Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Evaluatie Actieplan Stalbranden 2012-2016
Bokma-Bakker, Martien ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Ellen, Hilko ; Hagen, René ; Ruijven, Charlotte van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1035) - 80
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - varkens - melkvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - stallen - brand - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - pigs - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - horses - stalls - fire - fire prevention - safety
Genetics of equine insect bite hypersensitivity and genetic diversity in horses
Shrestha, Merina - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Bovenhuis; D.J. de Koning, co-promotor(en): Bart Ducro; A.M. Johansson. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430166
paarden - equus - insectenbeten - overgevoeligheid - diergenetica - genetische diversiteit - genetische variatie - allergische reacties - horses - insect bites - hypersensitivity - animal genetics - genetic diversity - genetic variation - allergic reactions

Genetic variation contributing to the phenotypic variation was utilized in this thesis to understand the genetic background of a complex trait IBH, and to understand genetic diversity and relationships between various horse populations.

IBH is the most common skin allergic disorder in horses, caused by bites of midges, predominantly Culicoides species. It affects various horse breeds worldwide. With no effective treatment, IBH degrades horse health and causes economic loss. In this thesis, we used genome-wide SNPs to identify regions contributing to genetic variance of IBH susceptibility. We also investigated influence of increased number of horses and dense SNPs on identification of genomic regions associated to IBH susceptibility. Multiple genomic regions with small effects were observed in Studies I-III. Interesting genomic regions in the Icelandic horse population across the studies I and II, was observed on chromosomes 1, 7, 10, 15 and 17. The percentage of the genetic variance explained by top ten windows increased from 3.07% (Study I) to 6.56% (Study II). Novel genomic regions were identified when number of Icelandic horses was increased in Study II. Using dense SNPs on the Exmoor pony population we identified novel genomic regions, on chr 8, associated to IBH susceptibility, though with borderline significance.

In Study IV, pre-conceived understanding about evolutionary history of horse populations matched obtained results from investigation of genetic relationships within Dutch warmblood populations (pairwise mean FST ≤ 0.070), and within pony-like populations (pairwise mean FST ≤ 0.078). Horse populations with similar genetic background might share similar genetic components for IBH susceptibility. The Friesian horse population had lowest diversity (mean inbreeding coefficients: fi: 30.4%, fiROH= 22.2%) in Study IV and was genetically distinct (FST ranged from 0.13 to 0.17). This might be a result of a history of several population bottlenecks and selection on a closed breeding scheme. Low diversity in immunity related genes, observed in the Friesian horse population, might have led to increased prevalence of IBH. Similarly, low susceptibility of IBH in a warmblood population, KWPN sport horse population might be due to high genetic diversity ( =-6.9%). High genetic diversity in KWPN sport horse population might be a result of an open breeding scheme and interbreeding with other warmblood populations.

Effect van verdoven en doden van drachtige dieren op de foetus en vaststellen van de incidentie van doden van (hoog)drachtige dieren in Nederland : welzijn van de foetus bij verdoven en slachten van drachtige dieren
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Hindle, V.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research rapport ) - 17 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - schapen - rundvee - paarden - diergezondheid - slacht - animal welfare - animal production - sheep - cattle - horses - animal health - slaughter
Literature shows that unborn fetuses during the last third of gestation, are able to experience pain. It is suggested that suppressive factors cause a decreased level of consciousness during pregnancy in the fetus, and that, depending on species, the newborns become conscious after a few hours to several days or weeks after birth. About this reduced level of consciousness during gestation, opinions differ.
During slaughter and bleeding of the dam fetal oxygen level decreases resulting within a minute result in a flattening of the EEG, which is associated with unconsciousness. It is stated that, when using a proper method of killing, no discomfort can be apparent in the unborn fetus. In addition, it is recommended to leave the embryo within the uterus to prevent breathing and thereby prevent an increasing oxygen level as this would make it conscious. The newborn should then be stunned and killed separately.
There is a large variation in the number of slaughtered pregnant animals within the Netherlands. Pregnancy is not always detected and the duration of pregnancy is difficult to estimate. The uteri are left intact according to current recommendations.
On this basis, we conclude that given current knowledge and general opinion, welfare of the fetus is not at stake. New scientific experimental research should reveal the consciousness level of the fetus during slaughter and killing procedures to subscribe the current point of view.
Effect van coronageluid op het gedrag van paarden : interviews paardenhouders
Neijenhuis, F. ; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, M.C. van; Plomp, M. ; Visser, E.K. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 932) - 23 p.
dierenwelzijn - paarden - diergedrag - geluid - elektriciteitsvoorzieningen - interviews - nederland - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - sporten met dieren - wedstrijddieren - animal welfare - horses - animal behaviour - noise - electricity supplies - netherlands - animal production - animal housing - animal sports - racing animals
Het algemene beeld is dat de geïnterviewde paardenhouders denken dat de paarden in de weide of paddock niet reageren op het coronageluid. Een enkele paardenhouder geeft aan dat sommige paarden een korte gewenningsperiode nodig hebben in geval van coronageluid, zoals ook bij andere, nieuwe geluiden het geval kan zijn. Deze bevindingen zijn overeenkomstig met de voorafgaande literatuurstudie: “gesteld kan worden dat het niet aannemelijk is dat paarden hinder ondervinden van coronageluid tijdens het weiden in de buurt van bovengrondse hoogspanningsverbindingen” (Visser and Neijenhuis, 2015). De paardenhouders baseren hun mening op het feit dat paarden weiden en grazen onder de draden zonder ze te mijden of omhoog te kijken. Hiermee wordt door hen gesteld dat het niet aannemelijk is dat de paarden hinder ondervinden van het coronageluid in de weide of paddock in de buurt van bovengrondse hoogspanningsverbindingen.
Initiatives to reduce mutilations in EU livestock production
Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Schöne, Maria ; Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 940) - 86 p.
animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - animal sports - horses - animal ethics - animal health - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - sporten met dieren - paarden - dierethiek - diergezondheid
Fokkerij en Voortplantingstechnieken : Anima(l) sana in corpore sano
Ellen, E.D. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Lansbergen, L.M.T.E. ; Meijboom, F. ; Schakenraad, Marc ; Oonk, Maartje - \ 2016
Den Haag : Raad voor Dierenaangelegenheden - 52 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - paarden - gezelschapsdieren - hobbydieren - dierethiek - dierveredeling - diergezondheid - diergedrag - animal welfare - animal production - horses - pets - hobby animals - animal ethics - animal breeding - animal health - animal behaviour
In 2010 publiceerde de Raad voor Dierenaangelegenheden zijn zienswijze Fokkerij en Voortplantingstechnieken. Sinds die tijd zijn er nieuwe technieken ontwikkeld, discussies gevoerd en zijn partijen aan de slag gegaan met het afwegingskader en aanbevelingen uit deze zienswijze. De vraagstukken rond fokkerij en voortplantingstechnieken blijven ook in 2016 actueel. Dit vormt voor de Raad aanleiding om deze actualisatie uit te brengen.
Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?
Rovere, G.A. - \ 2016
University; Aarhus University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): P. Madsen; Bart Ducro; E. Norberg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576353 - 151 p.
horses - racehorses - studbooks - show jumping - sport performance - pedigree - genetic correlation - horse breeding - breeding programmes - paarden - renpaarden - paardenstamboeken - jachtspringen - sportprestatie - stamboom - genetische correlatie - paardenfokkerij - veredelingsprogramma's

Summary

The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performance on dressage and show-jumping, and pedigree information. Firstly, the effect of specialisation was studied on the connectedness between the subpopulations of dressage and show-jumping horses, using the pedigree information. Results indicated that relatedness between horses in the two subpopulations has been reduced to a low level, while relatedness within both subpopulations has been increasing consistently. A reduction in the number of influential ancestors in both subpopulations was observed. Secondly, it was analysed whether the specialisation for either dressage or show jumping has affected genetic parameters of traits recorded in the two subpopulations. Traits recorded at studbook-entry inspection were defined as a dressage trait or a show-jumping trait according to the type of horse that received the inspection. Bivariate analyses were performed to estimate the genetic correlation between the two traits. Results indicated that the specialisation process has resulted in a difference in mean trait values between dressage and show-jumping horses. However, differences in heritabilities for traits defined as dressage or show-jumping did not differ significantly, and the genetic correlations between them were not different from one considering their posterior standard deviation. Thirdly, the model to analyse performance in competition of dressage and show-jumping was studied. Results showed that performance in competition for dressage and show-jumping is a heritable trait (h2 ~ 0.11-0.13), and that it is important to account for the effect of rider in the genetic analysis. Fourthly, it was estimated the genetic correlation between the performance of horses in dressage and show-jumping competition, and the genetic correlations between traits measured early in life and performance in competition in each of the disciplines. Results showed that the genetic correlation between performance of horses in dressage and show-jumping was slightly unfavourable (-0.12). The genetic correlation between dressage and show-jumping tended to become more unfavourable over time, but this trend was not reflected in changes in the correlations between competition traits and traits recorded in the studbook-entry inspection. From this study it can be concluded that no extra benefit is to be expected from definition of a combined breeding goal. However, entirely separated breeding programmes for both disciplines are therefore not advisable. Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline.

Effect van coronageluid op het gedrag van paarden : een deskstudie
Visser, E.K. ; Neijenhuis, F. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 907) - 17
dierenwelzijn - paarden - diergedrag - geluid - animal welfare - horses - animal behaviour - noise
Leerboek fokkerij en genetica voor het HBO
Oldenbroek, Kor - \ 2015
teaching materials - animal breeding - animal genetics - animal breeding methods - livestock farming - professional education - animal welfare - animal health - animal production - pets - dogs - cats - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - horses
RIKILT speurt naar gifstof die paarden doodt
Ramaker, R. ; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2015
Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2015)148. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 8 - 8.
paarden - diergezondheid - acer - toxische stoffen - gevaren - horses - animal health - toxic substances - hazards
Eten van esdoorns is soms dodelijk voor paarden. Rikilt onderzocht waar in Nederland de gevaren liggen.
Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture
Dansen, O. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Jacobs, M.P.T. ; Everts, H. ; Doorn, D.A. van - \ 2015
Journal of Animal Science 93 (2015)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1916 - 1922.
lactating dairy-cows - detergent fiber - enteric methane - horses - digestibility - cattle - performance - physiology - ruminants - nutrition
Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NEm/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NEm/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P <0.0001), but NE intake was equal for both diets (22.3 ± 0.07 MJ NEm/d). Organic matter digestibility was lower (P = 0.006) for the R diet (47.2%) than the RC diet (55.6%). Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L·pony–1·d–1) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L·pony–1·d–1). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P <0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance
Inventarisatie zoönosen bij het paard in Nederland
Swanenburg, M. ; Vos, C.J. de; Visser, E.K. ; Nodelijk, G. - \ 2014
Lelystad : CVI Wageningen UR (CVI report 14/CVI0155) - 62
dierenwelzijn - paarden - ziekten - diergezondheid - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - risicoschatting - inventarisaties - ziekteoverdracht - animal welfare - horses - diseases - animal health - zoonoses - public health - risk assessment - inventories - disease transmission
Het ministerie van EZ heeft laten onderzoeken of het paard in Nederland een rol speelt bij het ontstaan van infectieziekten die kunnen worden overgedragen van dieren op mensen (zoönosen).
Analysis of animal welfare risks from unloading until slaughter: red meat livestock species
Visser, E.K. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : WUR Livestock Research - 48
animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - beef cattle - pigs - sheep - horses - animal health - transport - slaughter - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - vleesvee - varkens - schapen - paarden - diergezondheid - slacht
Harmonisatie diercategorieën
Groenestein, C.M. ; Bruggen, C. van; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 16) - 36
vee - classificatie - stikstof - fosfor - dierlijke meststoffen - wetgeving - nederland - rundvee - varkens - pluimvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - ezels - livestock - classification - nitrogen - phosphorus - animal manures - legislation - netherlands - cattle - pigs - poultry - sheep - goats - horses - donkeys
Voor wettelijke regelingen, tellingen en monitoringstudies worden in Nederland verschillende indelingen gebruikt voor landbouwhuisdieren. Dat leidt soms tot verwarring en is inefficiënt, vooral omdat gegevens niet eenvoudig uitgewisseld kunnen worden en er aparte bestanden beheerd moeten worden. Op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft de Commissie van Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) een voorstel gemaakt voor een geharmoniseerde en vereenvoudigde indeling van diercategorieën, vooral voor de Uitvoeringsregeling Meststoffenwet. In het voorstel is de huidige indeling van diercategorieën van de Landbouwtelling en de Farm Structure Survey (FSS) van de Europese Commissie als uitgangspunt genomen. In totaal zijn 117 diercategorieën verdeeld over zeven hoofdcategorieën onder de loep genomen. Per hoofdcategorie is een nieuwe, vereenvoudigde indeling voorgesteld. Het resultaat is een voorstel met 60 diercategorieën van in Nederland gehouden landbouwhuisdieren. Het aantal hoofdcategorieën (7) is gelijk gebleven, maar het aantal subcategorieën is fors verminderd. De grootste veranderingen worden voorgesteld bij varkens, van de oorspronkelijke tien categorieën blijven er zes over
Horse Power : Exhibition
Missel, L. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR Library : Wageningen UR Library
paarden - werkdieren - dieranatomie - geschiedenis - verzamelingen - tentoonstellingen - horses - working animals - animal anatomy - history - collections - exhibitions
The focus on this exhibition is on the study of horses in general and of their anatomy in particular.
Staart- en maneneczeem steeds verder ontrafeld!
Tijhaar, E.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
paarden - zomereczeem - eczeem - culicoides - paardenziekten - staart - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - horses - sweet itch - eczema - horse diseases - tail - animal welfare - animal health
Staart- en maneneczeem is een veel voorkomende allergische aandoening bij paarden en pony’s en veroorzaakt veel leed. De afgelopen jaren hebben onderzoekers van Wageningen University en Universiteit Utrecht met steun van technologiestichting STW, Vereniging Koepel Fokkerij en Artu Biologicals onderzoek gedaan naar meerdere aspecten van deze aandoening. De belangrijkste resultaten van het onderzoek worden toegelicht in dit artikel.
High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs
Hordijk, J. ; Schoormans, A. ; Kwakernaak, M. ; Duim, B. ; Broens, E. ; Dierikx, C.M. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Wagenaar, J.A. - \ 2013
Frontiers in Microbiology 4 (2013). - ISSN 1664-302X - p. 242 - 242.
antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria - escherichia-coli - companion animals - hospitals - emergence - horses - genes - pets
Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45 and 55% were positive for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0 and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and Proteus mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly blaCTX-M-1, but also blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-52-StPaul, blaSHV-12, and blaCMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore, the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food-producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.
Welzijnsmonitor paardenhouderij : bijscholingsactiviteit 4 juli 2013 - Apeldoorn
Visser, Kathalijne - \ 2013
animal welfare - horses - measurement - monitoring - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal nutrition - animal health
Culicoides obsoletus allergens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses
Meide, N.M.A. van der - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Huub Savelkoul, co-promotor(en): Edwin Tijhaar. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736697 - 228
paarden - equus - culicoides obsoletus - insectenbeten - allergenen - overgevoeligheid - allergieën - cytokinen - diagnose - elisa - vectoren, ziekten - immunologie - horses - insect bites - allergens - hypersensitivity - allergies - cytokines - diagnosis - disease vectors - immunology

AInsect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common skin allergy in horses and involves a Type I (IgE mediated) hypersensitivity reaction against bites of insects, mainly of the Culicoides species. Welfare of affected horses is seriously reduced and no fully curative treatment is yet available. Furthermore, current diagnostic tests are unreliable because of their low sensitivity and specificity. Aim of our research was to increase the understanding of immunological aspects of IBH, with special attention to improving diagnosis by the characterization and production of recombinant allergens.

Whole body extracts (WBE) of three Culicoides species: C. obsoletus C. nubeculosus and C. sonorensis were evaluated for their applicability for diagnosis of IBH in horses in The Netherlands. They were tested for IgE binding by ELISA and Western blotting and for their capacity to degranulate basophils in a histamine release test. For all tests, best results were obtained with C. obsoletus. The ELISA was further evaluated using C. obsoletus extract on approximately 200 IBH affected and healthy horses, which demonstrated high test sensitivity and specificity. C. obsoletus-specific IgE serum levels were found to be the same in the IBH season and off season, suggesting that the test can be used to diagnose horses in winter when clincial symptoms are absent.

Since C. obsoletus was found to be the most important species for diagnosis of IBH in The Netherlands, mRNA of this Culicoides species was sequenced and assembled to create a transcriptome. Using the sequences from in literature described allergens from C. nubeculosus and C. sonorensis, similarity searches were performed on this transcriptome,. This resulted in the identification of seven allergens from C. obsoletus. These allergens were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins in E. coli and named Cul o 1 – Cul o 7. The frequency of positive test results by ELISA within IBH affected horses ranged from 38 % to 67 %. The capability of the allergens to induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in IBH affected horses was demonstrated by an intradermal test.

The applicability of the 7 C. obsoletus derived recombinant allergens was further evaluated and compared with C. obsoletus WBE in an IgE ELISA using a large number of horses.The highest test accuracy was obtained with WBE, followed by Cul o 2, 3 and 5. Two ELISA’s with a combination of recombinant allergens, combi-1 (Cul o 3, 5 and 7) and combi-2 (Cul o 1, 2, 5 and 7) were additionally performed and both resulted in high test accuracies close to that obtained with WBE. Both combi-1 and combi-2 resulted in a lower test sensitivity with samples collected in winter compared to samples collected in IBH season, but most IBH affected horses could still also be correctly diagnosed in winter.

The association between several factors and IgE levels against C. obsoletus whole body extract and the 7 recombinant allergens was quantified. Furthermore, the relation between IgE levels and severity of symptoms was examined. Severity of symptoms and IgE levels against several C. obsoletus allergens were found to be related. Factors that were found to be associated with IgE levels were: breed, age, month of scoring, interaction between IBH status and month of scoring, degree of itchiness and number of seasons horses were affected with IBH.

The general discussion discussed the prospects to use the produced recombinant allergens for immunotherapy treatment of IBH affected horses. The panel of all 7 recombinant allergens allows to determine for which exact components of C. obsoletus the IBH horses are allergic (“component resolved diagnosis”). This will enable a tailor made composition of (recombinant) allergens for use in immunotherapy.

Mineralen-, sporenelementen- en vitaminenbehoeften van paarden
Top, A.M. van den; Blok, M.C. ; Everts, H. - \ 2012
Lelystad : CVB, Productschap Diervoeder (CVB-documentatierapport nr. 54) - 68
paarden - diervoeding - voeding - voedering - voedingsstoffen - mineralenvoeding - sporenelementen - vitaminen - horses - animal nutrition - nutrition - feeding - nutrients - mineral nutrition - trace elements - vitamins
In deze publicatie wordt beschreven hoe de in CVB verband tot stand gekomen voedernormen voor deze voedingsstoffen tot stand zijn gekomen. De publicatie is het resultaat van een deskstudie waarbij allereerst de Duitse DLG normen en de Amerikaanse NRC normen zijn geëvalueerd. Daar waar nodig is gericht gekeken of er nieuwe studies beschikbaar zijn, of is teruggegrepen op de oorspronkelijke publicaties. Voor de macromineralen (calcium, fosfor, magnesium, natrium, kalium, chloor) zijn de voedernormen gebaseerd op de zgn. factoriële methode. Voor sporenelementen en de vitamines bleek deze benadering niet mogelijk. Het rapport bevat een groot aantal tabellen waarin de voedernormen voor de genoemde nutriënten voor alle relevante fysiologische stadia.
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