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Dynamics of the salivary gland hypertrophy virus in laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)
Abd-Alla, A.M.M. ; Kariithi, H.M. ; Parker, A.G. ; Robinson, A.S. ; Kiflom, M. ; Bergoin, M. ; Vreysen, M.J.B. - \ 2010
Virus Research 150 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1702 - p. 103 - 110.
morsitans-centralis diptera - dna virus - nuclear-polyhedrosis - ultrastructural-changes - female tsetse - host fly - infection - hyperplasia - brevipalpis - prevalence
Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. To better understand the impact of this virus in a laboratory colony of G. pallidipes, where the majority of flies are infected but asymptomatic, and to follow the development of SGH in the offspring of symptomatic infected flies, we examined the progeny of tsetse flies reared under different conditions. The results show that the progeny of asymptomatic parents did not develop SGH, while the progeny of symptomatic female flies mated with asymptomatic males developed a high rate of SGH (65% in male and 100% in females) and these flies were sterile. Stress in the form of high fly density in holding cages (180 flies/cage) and high temperature (30 °C) in the holding room did not affect the prevalence of the SGH. The virus is excreted in the saliva and there is a strong correlation between the infection status (negative, slight or strong by PCR) and the numbers of virus particles released into the blood on which the flies were fed. On average, around 102 and 107 virus particles were found in the blood after feeding asymptomatic or symptomatic infected flies respectively. Feeding the flies on new blood at every feed for three generations caused a significant reduction in the virus copy number in these flies when compared with the virus copy number in flies fed under the normal feeding regime. The results of these studies allowed the initiation of colony management protocols that aim to minimize the risk of horizontal transmission and to enable the establishment of colonies with a low virus prevalence or possibly even those that are virus free
Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs
Galac, S. ; Kars, V.J. ; Klarenbeek, S. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Mol, J.A. ; Kooistra, H.S. - \ 2010
Domestic Animal Endocrinology 39 (2010)1. - ISSN 0739-7240 - p. 63 - 75.
dependent cushings-syndrome - sufficient genetic event - canine hyperadrenocorticism - in-vitro - hyperplasia - cells - overexpression - proliferation - desmopressin - sensitivity
Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V1a, V1b, and V2). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V1b receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V2 receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V1bR and V2 receptor was present, but in ATs, V2 receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V1a, V1b, or V2 receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V2 receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs.
Proteomic analysis of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus virions for immune intervention in tsetse fly colonies
Kariithi, H.M. ; Ince, I.A. ; Boeren, S. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Bergoin, M. ; Oers, M.M. van; Abd-Alla, A.M.M. ; Vlak, J.M. - \ 2010
Journal of General Virology 91 (2010). - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 3065 - 3074.
per-os infectivity - californica-m nucleopolyhedrovirus - morsitans-centralis diptera - occlusion-derived virus - dna virus - musca-domestica - ultrastructural-changes - mass-spectrometry - female tsetse - hyperplasia
Many species of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) can be infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). The viruses isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) and Musca somestica (MdSGHV) have recently been sequenced. Tsetse flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility which cause a serious problem for mass rearing in the frame of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs to control and eradicate tsetse populations in the wild. A potential intervention strategy to mitigate viral infections in fly colonies is neutralizing of the GpSGHV infection with specific antibodies against virion proteins. Two major GpSGHV virion proteins of about 130 kDa and 50 kDa, respectively, were identified by Western analysis using polyclonal rabbit antibody raised against whole GpSHGV virions. The proteome of GpSGHV, containing the antigens responsible for the immune-response, was investigated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and 61 virion proteins were identified by comparison with the genome sequence. Specific antibodies were produced in rabbits against seven candidate proteins including the ORF10 / C-terminal fragment, ORF47 and ORF96 as well as proteins involved in peroral infectivity PIF-1 (ORF102), PIF-2 (ORF53), PIF-3 (ORF76) and P74 (ORF1). Antiserum against ORF10 specifically reacted to the 130 kDa protein in a Western blot analysis and to the envelope of GpSGHV using immunogold-EM. This result suggests that immune intervention of viral infections in colonies of G. pallidipes is a realistic option
Hytrosaviridae: a proposal for classification and nomenclature of a new insect virus family
Abd-Alla, A.M.M. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Bergoin, M. ; Maruniak, J. ; Parker, A. ; Burand, J.P. ; Jehle, J.A. ; Boucias, D.G. - \ 2009
Archives of Virology 154 (2009)6. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 909 - 918.
salivary-gland hypertrophy - glossina-morsitans-centralis - dna virus - musca-domestica - ultrastructural-changes - pallidipes diptera - female tsetse - hyperplasia - transmission - prevalence
Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) have been identified from different dipteran species, such as the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV), the housefly Musca domestica (MdSGHV) and the narcissus bulbfly Merodon equestris (MeSGHV). These viruses share the following characteristics: (i) they produce non-occluded, enveloped, rod-shaped virions that measure 500¿ 1,000 nm in length and 50¿100 nm in diameter; (ii) they possess a large circular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome ranging in size from 120 to 190 kbp and having G + C ratios ranging from 28 to 44%; (iii) they cause overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in dipteran adults and partial to complete sterility. The available information on the complete genome sequence of GpSGHV and MdSGHV indicates significant co-linearity between the two viral genomes, whereas no co-linearity was observed with baculoviruses, ascoviruses, entomopoxviruses, iridoviruses and nudiviruses, other large invertebrate DNA viruses. The DNA polymerases encoded by the SGHVs are of the type B and closely related, but they are phylogenetically distant from DNA polymerases encoded by other large dsDNA viruses. The great majority of SGHV ORFs could not be assigned by sequence comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes clustered both SGHVs, but distantly from the nudiviruses and baculoviruses. On the basis of the available morphological, (patho)biological, genomic and phylogenetic data, we propose that the two viruses are members of a new virus family named Hytrosaviridae. This proposed family currently comprises two unassigned species, G. pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus and M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, and a tentative unassigned species, M. equestris salivary gland hypertrophy virus. Here, we present the characteristics and the justification for establishing this new virus family
Stress-induced facilitation of the cortisol response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient XX mas -1/mas -1 carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Ruane, N.M. ; Goos, H.J.Th. ; Komen, J. - \ 2007
General and Comparative Endocrinology 150 (2007)3. - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 473 - 479.
pituitary-interrenal axis - common carp - rainbow-trout - recessive mutation - adrenal axis - food-intake - fish - growth - adrenocorticotropin - hyperplasia
Facilitation of the stress response results from a reduction of the inhibitory effects of circulating corticosteroids, allowing an animal to respond to a novel stressor. In this study, the existence of a facilitated cortisol stress response in normal (STD) and 17¿-hydroxylase deficient XX mas¿1/mas¿1 (E5) carp was investigated. E5 carp had previously been characterized as having a low cortisol response to stress. Fish were subjected to either cortisol feeding or daily-acute stress, from 45 until 140 days post-hatch (dph) and were then subjected to a novel net-confinement stressor at 141 dph. Growth of E5 fish was reduced in both the daily-acute stress and cortisol-fed groups, but STD fish were only affected by daily-acute stress. Cortisol feeding had no effect on the stress response of STD fish but daily-acute stress significantly inhibited the response to a subsequent novel stressor. In contrast, daily-acute stress facilitated the cortisol stress response of E5 fish to a novel stressor, while cortisol feeding inhibited the cortisol response. Facilitation was accompanied by significant enlargement of the head-kidney tissue (which contains the steroidogenic interrenal tissue) in E5 fish. To our knowledge this is the first report of stress-induced facilitation in a lower vertebrate