- P. Bosi (1)
- H. Brand van den (1)
- E.M.A.M. Bruininx (1)
- H. Everts (1)
- L.A. Hartog den (1)
- B. Kemp (1)
- A.P. Koets (1)
- J.P. Lalles (1)
- P. Langendijk (1)
- M. Oostindjer (1)
- C.M.C. Peet-Schwering van der (1)
- E. Roura (1)
- A.B. Schellingerhout (1)
- J.W. Schrama (1)
- H. Smidt (1)
- C.R. Stokes (1)
- M.A.M. Taverne (1)
- J.H.M. Verheijden (1)
Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets
Oostindjer, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Roura, E. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2010
Physiology and Behavior 99 (2010)5. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 579 - 586.
creep feed consumption - housed weanling pigs - mothers diet - small-intestine - stress - preferences - performance - familiar - recognition - novelty
Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently show a period of anorexia, reduced health, and stress-induced behaviors. We investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure through the maternal diet on acceptance of a similarly flavored food and subsequent growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. Sows were offered anise-flavored (F) or control (C) food during late gestation. Piglets were cross-fostered after birth, with each sow fostering 5 piglets from an F sow and 5 from a C sow. During lactation, sows were offered F or C food, resulting in FF, CF, FC and CC piglets. Piglets were weaned on day 25 and were given both control and flavored food for two weeks using a double food choice approach. The flavored food was not preferred. Yet, prenatally exposed animals showed a higher food intake and a higher body weight in the first days after weaning, and a lower occurrence of diarrhoea than non-exposed piglets. Prenatal exposure also increased the latency to fight, and reduced oral manipulation of pen mates and mounting during the first two weeks after weaning. Prenatal exposure, but not postnatal exposure alone, to anisic flavor through the maternal diet reduced weaning-associated problems in piglets and enhanced their health and welfare in the period after weaning
Postweaning growth check in pigs is markedly reduced by intermittent suckling and extended lactation
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2007
Journal of Animal Science 85 (2007)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 258 - 266.
feed-intake characteristics - digestive enzyme-activity - housed weanling pigs - early-weaned pig - small-intestine - boar exposure - crypt depth - performance - sows - consumption
The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent suckling (IS) combined with an extended lactation can reduce postweaning growth check in pigs. Three weaning regimens [ conventional weaning (CW), IS with 6-h separation intervals (IS6), and IS with 12-h separation intervals (IS12)] were compared. In CW (n = 17 litters), litters had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 21, d 0 = farrowing). In IS6 and IS12, litters were separated from the sow for 12 h/d, beginning at d 14 and lasting until weaning (d 41 to 45). Litters were with the sow from 1400 to 2000 and from 0200 to 0800 (IS6, n = 14) or between 2000 and 0800 (IS12, n = 14). Litter size was standardized within 2 d after farrowing by crossfostering, resulting in an average litter size of 10.9 +/- 1.8 piglets. Piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7 onward. One week after the onset of IS (d 20), creep feed intake was increased in litters from both IS groups compared with CW litters (P <0.05). Both IS groups consumed considerable amounts of creep feed before weaning (d 41 to 45). Total feed intake before weaning was greater (P = 0.004) in IS12 (3,808 +/- 469 g/ piglet) than in IS6 (2,717 +/- 404 g/ piglet). In comparison, CW litters consumed 18 +/- 9 g/ piglet before weaning (d 21). Irrespective of weaning regimen, total feed intake of litters before weaning was highly correlated with postweaning feed intake (P <0.001). Furthermore, in all treatment groups, total preweaning feed intake was correlated with postweaning growth (P <0.10). Irrespective of treatment, piglets suckling anterior teats grew faster than piglets suckling middle or posterior teats during the first 2 wk of lactation. Body weights at the end of the experiment (d 55) were similar among weaning regimens. Onset of IS induced a growth check in both IS groups (34% for IS12 and 22% for IS6). Only a mild growth check was observed after weaning of IS litters (14% for both IS groups). However, a serious growth check (98%) was observed after weaning of CW litters. Results of the current study indicate that IS stimulated feed intake during lactation, providing a more gradual transition to weaning. Because the IS6 regimen did not prevent the growth check after the onset of IS and is rather laborious, we suggest that IS12 might be preferable for a practical implementation of IS.
Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning
Lalles, J.P. ; Bosi, P. ; Smidt, H. ; Stokes, C.R. - \ 2007
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 66 (2007)2. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 260 - 268.
early-weaned pigs - enterotoxigenic escherichia-coli - spray-dried porcine - fatty-acid concentrations - enterococcus-faecium strain - feed-intake characteristics - piglets receiving diets - housed weanling pigs - egg-yolk antibody - small-intestine
Early weaning of piglets is often accompanied by a severe growth check and diarrhoea. It is well established that this process is multi-factorial and that post-weaning anorexia and undernutrition are major aetiological factors. Gastrointestinal disturbances include alterations in small intestine architecture and enzyme activities. Recent data indicate transiently-increased mucosal permeability, disturbed absorptive¿secretory electrolyte balance and altered local inflammatory cytokine patterns after weaning. These responses appear to operate according to two distinct temporal patterns, an acute response followed by a long-lasting adaptation response. Pigs coexist with a diverse and dense commensal microbiota in their gastrointestinal tract. Most of these microbes are beneficial, providing necessary nutrients or protection against harmful pathogens for the host. The microbial colonisation of the porcine intestine begins at birth and follows a rapid succession during the neonatal and weaning period. Following the withdrawal of sow's milk the young piglets are highly susceptible to enteric diseases partly as a result of the altered balance between developing beneficial microbiota and the establishment of intestinal bacterial pathogens. The intestinal immune system of the newborn piglet is poorly developed at birth and undergoes a rapid period of expansion and specialisation that is not achieved before early (commercial) weaning. Here, new insights on the interactions between feed components, the commensal microbiota and the physiology and immunology of the host gastrointestinal tract are highlighted, and some novel dietary strategies are outlined that are focused on improving gut health. Prebiotics and probiotics are clear nutritional options, while convincing evidence is still lacking for other bioactive substances of vegetable origin.
Individually assessed creep food consumption by suckled piglets: influence on post-weaning food intake characteristics and indicators of gut structure and hind-gut fermentation
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Schellingerhout, A.B. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Schrama, J.W. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Everts, H. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2004
Animal Science 78 (2004)1. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 67 - 75.
housed weanling pigs - feed-intake characteristics - villous height - crypt depth - weaned pigs - performance - weight - growth - diet
Individual food intake characteristics and indicators of gut physiology of group-housed weanling pigs were measured in relation to pre-weaning consumption of creep food. Additionally, the effects of creep food consumption on pre-weaning body weight and gain were assessed. A total of 48 litters was used in two trials. From 11 days of age until weaning (day 28), all 48 litters were given a creep food (12.7 MJ net energy (NE) per kg, 15.2 g lysine per kg) supplemented with 10 g chromium III oxide per kg. Piglets showing green-coloured faeces on three sampling days were designated as good eaters, whereas piglets that never showed green faeces were labelled as non-eaters. Piglets having green faeces once or twice were designated as moderate eaters. Based on availability, body weight, litter origin, genotype and gender 29 good eaters, 32 moderate eaters and 29 non-eaters were selected in the first trial. In the second trial there were 30 good eaters, 33 moderate eaters, and 27 non-eaters. In each trial eight piglets of each creep-food eating type were immediately killed to serve as a reference group. The remaining piglets of each eating type were weaned and placed in pens equipped with computerized feeding stations so that distributions of body weight, litter origin, and gender were similar within pens. In each trial, eight pigs of each eating type were killed 5 days after weaning in order to determine villous heights and crypt depths in the proximal small intestine and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the colon. While being suckled, body weight was not related to the pre-weaning consumption of creep food (P > 0.1) whereas average daily gain of the good eaters during the creep feeding period was higher (P <0.05) than that of the moderate and non-eaters. Both morphology measures and VFA concentrations on the day of weaning were unaffected (P > 0.1) by the pre-weaning food consumption. After weaning, food intake and gain of the total group of good eaters were higher (P <0.05) than that of the non-eaters, whereas villous height and villous height : crypt depth ratios did not differ (P > 0.1). Neither total VFA concentration nor the proportion of branched-chain VFA were affected by creep food consumption while being suckled. Total VFA concentration in the colon was positively associated with body-weight gain (P <0.001). This study confirms earlier findings that consumption of creep food while being suckled stimulates food intake and growth after weaning. However, the beneficial effects were not associated with a prevention of damage to morphology of the small intestine.