- Marcel Dicke (1)
- N.E. Fatouros (1)
- Erik H. Poelman (1)
- A. Hakman (1)
- J.J.A. Loon van (2)
- D. Lucas-Barbosa (1)
- A. Nunes Villela (1)
- Evangelia Papagiannaki (1)
- E.H. Poelman (1)
- Marjolein Rijk de (1)
- P. Sun (1)
- Heiko Vogel (1)
- Qianjue Wang (1)
- B.T. Weldegergis (1)
- F. Zhu (1)
Data from: Symbiotic polydnavirus and venom reveal parasitoid to its hyperparasitoids
Zhu, F. ; Cusumano, Antonino ; Bloem, J. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Nunes Villela, A. ; Fatouros, N.E. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Vogel, Heiko ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2018
multitrophic interactions - plant-mediated interaction network - herbivore saliva - herbivore-induced plant volatiles - parasitic wasp - Cotesia glomerata - Lysibia nana - Pieris brassicae - Brassica oleracea
Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid’s progeny to survive. Here, we show that symbiotic polydnaviruses also have a downside to the parasitoid’s progeny by initiating a multi-trophic chain of interactions that reveals the parasitoid larvae to their enemies. These enemies are hyperparasitoids that use the parasitoid progeny as host for their own offspring. We found that the virus and venom injected by the parasitoid during oviposition, but not the parasitoid progeny itself, affected hyperparasitoid attraction towards plant volatiles induced by feeding of parasitized caterpillars We identified activity of virus-related genes in the caterpillar salivary gland. Moreover, the virus affected the activity of elicitors of salivary origin that induce plant responses to caterpillar feeding. The changes in caterpillar saliva were critical in inducing plant volatiles that are used by hyperparsitoids to locate parasitized caterpillars. Our results show that symbiotic organisms may be key drivers of multi-trophic ecological interactions. We anticipate that this phenomenon is widespread in nature, because of the abundance of symbiotic microorganisms across trophic levels in ecological communities. Their role should be more prominently integrated in community ecology to understand organization of natural and managed ecosystems as well as adaptations of individual organisms that are part of these communities.
Herbivore species identity rather than diversity of the non-host community determines foraging behaviour of the parasitoid wasp Cotesia glomerata
Rijk, Marjolein de; Wang, Qianjue ; Papagiannaki, Evangelia ; Dicke, Marcel ; Poelman, Erik H. - \ 2016
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 161 (2016)1. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 20 - 30.
Braconidae - herbivore-induced plant volatiles - Lepidoptera - multi-herbivory - Noctuidae - patch residence time - Plutellidae - species traits - Trichoplusia ni
Extensive research has been conducted to reveal how species diversity affects ecosystem functions and services. Yet, consequences of diversity loss for ecosystems as a whole as well as for single community members are still difficult to predict. Arthropod communities typically are species-rich, and their species interactions, such as those between herbivores and their predators or parasitoids, may be particularly sensitive to changes in community composition. Parasitoids forage for herbivorous hosts by using herbivore-induced plant volatiles (indirect cues) and cues produced by their host (direct cues). However, in addition to hosts, non-suitable herbivores are present in a parasitoid's environment which may complicate the foraging process for the parasitoid. Therefore, ecosystem changes in the diversity of herbivores may affect the foraging efficiency of parasitoids. The effect of herbivore diversity may be mediated by either species numbers per se, by specific species traits, or by both. To investigate how diversity and identity of non-host herbivores influence the behaviour of parasitoids, we created environments with different levels of non-host diversity. On individual plants in these environments, we complemented host herbivores with 1–4 non-host herbivore species. We subsequently studied the behaviour of the gregarious endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) while foraging for its gregarious host Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Neither non-host species diversity nor non-host identity influenced the preference of the parasitoid for herbivore-infested plants. However, after landing on the plant, non-host species identity did affect parasitoid behaviour, whereas non-host diversity did not. One of the non-host species, Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), reduced the time the parasitoid spent on the plant as well as the number of hosts it parasitized. We conclude that non-host herbivore species identity has a larger influence on C. glomerata foraging behaviour than non-host species diversity. Our study shows the importance of species identity over species diversity in a multitrophic interaction of plants, herbivores, and parasitoids.
Visual and odours cues: plant responses to pollination and herbivory affect the behaviour of flower visitors
Lucas-Barbosa, D. ; Sun, P. ; Hakman, A. ; Beek, T.A. van; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2015
flowers - florivory - herbivore-induced plant volatiles - phenolics - pollination
Plants evolved strategies to attract pollinators that are essential for reproduction. However, plant defence against herbivores may trade off with pollinator attraction. Here, we investigated the role of inducible plant secondary metabolites in such a trade-off. Our objective was to reveal the mechanisms underlying the effects of induced plant responses to pollination and herbivory. We assessed how responses of plants to pollination and insect herbivory affect the behaviour of flower visitors. Subsequently, we investigated how the production of volatile and non-volatile compounds changes after pollination and herbivory. Both herbivores and pollinators induced important phenotypic changes in flowers. Brassica nigra plants respond to pollination and herbivory with changes in the profile of volatiles and non-volatiles of their flowers. Our results show that butterflies use different cues when searching for an oviposition site or a nectar source. Pollination status influenced the behaviour of butterflies, but not that of syrphid flies. We discuss the results in the context of the trade-off between defence and reproduction in plants and suggest that systemic responses to herbivores can interfere with local responses to pollination. Therefore, these responses must be addressed in an integrated way because, in nature, plants are simultaneously exposed to herbivores and pollinators.