representative set of 40 isolates covering 14 sampling areas along the Yangtze River. VNTR4 and VNTR7, with 13 and 6 alleles, each were applied to a total of 1106 single-spore isolates to reveal the population structure of F. asiaticum. The F. asiaticum population showed high genetic diversity and a clear genotypic substructure within China. Pairwise comparisons of allele frequencies between the mountainous provinces of Sichuan and Chongqing in Western China, Hubei Province in the centre or the eastern provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai showed significant differences. Even between counties of the same province, significant differences between allele frequencies were found (P