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Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos
Nangsuay, A. ; Molenaar, R. ; Meijerhof, R. ; Anker, I. van den; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2015
Poultry Science 94 (2015)3. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 415 - 423.
heat-production - eggshell temperature - chicken embryos - oxygen concentration - protein-turnover - lipid-metabolism - incubation - growth - glycogen - energy
Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass.
High eggshell temperatures during incubation decrease growth performance and increase the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens
Molenaar, R. ; Hulet, R. ; Meijerhof, R. ; Maatjens, C.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2011
Poultry Science 90 (2011)3. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 624 - 632.
pulmonary-hypertension syndrome - thermal manipulations - body-weight - environmental-temperature - embryo development - posthatch growth - poor ventilation - live performance - heat-production - egg size
High eggshell temperatures (EST; 38.9°C) during the second half of incubation are known to decrease the body and organ development of broiler hatchlings. In particular, relative heart weights are decreased by a high EST, and this may increase the incidence of metabolic disorders that are associated with cardiovascular development, such as ascites. The current study investigated the effects of a high EST on chick quality, subsequent performance, and the incidence of ascites later in life. Eggs were incubated at a normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C) EST from d 7 of incubation onward. After hatching, the chickens were housed per EST in pens, and a normal or cold temperature schedule was applied during the grow-out period. Hatchability, hatchling quality, BW, feed conversion ratio, total mortality, mortality associated with ascites, slaughter characteristics, and ascites susceptibility at 6 wk of age were evaluated. Except for total ventricle weight, no interaction was found between EST and the grow-out temperature. Hatchability was comparable between the EST treatments, but the percentage of second-grade chickens was 0.7% higher at the high EST. Yolk-free body mass was 3.0 g lower, and heart weights were 26% lower at hatch in the high compared with the normal EST treatment. Body weight continued to be less during the grow-out period after the high EST incubation. However, breast meat yield was 1.0% higher in the high than in the normal EST. Feed conversion ratio did not differ between EST treatments. Total mortality was 4.1% higher and mortality associated with ascites was 3.8% higher in the high compared with the normal EST treatment. The ratio between the right and total ventricle was 1.1% higher in the high compared with the normal EST treatment at slaughter age. In conclusion, a high EST from d 7 of incubation onward decreased hatchling quality and growth performance, but increased breast meat yield. Furthermore, high EST incubation increased the incidence of ascites, which may be related to the reduced heart development at hatch.
Energy partitioning during incubation and consequences for embryo temperature: A theoretical approach
Lourens, A. ; Meijerhof, R. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2011
Poultry Science 90 (2011). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 516 - 523.
heat-production - eggshell temperature - lipid-metabolism - chick quality - egg size - broiler - growth - hatchability - consumption - exchange
In practice, many hatchability and chick quality problems have been related to the control of embryo temperature (ET) during incubation. Within an incubator, set at a constant machine temperature (MT), ET can vary substantially. Embryo temperature is the result of the balance between heat transfer to and from the embryo and heat production (HP) of the embryo. We investigated which factors theoretically could account for the variation in ET within an incubator. First, the effects egg weight, MT, and oxygen availability on HP of embryos were quantified. Differences in HP could be due only to differences in the amount of energy utilized from the egg or to differences in the efficiency of the conversion of energy in the egg to energy in the chicken, indicated as EYFB. Results of these analyses showed that differences in HP attributable to egg weight or oxygen availability were mainly a result of the amount of energy used from the egg constituents and not of a change in EYFB. However, at a given MT, this variation in HP could account for a maximum increase in ET of only 1.21°C, suggesting that other factors played a role because in practice within an incubator, larger differences in ET have been found. The most important factor was probably the difference in air velocity within an incubator, resulting in differences in heat transfer. Because of this variation, ET varied within an incubator and with increasing ET, EYFB decreased, resulting in an even higher HP and consequently ET. We concluded that this theoretical approach could explain the wide variation in ET, and consequently could explain the negative effects of high ET on hatchability and chick quality found in the literature. This indicates that, in both practice and in incubation experiments, it is of great importance to realize that any factor affecting HP or heat transfer influences ET. We strongly suggest that ET (or eggshell temperature) be controlled in any incubation experiment involving hatchability or energy utilization.
Effect of eggshell temperature and oxygen concentration on survival rate and nutrient utilization in chicken embryos
Molenaar, R. ; Meijerhof, R. ; Anker, I. van den; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2010
Poultry Science 89 (2010)9. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2010 - 2021.
lipid-metabolism - heat-production - gas-exchange - turkey eggs - growth - hatchability - incubation - broiler - gluconeogenesis - hypoxia
Environmental conditions during incubation such as temperature and O2 concentration affect embryo development that may be associated with modifications in nutrient partitioning. Additionally, prenatal conditions can affect postnatal nutrient utilization. Using broiler chicken embryos, we studied the effects of eggshell temperature (EST; 37.8 or 38.9°C) and O2 (17, 21, or 25%) applied from d 7 until 19 of incubation in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Effects of these factors on embryonic survival, development, and nutrient utilization were assessed in the pre- and posthatch period. High EST reduced yolk-free body mass compared with normal EST (36.1 vs. 37.7 g), possibly through reduced incubation duration (479 vs. 487 h) and lower efficiency of protein utilization for growth (83.6 vs. 86.8%). Increasing O2 increased yolk-free body mass (from 35.7 to 38.3 g) at 12 h after emergence from the eggshell, but differences were larger between the low and normal O2 than between the normal and high O2. This might be due to the lower efficiency of nutrient utilization for growth at low O2. However, the effects of O2 that were found at 12 h were less pronounced at 48 h posthatch. When O2 was shifted to 21% for all treatments at d 19 of incubation, embryos incubated at low O2 used nutrients more efficiently than those incubated at normal or high O2. An additional negative effect on survival and chick development occurred when embryos were exposed to a combination of high EST and low O2. Possible explanations include reduced nutrient availability for hatching, decreased body development to fulfill the energy-demanding hatching process, and higher incidence of malpositions. In conclusion, EST and O2 during incubation affect nutrient utilization for growth, which may explain differences in survival and development. Embryos raised under suboptimal environmental conditions in the prenatal period may develop adaptive mechanisms that still continue in the posthatch period
Effect of eggshell temperature and a hole in the air cell on the perinatal development and physiology of layer hatchlings
Molenaar, R. ; Vries, S. de; Anker, I. van den; Meijerhof, R. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2010
Poultry Science 89 (2010)8. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1716 - 1723.
incubation-temperature - heat-production - embryonic-development - blood biochemistry - gallus domesticus - shell conductance - chicken embryos - gas-exchange - turkey eggs - goose eggs
To investigate the effect of incubation conditions on layer hatchlings, an experiment was performed in which layer eggs were incubated at a normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C) eggshell temperature (EST) and a hole was punctured in the air cell of half of the eggs in both EST treatments from d 14 of incubation onward. Chick development, plasma metabolites, and hepatic glycogen were measured at 12 h after emergence from the eggshell. Embryo mortality was not affected by the EST or hole treatment. At the high EST, yolk-free body mass was 0.7 g lower and residual yolk weight was 0.7 g higher than at the normal EST. This may be related to the shorter incubation duration at the high EST. Relative heart, lung, stomach, liver, spleen, and intestinal weights were lower in the high EST than in the normal EST group. Yolk-free body mass did not differ between eggs with or without a hole, but residual yolk weight was slightly lower in eggs with a hole (0.3 g). Relative lung weights were higher in eggs with than without a hole, whereas no effect on other organs was found. Plasma glucose, lactate, and uric acid concentrations did not differ between the EST or hole treatments. Hepatic glycogen was lower in the high EST (7.3 mg) than in the normal EST group (11.2 mg) at 12 h after emergence from the eggshell, and this effect may be related to the shorter hatching process at the high EST. Hepatic glycogen levels were lower in eggs with a hole (8.6 mg) compared with eggs without a hole (10.0 mg), and this may be related to the longer period between external pipping and hatching in eggs with a hole. In conclusion, the EST and hole treatment did not interact, and neither treatments affected embryonic survival. High EST negatively affected hatchling development and seemed to change the carbohydrate metabolism in layer embryos. The effect of a hole in the air cell was limited
Metabolic depression in fish measured by direct calorimetry: A review
Ginneken, V.J.T. van; Thillart, G. van den - \ 2009
Thermochimica Acta 483 (2009)1-2. - ISSN 0040-6031 - p. 1 - 7.
amphipod gammarus-oceanicus - heat-production - oxygen-consumption - energy-metabolism - aquatic animals - baltic sea - temperature - goldfish - hormones - hypoxia
In nature under adverse conditions like low oxygen conditions or starvation fish often lower their metabolism: `metabolic depression¿. This strategy of lowering the metabolic rate is a survival strategy and is used to save energy stores and diminish end-product accumulation. The overall metabolic rate of animals can be deduced by measuring metabolic processes such as oxygen consumption, but the ultimate method is measuring heat flow. In this review, we will summarise the available data about metabolic depression measuring heat flow, i.e. by direct calorimetry in fishes, which were carried out almost exclusively with a 1-l flow through calorimeter. Using deconvolution techniques the time constant of this calorimeter was measured that allowed to estimate the time course of metabolic depression, which was found to take place on a time scale of 20-30 min. We demonstrated that metabolic depression is species dependent. Goldfish, eel and tilapia show metabolic depression under low oxygen conditions while this is not the case for common carp. In addition it is shown that metabolic depression is flexible and increases with decreasing oxygen availability. Furthermore using a video analysing system we demonstrated that metabolic depression is not caused by a reduction of external activity. As heart rate falls dramatically during metabolic depression as shown by small wireless transmitters, we hypothesise that blood flow reduction might be the proximate cause for metabolic depression
Effects of Eggshell Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Embryo Growth and Metabolism During Incubation
Lourens, A. ; Brand, H. van den; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Meijerhof, R. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2007
Poultry Science 86 (2007)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2194 - 2199.
chick-embryos - organ growth - egg weight - broiler-chickens - ascites syndrome - yolk utilization - heat-production - hatching time - parental age - hatchability
Embryo development and heat production (HP) were studied in eggs of similar size (60 to 65 g) that were incubated at normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C) eggshell temperature (EST) and exposed to low (17%), normal (21%), or high (25%) O2 concentration from d 9 through 19. High EST initially increased HP, but gradually O2 became more important for HP than EST. Finally,HP was highest for the combination of high EST with high O2 and lowest for the combination of high EST with low O2. High EST decreased hatch time, BW, yolk free BW, and relative heart weight. The EST had no effect on residual yolk weight, chick length, or relative liver weight. Increased O2 increased yolk free BW and chick length and decreased residual yolk weight at hatch. No interactions between EST and O2 were observed with regard to embryo development and hatchling characteristics. If embryo development is reflected by HP, it can be concluded that high EST primarily increased embryonic development until the second week of incubation. During the third week of incubation, O2 had a greater effect in determining embryo development than EST.
Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities
Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy, ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Kemp, B. ; Canh, T.T. - \ 2005
Journal of Animal Science 83 (2005)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1385 - 1396.
high ambient-temperatures - heat-production - growing-pigs - behavior - stress - swine
The effects of relative humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature (T) on physiological responses and animal performance were studied using 12 groups (10 gilts per group) in pens inside respiration chambers. The microclimate in the chamber was programmed so that T remained constant within a day. Each day, the T was increased by 2°C from low (16°C) to high (32°C). Relative humidity was kept constant at 50, 65, or 80%. The pigs¿ average initial BW was 61.7 kg (58.0 to 65.5 kg), and their average ending BW was 70.2 kg (65.9 to 74.7 kg). Respiration rate (RR), evaporative water (EW), rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), voluntary feed intake (VFI), water-to-feed ratio (rW:F), heat production (HP), and ADG were analyzed. The animals had free access to feed and water. We determined the T above which certain animal variables started to change: the so-called inflection point temperature (IPt) or "upper critical temperature." The first indicator of reaction, RR, was in the range from 21.3 to 23.4°C. Rectal temperature was a delayed indicator of heat stress tolerance, with IPt values ranging from 24.6 to 27.1°C. For both these indicators the IPt was least at 80% RH (P <0.05). Heat production and VFI were decreased above IPt of 22.9 and 25.5°C, respectively (P <0.001). For each degree Celsius above IPt, the VFI was decreased by 81, 99, and 106 g/(pig·d) in treatments 50, 65, and 80% RH, respectively. The ADG was greatest at 50% RH (P <0.05). Ambient temperature strongly affects the pigs¿ physiological changes and performance, whereas RH has a relatively minor effect on heat stress in growing pigs; however, the combination of high T and high RH lowered the ADG in pigs. The upper critical temperature can be considered to be the IPt above which VFI decreased and RT then increased. Temperatures of the magnitude of both these IPt are regularly measured in commercial pig houses. We conclude that the upper critical temperatures for 60-kg, group-housed pigs fed ad libitum are between 21.3 and 22.4°C for RR, between 22.9 and 25.5°C for HP and VFI, and between 24.6 and 27.1°C for RT. It is clear that different physiological and productive measurements of group-housed, growing-finishing pigs have different critical temperatures.
Mineral absorption and excretion as affected by microbial phytase and their effect on energy metabolism in young piglets
Kies, A.K. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Linden, K.L. van der; Zandstra, T. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2005
The Journal of Nutrition 135 (2005)5. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1131 - 1138.
dietary electrolyte balance - aspergillus-niger phytase - growing pigs - apparent digestibility - phytic acid - heat-production - phosphorus - protein - tract - nutrients
Positive effects of dietary phytase supplementation on pig performance are observed not only when phosphorus is limiting. Improved energy utilization might be one explanation. Using indirect calorimetry, phytase-induced changes in energy metabolism were evaluated in young piglets with adequate phosphorus intake. Eight replicates of 8 group-housed barrows each were assigned to either a control or a phytase-supplemented diet [1500 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed]. Piglets were fed a restricted amount of the control or phytase diet. The diets were made limiting in energy content by formulating them to a high digestible lysine:DE ratio. Fecal nutrient digestibility, portal blood variables, organ weights, and apparent absorption and urinary excretion of ash, Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cu, and Fe, were also measured. A model was developed to estimate energy required for absorption and excretion, which are partly active processes. Phytase tended to improve energy digestibility (P = 0.10), but not its metabolizability. Energy retention and heat production were not affected. At the end of the 3-wk period, pancreas weight (P <0.05) and blood pH were lower (P <0.01), and CO2 pressure was higher (P <0.01) due to phytase. This suggests that phytase reduced energy expenditure of the digestive tract, and increased metabolic activity in visceral organs. The potential increases in energy retention due to phytase were counterbalanced by increased energy expenditures for processes such as increased mineral absorption (for most P <0.05), and their subsequent urinary excretion. Energy costs of increased absorption of nutrients, and deposition and excretion of minerals was estimated as 4.6 kJ/(kg0.75·d), which is 1% of the energy required for maintenance. The simultaneous existence of both increases and decreases in heat production processes resulted in the absence of a net effect on energy retention.
Mechanism of thyroid-hormone regulated expression of the SERCA genes in skeletal muscle: Implications for thermogenesis
Simonides, W.S. ; Thelen, M.H.M. ; Linden, C.G. van der; Muller, A. ; Hardeveld, C. - \ 2001
Bioscience Reports 21 (2001)2. - ISSN 0144-8463 - p. 139 - 154.
sarcoplasmic-reticulum ca2+-atpase - cold-acclimated ducklings - messenger-rna levels - heat-production - postnatal-development - differential expression - uncoupling protein - receptor isoforms - force development - twitch muscle
Thyroid hormone increases the Ca2+-ATPase activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle, thereby increasing the energy-turnover associated with Ca2+-cycling during contraction and rest. The fast-muscle isoform of the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) and the slow-muscle isoform (SERCA2a), are encoded by two genes that are transcriptionally regulated by T3. The SERCA1 isoform can be expressed to considerably higher levels than the SERCA2a isoform. The stimulation of transcription of the SERCA1 gene by T3 is mediated by two thyroid hormone response elements, located in the promoter of this gene. The intracellular [Ca2+] can modulate the effect of T3. The increase in SR Ca2+-ATPase activity seen when T3-levels rise above normal, results from the induction of SERCA1 expression in slow muscle fibers. Concomitant high levels of Ca2+-ATPase activity are associated with down-regulation of SERCA2a expression in these fibers. The observed T3-dependent increase in SERCA1 expression and associated Ca2+-ATPase activity will increase the overall metabolic rate of the organism significantly under normal conditions, because of the high average level of contractile activity of slow fibers. Given the rise in serum T3-levels during prolonged cold exposure, these data suggest that fiber-specific stimulation of SERCA1 expression contributes to the thermogenic response in non-shivering thermogenesis. This mechanism may be particularly relevant in larger mammals, which have a relatively high percentage of slow fibers in skeletal muscle, and which need to rely on tissues other than brown fat for the generation of extra heat