Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Plan van aanpak voor houtmobilisatie bij particuliere boseigenaren
Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Reumerman, Patrick ; Schelhaas, M. ; Raa, Rik te - \ 2016
Enschede : BTG Biomass Technology Group - 28 p.
bosbezit - particulier eigendom - hout - bosproducten - houtkap - twente - forest ownership - private ownership - wood - forest products - logging
In Nederland bestaat 11% van het oppervlak uit bossen. Deze bossen vervullen belangrijke functies, zoals recreatie, bron van biodiversiteit en leverancier van grondstoffen voor bioenergie en de bioeconomie. Daarnaast passen bossen in de cultuur en tradities van Nederland. De houtoogst in Nederland is laag – ongeveer de helft van de jaarlijkse bijgroei – en redelijk constant. Diverse (overheids)acties in de afgelopen 20 jaar hebben hier geen verandering in gebracht. Het is belangrijk om de houtoogst te verhogen vanwege de positieve effecten op de staat van het Nederlandse bos en vanwege de toekomstige grotere vraag naar hout. Uit een recente enquête onder particuliere boseigenaren in Twente is gebleken dat de helft van deze eigenaren – goed voor 2/5 van het bos in Twente – niet oogst. Daarnaast is ook gebleken dat een belangrijk deel van deze eigenaren bereid is te oogsten als de omstandigheden zouden verbeteren. In dit Plan van Aanpak zijn een aantal acties opgesteld met als doel de houtmobilisatie onder particuliere eigenaren te verhogen.
Oogsten van tak- en tophout in bossen
Jong, J.J. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2014
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 11 (2014)108. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 26 - 28.
houtkap - takken - bossen voor brandhout - mechanisch oogsten - biomassa - bosbeheer - bio-energie - biomassa productie - biobased economy - logging - branches - fuel plantations - mechanical harvesting - biomass - forest administration - bioenergy - biomass production
Nederlandse bossen zijn aangelegd voor de houtproductie. Vanaf de jaren zeventig is deze functie wat naar de achtergrond geschoven. De overheid en veel beheerders vonden natuur en recreatie steeds belangrijker. Tegenwoordig komt er weer meer aandacht voor de productie van hout. In 2013 hebben Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten, de 12Landschappen, Federatie Particulier grondbezit het houtconvenant ondertekend, waarin ze aangeven meer stamhout te willen oogsten. Een ander doel is om meer energiehout uit bossen te halen, bijvoorbeeld door de oogst van tak- en tophout dat nu meestal blijft liggen. Deze oogst kan helpen om de ambitieuze doelen van het Energieakkoord te halen. Dergelijke oogst dient echter wel aantrekkelijk te zijn voor de boseigenaar.
Costs and benefits of a more sustainable production of tropical timber
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 10) - 57
houtkap - houtproductie - kosten-batenanalyse - bosbeheer - tropische bossen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tropisch hout - ecosysteemdiensten - biobased economy - zuid-amerika - zuidoost-azië - logging - timber production - cost benefit analysis - forest administration - tropical forests - sustainability - tropical timbers - ecosystem services - south america - south east asia
This study is part of the TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) study of trade chains, and assessed the impact of harvesting tropical timber on ecosystem services and the costs and benefits of more sustainable production. The costs of implementation and the benefits from increased ecosystem services levels were assessed for two alternatives to conventional selective logging (CL), sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest plantation. The SFM alternative involves certified forest management implementing reduced impact logging techniques. The forest plantation alternative involves high-yield plantations that have a larger impact on ecosystem services than CL on the actual plantation area, but require only an equivalent of 11-42% of the CL area due to the higher yields per unit of area, and thus allows a larger area of primary forest to be conserved. The majority of Dutch imports of tropical timbers are from South America and South East Asia. We conducted separate analyses for South America and South East Asia to account for regional differences in terms of logging practices, timber yields and the extent and value of ecosystem services
"Interactief kappen": Staatsbosbeheer en de maatschappelijke acceptie van houtoogst
Arts, B.J.M. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Groot, M. de; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra - ISBN 9789462570511 - 45
bosbeheer - houtkap - maatschappelijk draagvlak - forest administration - logging - public support
In dit essau aandacht voor het vernieuwende natuurbeleid van de kabinetten Rutte I en II, de daaruit voortvloeiende consequenties voor Staatsbosbeheer, de bijgestelde bosbeheervisie van de organisatie en de wijze waarop Nederlandse burgers - gemiddeld genomen - op de kap van bome reageren. Daarna komen vijf gebieden / aandachtspunten aan bod uit het recente verleden en heden van Staatsbosbeheer. Dit zijn: Drents Friese Woud, Heiderijk, Baarnse Bos, Westerkwartier en het project Kap & Verjonging. Directe aanleiding is de interactie tussen Staatsbosbeheer, belangengroepen en burgers, vrom en aand van die interactie, wederzijdse beeldvorming en uiteindelijk het leerproces
Aanzet voor een adviessysteem voor oogst uit het bos : voor een evenwichtige nutriëntenbalans en een goede functievervulling van het bos
Jong, J.J. de; Briel, J. van den; Vries, W. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2494) - 52
bosexploitatie - bodembescherming - bodemchemie - houtkap - voedingsstoffen - biomassa - habitats - natuurbeheer - biobased economy - forest exploitation - soil conservation - soil chemistry - logging - nutrients - biomass - nature management
In Nederland zijn afspraken gemaakt om meer biomassa uit het bos te oogsten. Hierdoor kan de beschikbaarheid van voedingsstoffen afnemen. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht over de in andere landen bestaande systemen om uitputting van bosbodems tegen te gaan. Verder wordt een analyse gemaakt van de beschikbaarheid van gegevens om nutriëntenbalansen voor het Nederlandse bos op te stellen en worden eerste indicaties van de balanstermen en voorraden voedingsstoffen gegeven. Afsluitend wordt een aanzet gegeven voor een adviessysteem dat geschikt is voor praktisch gebruik door terreinbeheerders om eraan bij te dragen dat oogst van biomassa uit het bos kan plaatsvinden zonder dat dit tot ongewenste uitputting van nutriënten in de bodem leidt.
The Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue in Ghana : Towards a negotiated solution to illegal chainsaw milling
Mckeown, J.P. ; Rozemeijer, N. ; Wit, M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051131147 - 44
ontbossing - houtkap - illegale kap - ghana - deforestation - logging - illicit felling
Forest management and regeneration of tree species in the Eastern Amazon
Schwartz, G. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Marielos Pena Claros; J.C.A. Lopes. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734662 - 132
bosbedrijfsvoering - bomen - soorten - verjonging - houtkap - houtteelt - amazonia - forest management - trees - species - regeneration - logging - silviculture

Forest management for timber production applied in the Brazilian Amazon follows a polycyclic silvicultural system where harvesting is done through reduced-impact logging (RIL). In this study the short- and medium-term effects of RIL on the regeneration of commercial tree species were assessed in the Tapajós National Forest, Eastern Amazon, Brazil. Besides, post-harvesting silvicultural techniques such as enrichment planting using commercial tree species and tending naturally established individuals in gaps created by RIL were tested in Jari Valley, Eastern Amazon, Brazil in order to improve forest management for ensuring sustainable timber production. Finally the profitability of the tested post-harvesting silvicultural treatments was evaluated. Results showed that RIL did not have a destructive effect on the regeneration of the investigated species. In the short-term RIL caused unevenly spatially distributed disturbances over the forest, which tended to increase recruitment and growth rates of seedlings and saplings in the medium-term. The silvicultural techniques proved to be efficient to decrease mortality and increase growth rates of commercial tree species but are not profitable under the current timber prices and harvesting operation costs in the Brazilian Amazon. Although not profitable, enrichment planting in logging gaps showed to be an important tool for conserving rare species.

Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana
Eshun, J.F. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Jose Potting. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732118 - 115
houtproductie - bos- en houtproductenindustrieën - levenscyclusanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieueffect - houtkap - ghana - timber production - forest products industries - life cycle assessment - sustainability - environmental impact - logging

The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in Ghana is associated with an increasing environmental burden in terms of use of resources, and production of emissions and waste. The overall objective of this thesis was to quantify the environmental performance of the sector and to explore the possible options and strategies to sustain and improve the environmental performance of the timber sector in Ghana. To achieve this objective, the following research questions are addressed in successive chapters: (1) Is the timber sector in Ghana sustainable?, (2) What is the most dominant environmental pressure for the five major production lines in the Ghanaian timber industry, and what is the influence of the choice of functional unit?, (3) What does the most dominant environmental pressure contribute to the life cycle impact of the timber sector in Ghana?, and (4) Which potentials improvement options and strategies are available for reducing the major environmental impact in the timber sector in Ghana?

The research for question 1 identified a sustainability gap that has been created as a result of aggressive competition between the informal and formal timber sectors for raw material supply. The subsequent life cycle assessment (LCA), in response to research question 2 and 3, showed land use and wood waste as the most dominant environmental pressure for five major production lines (air dried lumber, kiln dried lumber, plywood, veneer and furniture parts). Land use and wood waste pressures will eventually lead to complete deforestation in the year 2025 if major policies are not implemented. The LCA results were sensitive to the choice of the functional unit (1m3, 1kg and 1euro). The money-based functional unit, that was seen as more appropriate, favors the value-added products. This holds a promising future in terms of sustainability for the timber industry in Ghana. The impact assessment results showed a strong correlation between wood waste and land use as proxy for biodiversity loss, and also positive correlations between wood waste and the other five impacts results. Wood waste production was concluded as a major driving force for biodiversity loss, and a sufficiently good single indicator for all other environmental impact in the timber sector of Ghana. The research for question 4 showed that combining technological changes, good operational practices and recycling measures could reduce wood waste by approximately 50%.

This thesis presents a first step in exploring the possible options and strategies to sustain and improve the environmental performance of the timber sector in Ghana. The understanding of the link between sustainability and environmental assessment can help to design and implement good and working sustainability policies in Africa. The presented research therefore contributes to the development of integrated policy support approaches, which aim at strengthening the sustainable management of the timber sector in Ghana. This research may serve as a guide for policy-makers as well as for companies in elaborating measures to sustain and reduce environmental impacts in terms of possible future developments in the timber sector in Africa and particularly Ghana.

Global wood production : assessment of industrial round wood supply from forest management systems in different global regions
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Verwer, C.C. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Tolkamp, G.W. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Oorschot, M. van - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 1808)
bosbouw - houtkap - velling - kaalslag - modellen - forestry - logging - felling - clear felling - models
To meet the global demand for wood the old forest management module of the IMAGE integrated assessment model (Bouwman et al. 2006) only applied clear felling. As a consequence in whole gird cells the forest was completely harvested. In reality, however, there many different ways to produce wood, ranging from selective logging to clear felling and forestry plantations. Each of these logging systems will have different effects on the area needed for wood production and impact on remaining forest and diversity patterns. The global biodiversity model GLOBIO (Alkemade et al. 2009), which is coupled to the IMAGE model, however, needs more precise information on area needed and differentiates in impact of different forest management types. In this report an overview is given of different forest management types (clear felling, selective felling, reduced impact logging and forest plantations) and the associated wood production and harvest losses on an area base in different climate zones (boreal, temperate and tropical). The data were collected form scientific and grey literature for a sample of 20 important wood producing countries across most world regions that are distinguished within the IMAGE model. Together these example countries covered 81.5% of the global industrial round wood production in 2005.
Social safeguards in the Ghana-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA); Triggering improved forest governance or an afterthought?
Arts, B.J.M. ; Wiersum, K.F. ; Aggrey, J. ; Owusu, B. ; Oijen, D.C.C. van; Nketiah, S. ; Wit, M. ; Zagt, R. ; Vellema, H. ; Rozemeijer, N. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit and Research Centre - ISBN 9789085859703 - 12
bosbedrijfsvoering - houtkap - houthandel - middelen van bestaan - sociaal beleid - rechtshandhaving - ghana - forest management - logging - timber trade - livelihoods - social policy - law enforcement
Implementing FLEGT: Impacts on local people
Wiersum, K.F. ; Oijen, D.C.C. van - \ 2010
Wageningen, the Netherlands : Wageningen University and Research Centre - ISBN 9789085858966 - 19
houtkap - houthandel - illegale kap - participatie - middelen van bestaan - logging - timber trade - illicit felling - participation - livelihoods
A landscape approach guiding a multiple stakeholder process to find alternatives for illegal chainsaw lumbering in Ghana - enhanced effectiveness or more confusion?
Rozemeijer, N.G. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen International - 16
landschapsbescherming - landschapsecologie - houtkap - bosbedrijfsvoering - ghana - multi-stakeholder processen - landscape conservation - landscape ecology - logging - forest management - multi-stakeholder processes
Dinámica de la biomasa en áreas de manejo forestal sujetas a diferentes intensidades de aprovechamiento.
Mostacedo, B. ; Villegas, Z. ; Licona, J.C. ; Alarcón, A. ; Leaño, C. ; Peña-Claros, M. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2008
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia : Instituto Boliviano de Investigación Forestal (Documento t├®cnico / Instituto Boliviano de Investigacion Forestal (IBIF) 3)
biomassa - tropische bossen - groei - houtkap - bosmonitoring - biomass - tropical forests - growth - logging - forest monitoring
Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest
Gemerden, B.S. van - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. Cleef; Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): H. Olff. - - 199 p.
tropical rain forests - biodiversity - rehabilitation - plant succession - conservation - forest ecology - logging - shifting cultivation - central africa - human impact - disturbance - tropische regenbossen - biodiversiteit - herstel - plantensuccessie - conservering - bosecologie - houtkap - zwerflandbouw - centraal-afrika - menselijke invloed - verstoring
Lianas and logging in West Africa
Parren, M.P.E. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Frits Mohren. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9058088715 - 168
klimplanten - houtkap - snijden - gaten in het kroondak - houtteelt - tropische bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosecologie - west-afrika - climbing plants - logging - cutting - canopy gaps - silviculture - tropical forests - forest management - forest ecology - west africa
The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in forest management practices. Pre-harvest liana cutting is aimed at a reduction of logging damage, an improved precision of felling, an enhancement of the development of the growing tree stock and a reduction of the regrowth capacity of lianas. Lianas were very abundant: on average nearly 5000 individuals per ha of which over 100 large ones (³ 5 cm dbh). Felling gap sizes, tree mortality and damage were not significantly affected by pre-harvest liana cutting. However, this intervention significantly reduced the number of lianas and also the number of liana-infested trees in logging gaps. Cut lianas were monitored and proved that certain species were extremely vulnerable while others hardly. To avoid problems related to the negative impacts that both liana cutting and fire can have on liana species, which are vulnerable to these interventions, it is recommended to apply this treatment only selectively. Spatially, treatments should be limited to zones where lianas are heavily interfering with trees to be felled. Treatments also should be species-specific, by limiting liana cutting to those species, which cause most of the damage.
Houtoogst: natuurlijk?! : impressie van het 2de Nationale Bosdebat
Bartelink, H.H. ; Vries, J. de; Houtzagers, M.R. ; Baaij, G.B.J. de - \ 2003
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 75 (2003)4. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 20 - 22.
bossen - bosbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - houtteelt - oogsten - natuurbescherming - houtkap - forests - forest administration - forest management - forestry - silviculture - harvesting - nature conservation - logging
Verslag van het tweede Nationale Bosdebat, met als onderwerp 'Houtoogst: natuurlijk?!' (7 mei 2003, Alterra, Wageningen). Houtproductie en houtoogst in Nederlandse bosssen moet kunnen en hoort niet in het beklaagdenbankje. Het kan zelfs met vergroting van natuurwaarde en -beleving. Kwaliteit moet bij de productie voorop staan, en de bosbouwsector moet nut en noodzaak van de houtoogst beter communiceren naar de maatschappij toe
Een "spotted owl" in de achtertuin?
Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2002
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 74 (2002)4. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 30 - 30.
houtkap - bosgebieden - oerbossen - boreale bossen - bosbescherming - natuurbescherming - bosbeheer - bossen - rusland - oude bossen - bosecologie - houtproductie - Europa - logging - woodlands - virgin forests - boreal forests - protection of forests - nature conservation - forest administration - forests - russia - old-growth forests
Aandacht voor de houtkap in de Oeral, in de laatste oerbossen van Europa. Verminderde houtproductie in West-Europa als gevolg van ander bosbeheer en bosbeleid leidt tot een verschuiving van de houtoogst van West- naar Oost-Europa. Om de druk op de laatste Europese oerbossen te verminderen moeten we het beheerde bos in West-Europa als een natuurlijke hulpbron blijven zien
Sustainable Management of African Rain Forest Part I: Workshops
Foahom, B. ; Jonkers, W.B.J. ; Nkwi, P.N. ; Schmidt, P. ; Tchatat, M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : The Tropenbos Foundation - ISBN 9789051130478 - 274
regenbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landgebruiksplanning - plattelandsgemeenschappen - participatie - biodiversiteit - houtteelt - zwerflandbouw - houtkap - kameroen - rain forests - forest management - sustainability - land use planning - rural communities - participation - biodiversity - silviculture - shifting cultivation - logging - cameroon
Sustainable Management of African Rain Forest. Part II: Symposium
Jonkers, W.B.J. ; Foahom, B. ; Schmidt, P. - \ 2001
Wageningen : The Tropenbos Foundation - ISBN 9789051130515 - 159
regenbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landgebruiksplanning - plattelandsgemeenschappen - participatie - biodiversiteit - houtteelt - zwerflandbouw - houtkap - kameroen - rain forests - forest management - sustainability - land use planning - rural communities - participation - biodiversity - silviculture - shifting cultivation - logging - cameroon
TROPFOMS, a decision support model for sustainabele management of south Cameroon's rainforests
Eba'a Atyi, R. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Maaren; W.B.J. Jonkers. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081940 - 203
tropische regenbossen - oerbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosbestanden - houtkap - conservering - kameroen - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - tropical rain forests - virgin forests - forest management - sustainability - forest resources - logging - conservation - cameroon - decision support systems
<p>Natural forests play an important role in the economy of Cameroon, at both the national and local levels. Unfortunately, there is still a general sense that in Cameroon, like in most tropical countries, forests are not managed in a sustainable way. The poor forest management practices, which still prevail in Cameroon, result from both an inadequate institutional context and insufficient scientific and technical knowledge. For the last few decades important research efforts have been made in tropical forestry. However, these efforts concentrate mostly on developing silvicultural systems and more and more on predicting growth and yield of forest stands. Research on supporting decision-making for forest has been negligible in tropical forestry. The research presented here confronts the problem of how to assist decision-making in tropical forest management using the best available scientific information gathered in different disciplines. The specific objectives of the research were:</p><OL><LI>To design a system for supporting decision-making with respect to the management of tropical forests.<LI>To assess the effects of different management options on the economic returns of the logging enterprise as well as on the structure of the forest at steady state.<LI>To provide insights into the trade off between income generation through sustainable timber harvesting and the use of the forest by the local population on the one hand, and between income generation through sustainable timber production and nature conservation on the other hand.<LI>To derive recommendations for conversion of the current forest at the Tropenbos Cameroon Programme (TCP) research site into a steady state forest.<LI>To suggest and evaluate adaptations of existing strategies aimed at sustainable management of the tropical moist forest in south Cameroon.</OL><p>A methodological tool was developed to support decision making with respect to tropical forest management. The system was given the acronym of TROPFOMS (TROPical Forest Management support System). The management items to which TROPFOMS provides support for decision making include:</p><p>The target steady state growing stock characteristics, mainly the structure in terms of number of trees per size class to be found both before and after harvest and the species composition of the stand</p><OL><LI>The appropriate cutting cycle for timber harvest,<LI>The amount of wood to be harvested at the end of each cutting cycle,<LI>The expected length of the conversion period and the expected levels of harvest during that period<LI>The multiple use of the forest through an analysis of the trade off between alternative land use types<LI>Consequences of changes in management parameters.</OL><p>TROPFOMS consists of four modules including a mathematical programming module, a growth and yield module, and economic module and a constraint definition module. TROPFOMS was developed using mostly quantitative techniques and methods such as transition matrices, cluster analysis, logistic regression analysis, mathematical programming and stumpage prices derivation. The outcomes show that the optimal cutting cycle is about 30 years, for a harvest of 13.4 m <sup>3</SUP>/ha for the species currently commercialized in south Cameroon. In addition it would require about 120 year to convert the current forest of the Tropenbos Cameroon research site to a regulated forest. TROPFOMS has shown a great deal of sensitivity to hypotheses concerning growth and yield and timber value. Research needs for the improvement of the outcomes of TROPFOMS include: Costs and returns of silvicultural operations, relationships between growth and yield and density of forest stands, reproductive maturity of different tree species, logging efficiency, costs and damage, the utilization of the forest by local population, royalties.</p>
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