Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Carotenoids: from Plant Pigments to Human Health
Keijer, Jaap - \ 2016
ß-carotene - gene expression - human health
ß-Carotene and Gene Expression: Implications For Human Health
Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort
Klemm, W. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Lenzholzer, S. ; Hove, B. van - \ 2015
Landscape and Urban Planning 138 (2015). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 87 - 98.
urban-environment - climate-change - human health - vegetation - spaces - infrastructure - design - model - landscapes - trees
This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine streets with comparable geometric configurations, but varying amount of street greenery (street trees, front gardens) in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands. Mobile micrometeorological measurements including air temperature (Ta), solar and thermal radiation were performed, enabling the calculation of mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). Additionally, semi-structured interviews with pedestrians about their momentary and long-term perceived thermal comfort and their esthetical appreciation of the green street design were conducted. Measurements showed a clear impact (p = 0.0001) of street greenery on thermal comfort through tree shading: 10% tree crown cover within a street canyon lowered street averaged Tmrt about 1 K. In contrast, our results did not show an influence of street greenery on street averaged Ta. Interview results indicated that momentary perceived thermal comfort tended to be related to the amount of street greenery. However, the results were not statistically significant. Related to long-term perceived thermal comfort respondents were hardly consciously aware of influences by street greenery. Yet, people significantly (p <0.001) valued the presence of street greenery in esthetic terms. In conclusion, street greenery forms a convenient adaptive strategy to create thermally comfortable and attractive living environments. Our results clearly indicate that both physical and psychological aspects of thermal comfort have to be considered in urban design processes.
Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?
Verain, M.C.D. ; Dagevos, H. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2015
Appetite 91 (2015)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 375 - 384.
norm activation model - meat consumption - organic food - animal-welfare - australian consumers - planned behavior - green consumer - human health - fair trade - attitudes
Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.
Exploring the influence of context on food safety management: Case studies of leafy greens production in Europe
Kirezieva, K.K. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Hagelaar, J.L.F. ; Boekel, T. van; Uyttendaele, M. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2015
Food Policy 51 (2015). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 158 - 170.
fresh produce - processing plants - pesticide-residues - system performance - climate-change - human health - vegetables - chain - governance - output
Fresh produce companies operate their food safety management systems (FSMS) in a complex context. On the one hand, during setting and operating their FSMS activities, companies need to consider the riskiness of the ‘FSMS context’ of the company, including the risk of product and production, and the limitations and opportunities of the organisational and chain characteristics. On the other hand, companies with their narrow ‘FSMS context’ and actual FSMS, can be influenced by the ‘broad context’ in a country and sector. This paper presents an analytical framework with operational tools that enable assessment of the status of FSMS in view of the context riskiness at company level, and exploration of the influence of the ‘broad context’ in a country and sector. The latter was defined to include: food safety governance, agro-climatic, market, and public policy environment. Empirical data from three case studies of leafy greens production, intentionally chosen to represent three European regions with their specific contexts, was used to validate the analytical framework. As a conclusion, we postulate that the FSMS output is a function of the broad context in a country and sector, the ‘FSMS context’ in a company, and implemented food safety management system. The model is a first step towards conceptualisation of the complex systems influencing FSMS implementation and operation in companies.
Retention of glucosinolates during fermentation of Brassica juncea: a case study on production of sayur asin
Nugrahedi, P.Y. ; Widianarko, B. ; Dekker, M. ; Verkerk, R. ; Oliviero, T. - \ 2015
European Food Research and Technology 240 (2015)3. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 559 - 565.
cruciferous vegetables - myrosinase activity - human health - allyl isothiocyanate - colonic microflora - indian mustard - cabbage - cancer - broccoli - food
Fermentation can reduce the concentration of health-promoting glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. The endogenous enzyme myrosinase is hypothesised to mainly responsible for the degradation of glucosinolates during fermentation. In order to retain glucosinolates in the final fermented product, the role of myrosinase activity during the production of sayur asin was investigated. Sayur asin is a traditionally fermented product of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) commonly consumed in Indonesia. It is prepared by a spontaneous fermentation of withered (sun-dried) B. juncea leaves. The leaves of B. juncea contain a substantial amount of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin. Three withering methods were investigated to obtain B. juncea leaves with different myrosinase activities prior to fermentation. Results show that withering by oven at 35 °C for 2.5 h and by microwave at 180 W for 4.5 min reduced myrosinase activity by 84 and 74 %, respectively. Subsequently, sinigrin was not detectable in the leaves after 24 h of incubation in the fermentation medium. However, withering by microwave for 2 min at 900 W inactivated myrosinase completely and produced sayur asin with a sinigrin concentration of 11.4 µmol/10 g dry matter after 7 days of fermentation. This high power-short time pretreatment of B. juncea leaves contributes to the production of sayur asin containing significant levels of health-promoting glucosinolate. In this study, the effect of myrosinase activity during Brassica fermentation was quantified, and optimised production methods were investigated to retain glucosinolate in the final product.
Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment
Luterotti, S. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Markovic, K. ; Franko, M. - \ 2015
Food Control 48 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 67 - 74.
maillard reaction-products - beta-carotene - lycopene degradation - antioxidant activity - human health - food - stability - puree - storage - isomerization
This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are additionally heated (e.g., when used in the household) is scarce. In this study, effects of heating and storage on a commercial, double concentrated tomato purée were examined spectrophotometrically. Our results indicate that upon exposing unopened cans with double concentrated tomato purée to thermal treatments between 100 and 135 °C during specific time intervals spectral profile of lycopene remained preserved. Likewise, a slight hypsochromic shift of lycopene peak III did not occur up to 135 °C. However, significant (20%) initial loss of lycopene content was induced by thermal treatment for 20 min at 100 °C. During the more intensive treatments that followed the lycopene content was first leveling off and then slightly increased. After storage of thermally treated samples at -18 °C the content of lycopene was found to increase. All these results suggest simultaneous working of several mechanisms: possible auto-oxidation and isomerization processes of carotenes taking place, in addition to the Maillard reaction and enhanced extractability of carotenes at increased temperatures. Results acquired from hexane solutions of samples treated at temperatures of 120 and 135 °C obtained at different time points, confirmed severe isomerization in organic solvent and/or photo-oxidative degradation of lycopene.
Effects of hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound on biomass reduction and toxin release in the cyanobacterium, microcystis aeruginosa
Lurling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Meng, D. ; Faassen, E.J. - \ 2014
Toxins 6 (2014)12. - ISSN 2072-6651 - p. 3260 - 3280.
waste stabilization ponds - water-treatment processes - blue-green-algae - fresh-water - human health - harmful cyanobacteria - liquid-chromatography - phosphatase bioassay - membrane integrity - mass spectrometry
Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to increase, and the toxins they produce threaten human health and impair ecosystem services. The reduction of the nutrient load of surface waters is the preferred way to prevent these blooms; however, this is not always feasible. Quick curative measures are therefore preferred in some cases. Two of these proposed measures, peroxide and ultrasound, were tested for their efficiency in reducing cyanobacterial biomass and potential release of cyanotoxins. Hereto, laboratory assays with a microcystin (MC)-producing cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) were conducted. Peroxide effectively reduced M. aeruginosa biomass when dosed at 4 or 8 mg L-1, but not at 1 and 2 mg L-1. Peroxide dosed at 4 or 8 mg L-1 lowered total MC concentrations by 23%, yet led to a significant release of MCs into the water. Dissolved MC concentrations were nine-times (4 mg L-1) and 12-times (8 mg L-1 H2O2) higher than in the control. Cell lysis moreover increased the proportion of the dissolved hydrophobic variants, MC-LW and MC-LF (where L = Leucine, W = tryptophan, F = phenylalanine). Ultrasound treatment with commercial transducers sold for clearing ponds and lakes only caused minimal growth inhibition and some release of MCs into the water. Commercial ultrasound transducers are therefore ineffective at controlling cyanobacteria.
Copy number variation in Fayoumi and Leghorn chickens analyzed using array comparative genomic hybridization
Abernathy, J. ; Li, X. ; Jia, X. ; Chou, W. ; Lamont, S.J. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Zhou, H. - \ 2014
Animal Genetics 45 (2014)3. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 400 - 411.
major histocompatibility complex - large gene lists - expression profiles - avian evolution - snp beadchip - human health - v-atpases - ncbi geo - disease - lines
Copy number variation refers to regions along chromosomes that harbor a type of structural variation, such as duplications or deletions. Copy number variants (CNVs) play a role in many important traits as well as in genetic diversity. Previous analyses of chickens using array comparative genomic hybridizations or single-nucleotide polymorphism chip assays have been performed on various breeds and genetic lines to discover CNVs. In this study, we assessed individuals from two highly inbred (inbreeding coefficiency > 99.99%) lines, Leghorn G-B2 and Fayoumi M15.2, to discover novel CNVs in chickens. These lines have been previously studied for disease resistance, and to our knowledge, this represents the first global assessment of CNVs in the Fayoumi breed. Genomic DNA from individuals was examined using the Agilent chicken 244 K comparative genomic hybridization array and quantitative PCR. We identified a total of 273 CNVs overall, with 112 CNVs being novel and not previously reported. Quantitative PCR using the standard curve method validated a subset of our array data. Through enrichment analysis of genes within CNV regions, we observed multiple chromosomes, terms and pathways that were significantly enriched, largely dealing with the major histocompatibility complex and immune responsiveness. Using an additional round of computational and statistical analysis with a different bioinformatic pipeline, we identified 43 CNVs among these as high-confidence regions, 14 of which were found to be novel. We further compared and contrasted individuals of the two inbred lines to discover regions that have a significant difference in copy number between lines. A total of 40 regions had significant deletions or duplications between the lines. Gene Ontology analysis of genomic regions containing CNVs between lines also was performed. This between-line candidate CNV list will be useful in studies with these two unique genetic lines, which may harbor variations that underlie quantitative trait loci for disease resistance and other important traits. Through the global discovery of novel CNVs in chicken, these data also provide resources for further genetic and functional genomics studies.
Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation
Rogelj, J. ; Schaeffer, M. ; Meinshausen, M. ; Shindell, D.T. ; Hare, W. ; Klimont, Z. ; Velders, G.J.M. ; Amann, M. ; Schellnhuber, H.J. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)46. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 16325 - 16330.
greenhouse-gas emissions - cumulative carbon emissions - air-pollution - black carbon - copenhagen accord - human health - pathways - benefits - challenges - consistent
Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.
Farmers and retailers knowledge and awareness of the risk from pesticide use: a case study in the Wei River catchment, China
Yang, X. ; Wang, L. ; Meng, L. ; Zhang, W. ; Fan, L. ; Geissen, V. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 497-498 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 172 - 179.
developing-countries - human health - safe use - attitudes - workers - management - suicide - smallholders - protection - behaviors
Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p <0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p <0.05). Washing hands (> 70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p <0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p <0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p <0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China.
In vivo formation and bioavailability of isothiocyanates from glucosinolates in broccoli as affected by processing conditions
Oliviero, T. ; Verkerk, R. ; Vermeulen, M. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2014
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 58 (2014)7. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 1447 - 1456.
brassica vegetables - cruciferous vegetables - myrosinase activity - human health - red cabbage - sulforaphane - excretion - l. - degradation - consumption
Scope: To study the effect of residual myrosinase (MYR) activity in differently processed broccoli on sulforaphane (SR) and iberin (IB) formation, bioavailability, and excretion in human volunteers. Methods and results: Five different broccoli products were obtainedwith similar glucoraphanin (GR) and glucoiberin (GI) content, yet different MYR activity. Excretion of SR and IB conjugates in urine were determined in 15 participants after ingestion of the broccoli products. A reduction of 80% of MYR in the product did not cause differences in the total amount of SR and IB found in urine compared to the product with 100% MYR. Complete inactivation of MYR gave the lowest total amount of SR and IB in urine (10 and 19%). A residual MYR of only 2% in the product gave an intermediate amount (17 and 29%). The excretion half-lives of SR and IB conjugates were comparable for all the products (2.5 h on average), although the maximum excretion peak times were clearly shorter when the residual MYR was higher (2.3–6.1 h). Conclusion: For the first time, the effect of residual MYR activity on isothiocyanate bioavailability was systematically and quantitatively studied. Processing conditions have a large effect on the kinetics and bioavailability of isothiocyanates from broccoli.
Changing monsoon patterns, snow and glacial melt, its impacts and adaptation options in northern India: Synthesis
Moors, E.J. ; Stoffel, M. - \ 2013
Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2013)Suppl.. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. S162 - S167.
climate-change - water-resources - human health - basin
This paper gives a synthesis of this special issue on the sensitivity to climate change of the main bio-physical processes in the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalayas. It also describes the impacts on the water resources with a special focus on the Ganges. Consequences of changes in water resources and possible adaptation measures for different sectors are discussed.
Use of veterinary medicijnes, feed additives and probiotics in four major internationally traded aquaculture species farmed in Asia
Rico, A. ; Tran, M. ; Satopornvanit, K. ; Jiang, M. ; Shahabiddin, A.M. ; Henriksson, P.J.G. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2013
Aquaculture 412-413 (2013). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 231 - 243.
pangasianodon-hypophthalmus - mangrove areas - human health - residues - vietnam - risks - water
Antimicrobials, parasiticides, feed additives and probiotics are used in Asian aquaculture to improve the health status of the cultured organisms and to prevent or treat disease outbreaks. Detailed information on the use of such chemicals in Asian aquaculture is limited, but of crucial importance for the evaluation of their potential human health and environmental risks. This study reports the outcomes of a survey on the use of chemical and biological products in 252 grow-out aquaculture farms and 56 farm supply shops in four countries in Asia. The survey was conducted between 2011 and 2012, and included nine aquaculture farm groups: Penaeid shrimp farms in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam; Macrobrachium prawn farms, and farms producing both Penaeid shrimps and Macrobrachium prawns in Bangladesh; tilapia farms in China and Thailand; and Pangasius catfish farms in Vietnam. Results were analysed with regard to the frequencies of use of active ingredients and chemical classes, reported dosages, and calculated applied mass relative to production. A range of farm management and farm characteristics were used as independent variables to explain observed chemical use patterns reported by farmers within each group. Sixty different veterinary medicinal ingredients were recorded (26 antibiotics, 19 disinfectants, and 15 parasiticides). The use of antibiotic treatments was found to be significantly higher in the Vietnamese Pangasius farms. However, total quantities of antibiotics, relative to production, applied by the Pangasius farmers were comparable or even lower than those reported for other animal production commodities. Semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farms in China, Thailand and Vietnam showed a decrease in the use of antibiotic treatments. These farm groups utilised the largest amount of chemicals relative to production, with feed additives and plant extracts, probiotics, and disinfectants, being the most used chemical classes, mainly for disease prevention. The surveyed farmers generally did not exceed recommended dosages of veterinary medicines, and nationally or internationally banned compounds were (with one exception) reported neither by the surveyed farmers, nor by the surveyed chemical sellers. Factors underlying the observed differences in chemical use patterns differed widely amongst farm groups, and geographical location was found to be the only factor influencing chemical ingredient application patterns in the majority of the studied farm groups.
Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and adaptation strategies
Moors, E.J. ; Singh, T. ; Siderius, C. ; Balakrishnan, S. ; Mishra, A. - \ 2013
Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2013)Suppl.1. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. S139 - S151.
less-developed-countries - household drinking-water - time-series analysis - point-of-use - human health - rotavirus diarrhea - child-mortality - hygiene interventions - infectious-diseases - rainfall events
Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of climate change on diarrhoea as a representative of a waterborne infectious disease affecting human health in the Ganges basin of northern India. A conceptual framework is presented for climate exposure response relationships based on studies from different countries, as empirical studies and appropriate epidemiological data sets for India are lacking. Four climate variables are included: temperature, increased/extreme precipitation, decreased precipitation/droughts and relative humidity. Applying the conceptual framework to the latest regional climate projections for northern India shows increases between present and future (2040s), varying spatially from no change to an increase of 21% in diarrhoea incidences, with 13.1% increase on average for the Ganges basin. We discuss three types of measures against diarrhoeal disease: reactive actions, preventive actions and national policy options. Preventive actions have the potential to counterbalance this expected increase. However, given the limited progress in reducing incidences over the past decade consorted actions and effective implementation and integration of existing policies are needed
Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context
Frewer, L.J. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Brennan, M. ; Coles, D.G. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Houdebine, L.M. ; Mora, C. ; Millar, K. ; Salter, B. - \ 2013
New Biotechnology 30 (2013)5. - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 447 - 460.
consumer acceptance - human health - gm animals - food - biotechnology - engagement - crops - milk - pigs - xenotransplantation
The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Modeling the influence of open water surfaces on summertime temperatures and thermal comfort in the city
Theeuwes, N.E. ; Solcerova, A. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013)16. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 8881 - 8896.
urban heat-island - boundary-layer - single-layer - climate-change - canopy model - human health - sensitivity - balance - impact - energy
[1] Due to the combination of rapid global urbanization and climate change, urban climate issues are becoming relatively more important and are gaining interest. Compared to rural areas, the temperature in cities is higher (the urban heat island effect ) due to the modifications in the surface radiation and energy balances. This study hypothesizes that the urban heat island can be mitigated by introducing open surface water in urban design. In order to test this, we use the WRF mesoscale meteorological model in which an idealized circular city is designed. Herein, the surface water cover, its size, spatial configuration, and temperature are varied. Model results indicate that the cooling effect of water bodies depends nonlinearly on the fractional water cover, size and distribution of individual lakes within the city with respect to wind direction. Relatively large lakes show a high temperature effect close to their edges and in downwind areas. Several smaller lakes equally distributed within the urban area have a smaller temperature effect, but influence a larger area of the city. Evaporation from open water bodies may lower the temperature, but on the other hand also increases the humidity, which dampens the positive effect on thermal comfort. In addition, when the water is warmer than the air temperature (during autumn or night) the water body has adverse effect on thermal comfort. In those cases, the water body eventually limits the cooling and thermal comfort in the surrounding city, and thus diverges from the original intention of the intervention
Comparison of spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for determination of carotenoids in foods
Luterotti, S. ; Markovic, K. ; Franko, M. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Madzgalj, A. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 140 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 390 - 397.
beta-carotene - human health - tomato fruits - lycopene - maize - extraction - products
This report is aimed at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained during spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses of lycopene, ß-carotene and total carotenoids in tomato products and yellow maize flours/grits. Extensive statistical analyses are performed in order to identify the main sources of uncertainties which may occur when using: (i) different techniques/methods/approaches in the same/different laboratories, in various food samples, and (ii) to indicate the facts/conditions under which the biases between results may remain unidentified after applying statistical testing. Our data points to the inertness of t-test to detect significance of differences, particularly at low R values: in general, the higher correlation coefficient, the higher is sensitivity of statistical testing, especially of the paired t-test. Therefore, simple deviation of relationship line slope from unity could be used as additional evaluation parameter. This adds to reliable and objective quality assurance of foods in regard to carotenoids.
Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study
Kher, S.V. ; Jonge, J. de; Wentholt, M.T.A. ; Deliza, R. ; Cunha de Andrade, J. ; Cnossen, H.J. ; Lucas Luijckx, N.B. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2013
International Journal of Consumer Studies 37 (2013)1. - ISSN 1470-6423 - p. 73 - 83.
mad-cow-disease - safety issues - expert attitudes - human health - management - traceability - quality - hazards - determinants - knowledge
The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical and microbiological contaminants in four specific food chains (drinking water, farmed salmon, chicken and milk powder). To this end, ten focus group discussions were held in five different countries (Poland, Ireland, the Netherlands, France and Brazil). Consumers expressed higher concerns about chemical, as compared with microbial, contaminants. Chemical contaminants were more strongly associated with the potential for severe consequences, long-term effects and lack of personal control. Traceability was considered by consumers as a useful tool that offers the potential to improve consumer confidence in food safety.
Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Olesen, J.E. ; Naustvoll, L.J. ; Friocourt, Y. ; Mengelers, M.J.B. ; Christensen, J.H. - \ 2012
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 29 (2012)10. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1647 - 1659.
harmful algal blooms - winter-wheat - north-sea - human health - model - phytoplankton - mycotoxins - europe - contamination - prediction
Climate change is expected to affect food and feed safety, including the occurrence of natural toxins in primary crop and seafood production; however, to date, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the impact of climate change effects on mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains cultivated in the terrestrial area of north west Europe, and on the frequency of harmful algal blooms and contamination of shellfish with marine biotoxins in the North Sea coastal zone. The study focused on contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol, and on abundance of Dinophysis spp. and the possible relationship with diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The study used currently available data and models. Global and regional climate models were combined with models of crop phenology, mycotoxin prediction models, hydrodynamic models and ecological models, with the output of one model being used as input for the other. In addition, statistical data analyses using existing national datasets from the study area were performed to obtain information on the relationships between Dinophysis spp. cell counts and contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish toxins as well as on frequency of cereal cropping. In this paper, a summary of the study is presented, and overall conclusions and recommendations are given. Climate change projections for the years 2031–2050 were used as the starting point of the analyses relative to a preceding 20-year baseline period from which the climate change signal was calculated. Results showed that, in general, climate change effects lead to advanced flowering and harvest of wheat, and increased risk of contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol. Blooms of dinoflagellates were estimated to occur more often. If the group of Dinophysis spp. behaves similarly to other flagellates in the future then frequency of harmful algal blooms of Dinophysis spp. may also increase, but consequences for contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish toxins are uncertain. Climate change will also have indirect effects on toxin contamination, which may be equally important. For example, the frequency of cropping of wheat and maize in north Europe was projected to increase under climate change, which will also increase the risk of contamination of the grains with deoxynivalenol. Risk managers are encouraged to consider the entire range of the predictions of climate change effects on food safety hazards, rather than median or average values only. Furthermore, it is recommended to closely monitor levels of mycotoxins and marine biotoxins in the future, in particular related to risky situations associated with favourable climatic conditions for toxin producing organisms. In particular, it is important to pay attention to the continuity of collecting the right data, and the availability and accessibility of databases. On a European level, it is important to stress the need for harmonisation of terminology and data collection.
Sensitivity of humoral immune parameters of poultry to minor macro- and micronutrient differences in two nutritionally complete layer feeds
Adriaansen-Tennekes, R. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Pieters, R.H.H. ; Loveren, H. van; Huber, M. ; Hoogenboom, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2011
Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 27 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0144-8765 - p. 241 - 260.
red-blood-cells - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - sugar-cane extract - antibody-responses - broiler-chickens - carcass characteristics - growth-performance - finishing steers - trace-elements - human health
The effect of differences in the composition of nutrients of two nutritionally complete layer diets on parameters from innate and adaptive immunity of chickens were examined. The diets were based on ingredients grown either organically or conventionally. As individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been reported and as the immune system was used as a sensory organ to detect possible effects, layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody (Ab) responses to SRBC, i.e. low line hens and high line hens, reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence were used. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line, and was used as well. To examine maternal and/or epigenetic effects on nutrient sensitivity, two subsequent generations were studied. In addition, the second generation was challenged with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). The most pronounced dietary effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific Ab titres to NCD vaccine were significantly elevated in one of the two diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in Ab and complement responses to the KLH inoculation. Immune competence of the selection lines was not affected. In the second generation control line hens showed the most pronounced effects of dietary treatment in immune responsiveness, with significant effects on specific Ab vaccine titres as well as in innate parameters. The results suggest that small nutritional differences due to the use of different sources of raw ingredients have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters. The data indicate the importance of dietary components displaying the capacity to modulate the immune system.
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