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Data from: Distribution of the invasive Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 and native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) on artificial hard substrates in the North Sea: separation by habitat
Coolen, J.W.P. ; Lengkeek, Wouter ; Degraer, Steven ; Kerckhof, Francis ; Kirkwood, R.J. ; Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2016
artificial reefs - invasive species - oil & gas platforms - wind farms - shipwrecks - Caprella linearis - Phtisica marina - Pseudoprotella phasma - Caprella tuberculata - Caprella mutica - Caprella equilibra - Caprellidae - holocene
Studying offshore natural and artificial hard substrates in the southern North Sea (51ºN–57ºN/1ºW–9ºE), the invasive introduced Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 was found to co-exist with the native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) only on near-shore locations that had an intertidal zone (e.g., wind farm foundations). In contrast, on far offshore and strictly subtidal locations, such as shipwrecks and rocky reefs, only C. linearis was found. Based on these exploratory observations, we hypothesised that artificial structures that are only subtidal are inhabited exclusively by C. linearis, and never by C. mutica. To test this hypothesis and understand factors driving each species’ habitat preferences, habitat suitability models were constructed using generalised additive models, based on samples collected in 2013–2015 from offshore gas platforms, buoys, shipwrecks, and rocky reefs and combined with data from other published and unpublished surveys (2001–2014). The models showed that the presence of C. mutica is explained by the availability of intertidal and floating hard substrates, suspended particulate matter density (SPM), mean annual sea surface temperature, salinity, and current velocity. The C. linearis model included subtidal hard substrates, SPM, salinity, temperature, and current velocity. The modelled distributions showed a significant difference, demonstrating that C. linearis’ habitat preference does not fully overlap with that of C. mutica. Thus, the native and alien Caprella species are likely to be able to co-exist in the North Sea.
Data from: Facultative grazing and bioturbation by macrodetritivores alter saltmarsh plant-plant interactions under stress
Howison, Ruth A. ; Olff, H. ; Puijenbroek, M.E.B. van; Smit, Christian - \ 2016
abiotic stress - bioturbation - facultative grazing - plant-plant interactions - salt marsh - stress gradient hypothesis - water logging - Elytrigia atherica - Festuca rubra - Orchestia gammarellus - holocene
The importance of positive plant-plant interactions is generally suggested to increase towards more stressful conditions, due to mutual stress amelioration between plants. Bioturbating macrodetritivores can also ameliorate stress through bioturbation, but can also become selective herbivores under food-limited conditions, making the outcome of plant-plant interactions under stress in the presence of macrodetritivores unclear. We studied how combining environmental stress (waterlogging) with the presence of the soil macrodetritivore Orchestia gammarellus affected the outcome of the interaction between two salt marsh plants: the tall, late successional Elytrigia atherica and the shorter, early successional Festuca rubra. In a replacement design competition experiment under controlled conditions, we found that soil redox potential was negatively affected by waterlogging and positively affected by the presence of O. gammarellus. The survival and shoot biomass of E. atherica was not significantly affected by waterlogging or by the presence of bioturbators. The survival and shoot biomass of F. rubra was especially decreased when waterlogging was combined with the presence of O. gammarellus, as this macrodetritivore turned into a selective grazer on F. rubra under these conditions. We found that E. atherica produced double shoot biomass and F. rubra produced much less shoot biomass in their mixed cultures than was expected from the monocultures of same waterlogging/Orchestia treatments. Hence, the presence of the bioturbator strongly promoted the competitive advantage of E. atherica over F. rubra due to the combination of stress amelioration for the first species and selective herbivory on the second species. Synthesis: This study shows that the inclusion of bioturbating macrodetritivores complicates the standard prediction that plant-plant interactions become more positive towards more stressful conditions. A novel insight is that macrodetritivores can affect the structure and diversity of plant communities through multiple mechanisms. Under benign conditions bioturbating macrodetritivores ameliorated soil conditions, permitting co-occurrence of competing plant species. At high environmental stress (waterlogging) macrodetritivores selectively graze higher quality plant species and emerging seedlings, thus promoting dominance of the lower quality species. Hence the facultative feeding behavior of macrodetritivores deserves further attention
Drift sands, lakes, and soils: the multiphase Holocene history of the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands.
Sevink, J. ; Koster, E.A. ; Geel, B. van; Wallinga, J. - \ 2013
Netherlands journal of geosciences 92 (2013)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 243 - 266.
bodemvorming - eolische gronden - holoceen - paleogeografie - podzolgronden - hydrogeologie - natuurgebieden - het gooi - soil formation - aeolian soils - holocene - palaeogeography - podzolic soils - hydrogeology - natural areas
A unique complex of multiphased Holocene drift sands and paleosols, with at least two lacustrine phases, was discovered during a major sanitation project in the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands. The complex could be studied in detail, highly facilitated by the excellent and large-scale exposure of the various deposits and soils. OSL dating was used to establish ages of the phases, where possible differentiating between time of deposition and time of burial by taking into account the potential effects of bioturbation. Pollen analysis served to reconstruct the vegetation during the various phases. A first minor phase of aeolian activity already started before approx. 5,000 BC, followed around 4,000 BC by a second phase and a rather massive third phase around 3,000 BC. After a long phase of soil formation, the latest, massive drift sand phase started around the 14th to 15th century. It clearly represents the classic drift sand phase that started in the Late Middle Ages in the Netherlands. Sand drifting followed on soil forming phases during which the vegetation became increasingly dominated by ericaceous plants and culminated in heathlands. The first three aeolian phases and associated heathlands are much older than generally assumed for heathland and drift sand to occur in the Netherlands. Moreover, podzolisation was found to have started very early, true podzols already occurring before 4,000 BC. Around 3,000 BC groundwater in the area reached a maximum altitude of about 230 cm +NAP, resulting in local open water in the area. This rise is probably linked to the development of the Dutch coastal area, where at that time peat accumulated and drainage was poor, inducing a rise of the groundwater level in ‘het Gooi’. This groundwater level fell later on, to never reach this altitude again. The Groot Wasmeer was formed by local stagnation on a slowly permeable podzol and already reached a level of 320-325 cm +NAP by 400 BC, which more or less equals its 20th century level. The results demonstrate that earlier concepts on the occurrence and age of aeolian phases, podzols and heathland vegetations in the Netherlands are far too schematic, and that early, pre-agricultural cultures may already have had an impact on the stability of fragile cover sand landscapes, e.g. through burning. Results are in line with those from several contemporary studies on early prehistoric cultures and their impact in river dune areas in the Central and Eastern Netherlands.
Mind the gap: modelling event-based and millennial-scale landscape dynamics
Baartman, J.E.M. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732668 - 216
geomorfologie - erosie - sedimentatie - dynamica - tijdschalen - landschapsanalyse - modelleren - rivieren - regen - menselijke invloed - landschap - ontwikkeling - spanje - pleistoceen - holoceen - geomorphology - erosion - sedimentation - dynamics - time scales - landscape analysis - modeling - rivers - rain - human impact - landscape - development - spain - pleistocene - holocene
This research looks at landscape dynamics – erosion and deposition – from two different perspectives: long-term landscape evolution over millennial timescales on the one hand and short-term event-based erosion and deposition at the other hand. For the first, landscape evolution models (LEMs) are often used, which describe landscape forming processes by geomorphic transport laws, usually on annual temporal resolutions. LEM LAPSUS is used in this research to evaluate the landscape dynamics in a study area in south-east Spain: the Guadalentín Basin. The model is calibrated on dated river terrace levels, which show an erosion – deposition – erosion sequence that the model could reproduce. Annual precipitation in this dryland area shows large inter-annual variability and erosion is supposed to be mainly the results of low-frequency, high magnitude rainfall events. Therefore, in this research, landscape dynamics are also assessed using the event-based erosion model OpenLISEM. Eventually, the role of extreme events in long-term landscape evolution are explored by comparing the two models and by incorporating annual rainfall variability into LEM LAPSUS. Another issue that is being addressed in this study is the relative influence of humans as compared to erosion as a natural process. A conceptual model, derived on the basis of dated sediment archives, is tentatively correlated to periods of human impact on the land. Using LAPSUS, the potential influence of historical tillage erosion is simulated, showing that the relatively slow process of tillage erosion added to floodplain aggradation over thousands of years.
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in lake sediments: Can they be used as temperature and pH proxies?
Blaga, C.I. ; Reichart, G.J. ; Schouten, S. ; Lotter, A.F. ; Werne, J.P. ; Kosten, S. ; Mazzeo, N. ; Lacerot, G. ; Damste, J.S.S. - \ 2010
Organic Geochemistry 41 (2010)11. - ISSN 0146-6380 - p. 1225 - 1234.
terrestrial organic-matter - crenarchaeotal membrane-lipids - bit index - water temperatures - reconstruction - transport - palaeothermometer - distributions - assemblages - holocene
A series of surface sediments from 82 lakes of variable water depth and size was analyzed for glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in order to investigate the potential of the MBT/CBT (methylation ratio/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers) as a continental palaeothermometer in lacustrine environments. Branched GDGTs dominated in most sediments, as indicated by the high branched vs. isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) values. We observed that CBT and MBT varied substantially. Mean annual air temperature (MAAT reconstructed) and pH values were calculated using the CBT and MBT values and the calibration from the global soil data set. The MBT/CBT inferred temperatures were considerably lower than measured values. Nevertheless, there was a significant correlation between MAAT reconstructed and MAAT observed on site, although there was still considerable scatter (r(2) 0.47). Lacustrine sediments integrate organic remains of organisms in a lake and its drainage basin, thereby offering a unique opportunity for calibrating MBT and CBT, as small scale variability is averaged out. Since the source of the branched GDGTs in the lake sediments is ambiguous, it is not clear whether only temperature and pH in the catchment area are the driving factors. Therefore, even in lake sediments with high concentrations of branched GDGTs the straightforward application of MBT/CBT as palaeoproxies may be difficult given the uncertainties regarding their source and origin.
Upward groundwater flow in boils as the dominant mechanism of salinization in deep polders, the Netherlands
Louw, P.G.B. de; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Stuyfzand, P.J. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2010
Journal of Hydrology 394 (2010)3-4. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 494 - 506.
kwel - grondwater - zout water - waterstroming - polders - chloride - holoceen - grondwaterkwaliteit - zuid-holland - seepage - groundwater - saline water - water flow - holocene - groundwater quality - rhine-meuse delta - saltwater intrusion - surface-water - sand boils - discharge - aquifer - temperature - soil - hydrology - quality
As upward seepage of saline groundwater from the upper aquifer is leading to surface water salinization of deep polders in the Netherlands, we monitored the processes involved in the Noordplas Polder, a typical deep polder. Our results show three types of seepage: (1) diffuse seepage through the Holocene confining layer, (2) seepage through paleochannel belts in the Holocene layer, and (3) intense seepage via localized boils. They differ with regard to seepage flux, chloride concentration, and their location in the polder; thus, their contributions to surface water salinization also differ. Permeable, sandy paleochannel belts cut through the lower part of the Holocene layer, resulting in higher seepage fluxes than the diffuse seepage through the Holocene layer where there are no paleochannels. The average chloride concentration of paleochannel seepage is about 600 mg/l, which is sixfold higher than the average concentration of diffuse seepage. The highest seepage fluxes and chloride concentrations are found at boils, which are small vents in the Holocene layer through which groundwater preferentially discharges at high velocities. This results in upconing of deeper and more saline groundwater, which produces an average chloride concentration of 1100 mg/l. Despite the fact that seepage fluxes are difficult to measure, we were able to calculate that boils contribute more than 50% of the total chloride load entering the Noordplas Polder and they therefore form the dominant salinization pathway
Mid-Holocene water-level changes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta (western Netherlands): implications for the reconstruction of relative mean sea-level rise, palaeoriver-gradients and coastal evolution
Plassche, O. van de; Makaske, B. ; Hoek, W.Z. ; Konert, M. ; Plicht, J. van der - \ 2010
Netherlands journal of geosciences 89 (2010)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 3 - 20.
eolische afzettingen - geologie - waterstand - holoceen - zuid-holland - rivierengebied - aeolian deposits - geology - water level - holocene - radiocarbon age calibration - southern north-sea - cal bp - movements - area - bc
We present a revised relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the Rhine-Meuse delta, western Netherlands, for the period 7900-5300 cal yr BP. The revision is based on a series of new and previously unpublished local groundwater-level index data from buried Late Glacial aeolian dunes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta, and reinterpretation of existing data. The new index data consist of (AMS and conventional) radiocarbon dates of samples, collected from the base of peat formed on dune slopes, near Vlaardingen (21 index points), Hillegersberg (one index point), and Hardinxveld-Giessendam (10 index points). The Vlaardingen data represent the coast-nearest Rhine-Meuse delta local water-level record, which therefore is highly indicative for sea-level change. Pollen and macrofossil analysis, and dating of paired samples was carried out to assess the reliability of the groundwater-level index data. The revision of the MSL curve involves: (1) a significant (0 to >1 m) upward adjustment for the period 7900-7300 cal yr BP; (2) a downward adjustment of =0.25 m for the period 6650-5300 cal yr BP. The new data indirectly support the reliability of the part of the curve for the period 7300-6650 cal yr BP. A longitudinally fairly uniform river gradient of 2.5-3.0 cm/km in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta during the period 6650-5600 cal yr BP can be inferred from the data sets. A significant river gradient extended further towards the coastline than previously thought and it may be that also the revised MSL curve reflects river-gradient effects. An increased floodbasin effect (stronger intra-coastal tidal damping) seems to have developed in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta in de period 7500-6600 cal yr BP, and was probably a complex response to a major avulsion of the Rhine.
Aeolian and fluviolacustrine landforms and prehistoric human occupation on a tectonically influenced floodplain margin, the Méma, central Mali
Makaske, B. ; Vries, E. de; Tainter, J.A. ; McIntosh, R.J. - \ 2007
Netherlands journal of geosciences 86 (2007)3. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 241 - 256.
eolische afzettingen - geomorfologie - geologische sedimentatie - rivieren - landschap - stroomvlakten - mali - aeolian deposits - geomorphology - geological sedimentation - rivers - landscape - floodplains - niger - holocene - africa
The Méma is a semi-arid region in central Mali with a rich archaeological heritage indicating the former existence of large urban settlements. The archaeological data suggest millennia of occupation history of the Méma preceding relatively sudden abandonment by the 14th or 15th century AD. Population numbers have remained low since then and today's human presence in the area is sparse and largely mobile. Geomorphologically, the Méma can be characterized as a graben hosting various generations of aeolian landforms and (presently mostly dry) interdunal channels and lakes, linked to the neighbouring Inland Niger Delta floodplain. Given this setting, and the variability of the Sahelian climate, climatic contributions to the region's sudden abandonment are likely. A geomorphological survey of the region, and interpretation of the observed geomorphological record in terms of climatic history, aimed at providing a basis for understanding the intensive occupation and subsequent abandonment of the Méma. The results of this study underscore dramatic Holocene climatic variability, leading to the region's present geomorphological diversity, but also suggest that neotectonic movements constitute an important additional cause of regional desiccation. Both may have encouraged prehistoric people to abandon the Méma after a long period of occupation.
Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (the Netherlands): Growth pattern and population dynamics of oak and ash
Sass, U.G.W. ; Hanraets, E. - \ 2006
Netherlands journal of geosciences 85 (2006)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 61 - 71.
palynologie - hout - paleontologie - klimaatverandering - geschiedenis - overijssel - palynology - wood - palaeontology - climatic change - history - tree-ring chronology - indicators - holocene - forest - europe
Dendrochronology has been used to date sub-fossil wood excavated from former wetland woods located in Zwolle-Stadshagen, the Netherlands. Tree-ring analysis was performed on oak and ash to gain insight into changes in the growth dynamics of the trees resulting from changes in external site conditions, particularly hydrology. In addition population dynamics of oak and ash were studied by observing the temporal distribution and mean age of the oak and ash trees in the period when the woodland existed. The results showed that woodlands with oak and ash at Zwolle-Stadshagen existed at least for a period of about 700 years, from ca. 150 BC to AD 580 (ca. 2200 - 1400 cal. BP). The oak and ash were slowly growing and showed alternating phases of normal and depressed growth. Growth depressions occurred with a frequency of about 20 to 40 years. Almost all of these depressions were synchronous with those in oaks from other ¿ mainly wetland areas ¿ in NW Europe. Consequently, a regional (climate) factor must be considered responsible for this phenomenon. By taking into account the specific growth conditions in wetland woods it is very likely that this factor is linked to site hydrology. Around AD 300 (ca. 1650 cal. BP) a remarkable shift in population dynamics occurred in both oak and ash with many new trees establishing. This indicates a period of striking changes in site hydrology preceding the collapse of the woodland starting around AD 530 (ca. 1420 cal. BP).
The African rain forest during the Last Glacial Maximum an archipelago of forests in a sea of grass
Leal, M.E. - \ 2004
University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen; A.M. Cleef. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 908504037X - 96
caesalpinioideae - regenbossen - soorten - soortendiversiteit - plantengeografie - droogteresistentie - klimaatverandering - uitsterven - gabon - afrika - glaciale perioden - pleistoceen - holoceen - rain forests - species - species diversity - phytogeography - drought resistance - climatic change - extinction - africa - glacial periods - pleistocene - holocene
Process-based modelling of fluvial system response to rapid climate change: 1. model formulation and generic applications
Bogaart, P.W. ; Balen, R.T. van; Kasse, C. ; Vandenberghe, J. - \ 2003
Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003)20. - ISSN 0277-3791 - p. 2077 - 2095.
north-atlantic - ice core - river - erosion - evolution - maas - similar-to-14.7 - netherlands - landscape - holocene
A comprehensive model strategy is presented which enables the prediction of catchment hydrology and the dynamics of sediment transport within the alluvial river systems draining these catchments. The model is driven by AGCM-based weather predictions, generalised by using a stochastic weather generator, and by palaeo-climate and palaeo-environment reconstructions. The model consists of a lumped hydrological rainfall-runoff model, calibrated against modern daily discharge data and the AGCM control experiment. combined with simple modules for hillslope erosion, river channel geometry, sediment transport and fluvial planform type. We apply the model to a conceptualised climatic cycle, and investigate the response to brief climatic events. Model predictions are discussed and compared to reconstructed river behaviour. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Relative water-level rise in the Flevo lagoon (The Netherlands), 5300-2000 cal. yr BC: an evaluation of new and existing basal peat time-depth data
Makaske, B. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van; Peeters, H. ; Mulder, J.R. ; Spek, T. - \ 2003
Netherlands journal of geosciences 82 (2003)2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 115 - 131.
grondwaterstand - veengronden - radiokoolstofdatering - nederland - geschiedenis - bodemdaling - holoceen - flevoland - zeespiegelschommelingen - veenweiden - groundwater level - subsidence - peat soils - radiocarbon dating - history - netherlands - sea level fluctuations - holocene - peat grasslands - holocene evolution - reconstruction
In this study, all available 14C dates from the base of basal peat overlying the top of compaction-free Pleistocene sand in the former Flevo lagoon were evaluated in order to reconstruct water-level rise for the period 5300-2000 cal. yr BC
The rise of Holocene (ground)water level as a function of relative sea-level rise has been extensively investigated in the western Netherlands, whereas few studies focused on the Flevo lagoon in the central Netherlands. In this study, all available C-14 dates from the base of basal peat overlying the top of compaction-free Pleistocene sand in the former Flevo lagoon were evaluated in order to reconstruct water-level rise for the period 5300-2000 cal. yr BC. The present basal peat C-14 data set from Flevoland consists of two subsets: (1) the largely new Almere data (41 dates) representing the southern part of the former Flevo lagoon, with 26 dates especially carried out for this study, and (2) the existing Schokland data (21 dates) representing the eastern part of the lagoon. The Schokland area is located about 50 km from the Almere area. The quality of all basal peat time-depth data was palaeo-ecologically and geologically evaluated, all C-14 dates were calibrated to the same standards, and error margins of age and altitude determination were estimated. After plotting the data as error boxes in time-depth graphs, lower limit curves for water-level rise were constructed for both data sets. Comparison with the mean sea-level curve for The Netherlands (Van de Plassche, 1982) suggests that water-level rise in the Almere area between 5300 and 2000 cal. yr BC corresponded closely to the rise in mean sea level. The same holds for the Schokland area for the period 5000-4200 cal. yr BC. For the period 4200-2000 cal. yr BC, however, the Schokland data suggest water-level rise to have been slower than mean sea-level rise, leading to local water levels apparently below mean sea level, which is virtually impossible. Hypothetical explanations for this discrepancy include: errors and uncertainties in mean sea-level and local water-level reconstruction, basin subsidence and temporal differences in intra-coastal tidal damping. The presently available data are inconclusive at this point and Holocene water-level rise in the Flevo lagoon awaits further investigations.
|Verdronken dekzandlandschap in Flevoland
Makaske, B. ; Kooistra, M.J. ; Haring, R. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 2001
Aarde en mens 5 (2001)1. - ISSN 1388-0071 - p. 19 - 23.
geologie - geomorfologie - bodemtypen - bodemvorming - nederland - holoceen - flevoland - geology - geomorphology - soil types - soil formation - netherlands - holocene
Dit artikel gaat over landschappelijke veranderingen in Zuidelijk Flevoland in het midden Holoceen
Fluvial incision and channel downcutting as a response to Late-glacial and Early Holocene climate change: the lower reach of the river Meuse (Maas), The Netherlands
Tebbens, L.A. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Westerhoff, W. ; Kroonenberg, S.B. - \ 1999
Journal of Quaternary Science 14 (1999)1. - ISSN 0267-8179 - p. 59 - 75.
klimaatverandering - rivieren - stroomvlakten - holoceen - maas - climatic change - rivers - floodplains - holocene - river meuse
Discussion: oil seepage or fossil podzol? An early oligocene oil seepage at the southern rim of the North See Basin, near Leuven (Belgium) by E.D. van Riessen & N. Vandenberghe, Geologie en Mijnbouw 74: 301-312 (1996)
Buurman, P. ; Jongmans, A.G. ; Kasse, C. ; Lagen, B. van - \ 1999
Netherlands journal of geosciences 77 (1999). - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 93 - 98.
podzolen - fossiele gronden - belgië - altruïsme - holoceen - podzols - fossil soils - belgium - altruism - holocene
Reactie op het artikel van ED van Riessen en N. Vandenberghe in Geologie en mijnbouw (1996), p 301 ev.
Bodemfysische schematisatie van het Fochteloerveen en omliggende landbouwgronden
Stolte, J. ; Rosing, H. ; Veldhuizen, A. - \ 1995
Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 382) - 55
veengronden - bodemwater - nederland - holoceen - postglaciale perioden - pleistoceen - friesland - peat soils - soil water - netherlands - holocene - postglacial periods - pleistocene
Voor het natuurgebied Fochteloërveen en omliggende landbouwgronden is een bodemfysische schematisering gemaakt om bodemfysische gegevens beschikbaar te krijgen voor modelinvoer. Voor de omliggende landbouwgronden zijn bestaande bodemkaarten op verschillende schalen gebruikt. Voor het natuurgebied is een detailkartering uitgevoerd. Voor de onderscheiden horizonten zijn Staringreeks-bouwstenen geselecteerd. Voor de horizonten waarvoor dit niet mogelijk was, zijn nieuwe bouwstenen samengesteld op basis van metingen uit vergelijkbare gebieden. Door bestaande gegevenssets te gebruik kan een fysische schematisering worden uitgevoerd. Een gevoeligheidsanalyse zal aantonen of de basisgegevens nauwkeurig genoeg zijn en of de gekozen schaal volstaat.
Soil formation, microstructure and physical behaviour of Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine deposits in the Netherlands
Miedema, R. - \ 1987
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.J. Pons, co-promotor(en): F.F.R. Koenigs. - S.l. : S.n. - 339
kleimineralen - zware kleigronden - klimaat - overstromingen - geologie - landschap - nederland - pedologie - rivieren - sediment - bodemvorming - bodemmicromorfologie - verwering - glaciale perioden - holoceen - postglaciale perioden - kwartair - rijn - clay minerals - clay soils - climate - floods - geology - landscape - netherlands - pedology - rivers - soil formation - soil micromorphology - weathering - glacial periods - holocene - postglacial periods - quaternary - river rhine
<p>Dutch Late Weichselian braided river deposits and Holocene meandering river deposits of the Rhine have been studied and compared. Cross sections demonstrate the lateral and vertical variations of the Late Weichselian sediments. Soil mapping of these deposits, even on a very detailed scale, proves very difficult. Best results have been obtained with a legend based on hydrology enabling the distinction of topo-hydrosequences of well drained brown soils, imperfectly drained mottled soils and poorly drained grey soils.<p>Advanced soil formation and notably the dramatic processes in the Late Weichselian period (decalcification, clay illuviation, pseudogleying, periglacial formation of a highly reoriented, very dense microstructure) have caused clay mineralogical, chemical and physical changes in the Late Weichselian soils.<p>The well drained and imperfectly drained Late Weichselian soils have an argillic horizon (Alfisols, Luvisols), occasionally with very low base saturation (Ultisols, Acrisols) and with strong subsequent pseudogleying in the imperfectly drained soils. The Holocene soils demonstrate decalcification and biogenic homogenization as well as some gleying according to their drainage position. These soils are classified as Inceptisols (Cambisols), occasionally as Mollisols (Phaeozems).<p>Less favourable physical characteristics and behaviour (soil strength, structure stability and tillage behaviour) of the Late Weichselian soils and soil material is quantitatively documented. Differences with the Holocene soils and soil material are statistically highly significant and are caused by differences in texture, content, quality and distribution of organic matter and the highly reoriented, very dense microstructure.<p>Use as permanent grassland or ley in the crop rotation is recommended to increase levels of biological activity. This seems the only remedy for the imperfectly and poorly drained Late Weichselian soils that are compacted by natural soil forming processes not counteracted by biological activity. Very recently improved drainage of large areas of Late Weichselian imperfectly drained soils has increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity to noncritical levels through increased earthworm activity to some metres depth.
|Globale beoordeling van de holocene afzettingen in een gebied nabij Strijen op hun geschiktheid als ophoog - materiaal en voor profielverbetering (structuurplan Strijen I)
Hurk, J.A. van de; Westerveld, G.J.W. - \ 1970
Wageningen : STIBOKA (Rapport / Stichting voor Bodemkartering no. 934) - 4
nederland - holoceen - postglaciale perioden - zuid-holland - zuidhollandse eilanden - netherlands - holocene - postglacial periods
Geologische inventarisatie van een deel van de Hoeksche Waard
A physiographic analysis of a part of the Betuwe, a Dutch river clay area
Havinga, A.J. - \ 1969
Wageningen : Veenman (Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 69-3) - 47
geologie - bodemkarteringen - sediment - zware kleigronden - bodemvorming - bodemprofielen - nederland - kaarten - holoceen - postglaciale perioden - betuwe - gelderland - geology - soil surveys - clay soils - soil formation - soil profiles - maps - netherlands - holocene - postglacial periods
A pedo-geomorphological classification and map of the Holocene sediments in the coastal plain of the three Guianas
Brinkman, R. ; Pons, L.J. - \ 1968
Wageningen : Stichting voor Bodemkartering Wageningen (Soil survey papers / Soil Survey Institute 4) - 40
geomorfologie - guyana - gesteenten - sedimentmaterialen - bodemclassificatie - bodemtaxonomie - bodemtypen - suriname - holoceen - postglaciale perioden - geomorphology - rocks - sedimentary materials - soil classification - soil taxonomy - soil types - holocene - postglacial periods