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De relatieve duurzaamheid van de Nederlandse roodvleessector: een kwalitatieve vergelijking = A comparative study on the sustainability of the Dutch beef cattle production sector
Bos, A.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 841) - 68
duurzame veehouderij - vleesvee - vee- en vleesindustrie - nederland - ierse republiek - brazilië - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - internationale vergelijkingen - vergelijkend onderzoek - veehouderij - sustainable animal husbandry - beef cattle - meat and livestock industry - netherlands - irish republic - brazil - pig farming - poultry farming - international comparisons - comparative research - livestock farming
In this study the sustainability of Dutch specialized beef production is compared qualitatively with two other Dutch animal production systems (porc and broilers), and with beef production in Ireland and Brazil, the most prominent exporters of beef to the Dutch market with which the Dutch sector competes. The comparison is done along twelve of the fifteen long-term ambitions of the Dutch governance network ‘Uitvoeringsagenda Duurzame Veehouderij’.
Amazing grazing : 20 video's over melkveehouderij en beweiding in Ierland
Livestock Research, - \ 2013
melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - weiden - begrazing - dierenwelzijn - beweidingssystemen - graslandbeheer - ierse republiek - dairy farming - cow housing - pastures - grazing - animal welfare - grazing systems - grassland management - irish republic
Twintig video's over melkveehouderij en beweiding in Ierland.
Ierland en Frankrijk: wat doen ze er anders?
Aarts, H.F.M. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2011
V-focus 8 (2011)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - ierse republiek - frankrijk - noordwest-europa - dairy farming - farm management - farm comparisons - irish republic - france - northwestern europe
In het Europese project Dairyman werken belangrijke melkveegebieden in Noordwest-Europa samen aan de gewenste ontwikkeling van hun melkveebedrijven. Dit gebeurt op een vergelijkbare manier als in het mineralenproject Koeien & Kansen. Door deze samenwerking komt extra kennis beschikbaar en is vergelijking mogelijk, wat leerzaam is. Wat doen ze in het buitenland anders dan wij en waarom? Een kijkje op het melkveebedrijf in Ierland en West-Frankrijk.
Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?
O'Keeffe, S. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; O'Kiely, P. ; O'Donoghue, C. ; Lalor, S.T.J. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2010
T Research : research and innovation news at Teagasc 5 (2010)4. - ISSN 1649-8917 - p. 10 - 11.
biobased economy - economische haalbaarheid - graslanden - ierse republiek - bioraffinage - economic viability - grasslands - irish republic - biorefinery
Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland
Alternative use of grassland biomass for biorefinery in Ireland: a scoping study
O'Keeffe, S. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): R.P.O. Schulte; P. O'Kiely. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858096 - 202
graslanden - weiden - biomassa productie - kuilvoerbereiding - veehouderij - ierse republiek - bioraffinage - biobased economy - grasslands - pastures - biomass production - silage making - livestock farming - irish republic - biorefinery
The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependency on fossil fuels has been one of the main driving forces to use renewable resources for energy and chemicals. The integrated use of grassland biomass for the production of chemicals and energy, also known as Green Biorefinery (GBR), has received much attention and several European countries have developed GBR systems, including Austria, Denmark and Germany. In Ireland, approximately 90% of the 4.3 million hectares used for agriculture is under grassland and used in livestock production systems. Recently livestock numbers have declined and a surplus of grass biomass is predicted. GBR has potential to provide supplementary income from this surplus grass. As part of a scoping study, I assessed the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a GBR in an Irish context, and developed a blueprint for a first generation GBR.
Scenario analyses suggested that the ideal catchment area for a GBR was 700-800 ha depending on biomass availability within the catchment area, and the availability should be in excess of 30% in order to contain transport costs. An added benefit of a decentralised GBR facility processing approx. 0.8 t of dry matter per hour is that it allows for ease of operation, and better knowledge of the source and quality of the herbage being supplied.
The viability of a GBR will be highest in areas which experience declining numbers of livestock and lower farm income, particularly. This mainly, but not exclusively, occurs in areas with many beef farms. These areas have a high potential availability of surplus grass biomass and in such a situation the GBR would not have to compete with traditional agricultural commodities, but rather would provide potential supplementary income to farmers.
The transitional development of a GBR system is likely to be most successful if current harvesting practices (i.e. a two-cut silage system) are adopted. The quality of the biomass from such a harvesting system is compatible with the basic GBR technologies used to produce insulation materials and proteinaceous products for animal feed. In the longer-term, higher value products could be produced by retro-fitting the GBR facility. Analyses also showed that feedstock quality can be best controlled by operating a silage-only system, with on-site ensiling of the grass material at the GBR facility. The use of silage as a feedstock also facilitates year-round operation of the GBR facility.
Biorefinery processes are energy intensive. Therefore, the viability of the GBR largely depends on self–sufficiency for energy. This can be achieved by anaerobic digestion of the fibre slurries that remain after processing.
The residual material remaining after the anaerobic digestion can be used as fertiliser on the farm supplying the biomass, as part of a “waste management strategy” that aims to maintain nutrient balance between the GBR and the source farms. This recycling will reduce direct costs of the supplying farms.
The blueprint outlined in this thesis provides a framework for the development of a first generation GBR. The blueprint has also identified key areas that require further research: improved ensiling techniques, integration of livestock farming systems and GBR systems, and nutrient budgeting of the GBR system.
Ierland, Europees kostprijskampioen
Haan, M.H.A. de; Zijlstra, J. ; Vrolijk, M. ; Rijpma, J. - \ 2009
V-focus 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 27 - 29.
melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - conferenties - ierse republiek - dairy farming - farm management - conferences - irish republic
Eind juni was het EDF-congres in Cork, Ierland. EDF is een internationale organisatie van melkveehouders uit heel Europa die gegevens, ervaringen en kennis uitwisselen. De lage melkprijs was natuurlijk een belangrijk gespreksonderwerp. Verder leerden melkveehouders uit heel Europa hoe de Ieren hun kostprijs zo laag kunnen houden
Soak systems of an Irish raised bog : a multidisiciplinary study of their origin, ecology, conservation and restoration
Crushell, P.H. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Matthijs Schouten; J.G.M. Roelofs. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852544 - 200
veenmoerassen - vegetatie - conservering - ecologie - ierse republiek - geschiedenis - ecologisch herstel - historische ecologie - natuurgebieden - herstelbeheer - bogs - vegetation - conservation - ecology - irish republic - history - ecological restoration - historical ecology - natural areas - restoration management
Soak systemen (systemen met een laagveenvegetatie omgeven door ombrotroof veen), kortweg soaks, zijn zeldzame elementen in hoogvenen die bijdragen aan de heterogeniteit van deze ecosystemen. Ze worden beschouwd als belangrijke elementen in het hoogveen die behouden en hersteld dienen te worden. Teneinde meer inzicht te krijgen in soak systemen, hebben wij historisch, biogeochemisch en ecologisch onderzoek verricht aan twee soaks in Clara bog
|Inventory of Irish vegetation data collected by Dutch researchers
Kruijt, D. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. - \ 2007
Nijmegen : Radboud Universiteit - 20
vegetatie - inventarisaties - karteringen - databanken - ierse republiek - vegetatiekartering - vegetation - inventories - surveys - databases - irish republic - vegetation mapping
Subsidence of Clara Bog West and acrotelm development of Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog East
Heggeler, M.M.A. ; Ploeg, M.J. van der; Vuurens, S.H. ; Schaaf, S. van der - \ 2005
Wageningen : Sub-department Water Resources (Rapport / Wageningen University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Sub-Department Water Resources 121) - 74
hoogveengronden - veengronden - drainage - grondwaterspiegel - bodemdaling - ierse republiek - hydrologie - grondwater - ecohydrologie - bog soils - peat soils - water table - subsidence - irish republic - hydrology - groundwater - ecohydrology
Results industry questionnaire SEAFOODsense
Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M. ; Veldman, M. ; Hyldig, G. ; Green-Petersen, D. ; Sveinsdottir, K. ; Martinsdottir, E. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Fayoux, S. - \ 2005
IJmuiden : RIVO (Report / RIVO-Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research no. C017/05) - 16
sensorische evaluatie - methodologie - kwaliteit - voedselkwaliteit - zeevruchten - interviews - ierse republiek - ijsland - denemarken - nederland - sensory evaluation - methodology - quality - food quality - seafoods - irish republic - iceland - denmark - netherlands
The aim of this research was to define sensory quality, and determine how this can be measured, at each point where quality decision-making is carried out in the chain of seafood handling from catch or slaughter to consumer. This was carried out by taking interviews with the industry to obtain knowledge about their sensory quality evaluation procedures and the descriptive terms they used. In four different countries, Ireland, Iceland, Denmark and The Netherlands, 8-17 companies throughout the fish production chain were selected.
Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?
Tomassen, H.B.M. ; Smolders, A.J.P. ; Limpens, J. ; Lamers, L.P.M. ; Roelofs, J.G.M. - \ 2004
Journal of Applied Ecology 41 (2004)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 139 - 150.
veenmoerassen - invasies - planten - stikstof - verdroging - veengronden - luchtverontreiniging - fosfor - drainage - betula pubescens - cladonia - molinia caerulea - sphagnum - nederland - ierse republiek - bogs - invasions - plants - nitrogen - desiccation - peat soils - air pollution - phosphorus - netherlands - irish republic - atmospheric nitrogen deposition - caerulea l moench - vulgaris l hull - calluna-vulgaris - molinia-caerulea - nutrient availability - cladonia-portentosa - vascular plants - growth
1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2. The effects of experimentally increased N input on Molinia, Betula and Eriophorum vaginatum were studied in desiccated bog vegetation in Ireland, where there is relatively low background N deposition. Four different N treatments were applied for 3 years: 0 (control), 2, 4 and 8 g m-2 year-1. 3. Ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the peat moisture increased at high N addition rates, leading to significantly higher carbon : nitrogen (C : N) and nitrogen : phosphorus (N : P) ratios in the top layer of the peat. The potential CO2 production rate of the peat was not stimulated at high N addition rates due to severe acidification of the peat. 4. Despite high tissue N : P ratios (above 40), above-ground biomass production by Molinia was stimulated at high N addition rates, and foliar nutrient concentrations were unaffected. In contrast to Molinia, Betula and Eriophorum were unable to increase their above-ground biomass, probably due to P limitation. Regrowth of the lichen Cladonia portentosa was suppressed at high N addition rates. 5. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that the invasion of bogs by Molinia and Betula is likely to be less affected by desiccation than by increased N availability. Apparently, Molinia is well adapted to P-limiting conditions, which may explain its success in regions with increased N deposition levels. The high availability of P in many Dutch bogs compared with Irish bogs, together with prolonged high N deposition levels, may explain the strong increase in both Molinia and Betula observed in the Netherlands. As long as N and P availabilities in Dutch bogs are too high to prevent invasion of Betula and/or Molinia, management measures stimulating growth of Sphagnum mosses could probably reduce the negative effects of high N deposition levels.
Relationships between ecotopes, hydrological position and subsidence on Clara Bog and Raheenmore Bog (Ireland)
Schaaf, S. van der; Streefkerk, J.G. - \ 2003
In: Measurement techniques and data assessment in wetlands hydrology / Ignar, S., Nowakowski, P., Okruszko, T., Warsaw : Warsaw Agricultural University Press - ISBN 8372444862 - p. 127 - 136.
veenmoerassen - veengronden - landschapsecologie - hydrologie - wetlands - ierse republiek - bogs - peat soils - landscape ecology - hydrology - irish republic
During the final stage of the Irish-Dutch raised bog study (1989-2001) an effort was made to integrate aspects of vegetation, water quality and hydrology. The basic ecological concept used was the ecotope rather than the plant community. This paper describes the two bogs, the ecotypes, followed by hydrological concepts. Afterwards relationships are developed and discussed
|Relationships between biotic and abiotic conditions on Clara Bog (Ireland)
Schaaf, S. van der; Streefkerk, J.G. - \ 2003
In: Ecohydrological processes in Northern wetlands / Järvet, A., Lode, E., [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 35 - 40.
veenmoerassen - veengronden - hydrologie - ierse republiek - ecohydrologie - bogs - peat soils - hydrology - irish republic - ecohydrology
During the final stage of the Irish-Dutch raised bog study (1989-2001) an effort was made to integrate aspects of vegetation, water quality and hydrology
|Acrotelm development on Raheenmore Bog (Ireland)
Ploeg, M.J. van der; Heggeler, M.M.A. ; Schaaf, S. van der; Vuurens, S.H. - \ 2003
In: Ecohydrological processes in Northern wetlands. - [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 99 - 104.
veenmoerassen - bodemwater - drainage - hellingen - hydrologie - ierse republiek - bogs - soil water - hydrology - slopes - irish republic
|Subsidence on Clara Bog (Ireland) related to water level management in surrounding areas
Heggeler, M.M.A. ; Ploeg, M.J. van der; Schaaf, S. van der; Vuurens, S.H. - \ 2003
In: Ecohydrological processes in Northern wetlands / Järvet, A., Lode, E., [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 266 - 273.
veenmoerassen - veengronden - bodemwater - grondwaterspiegel - bodemdaling - waterbeheer - ierse republiek - waterstand - bogs - peat soils - soil water - water table - subsidence - water management - irish republic - water level
Schaaf, S. van der - \ 2002
In: Conservation and restoration of raised bogs / Schouten, M.G.C., Dublin : Dept. of the Env. and Local Government; Staatsbosbeheer - ISBN 0755715594 - p. 54 - 109.
veengronden - veenmoerassen - bodemwater - hydrologie - ierse republiek - monitoring - waterstand - peat soils - bogs - soil water - hydrology - irish republic - water level
In this chapter results of the hydrological fieldwork on Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog are presented and discussed
Schaaf, S. van der; Streefkerk, J.G. ; Daly, D. ; Johnston, P. - \ 2002
In: Conservation and restoration of raised bogs / Schouten, M.G.C., Dublin : Dept. of the Env. and Local Government; Staatsbosbeheer - ISBN 0755715594 - p. 32 - 53.
veenmoerassen - veengronden - hydrologie - ierse republiek - bogs - peat soils - hydrology - irish republic
The main topic of this chapter is the regional hydrology of Clara Bog
Kelly, L. ; Schouten, M.G.C. - \ 2002
In: Conservation and restoration of raised bogs: geological, hydrological and ecological studies / Schouten, M.G.C., Dublin : The Government Stationary Office - ISBN 9780755715596 - p. 102 - 154.
vegetatie - ierse republiek - veenmoerassen - bodemwater - grondwaterspiegel - waterkwaliteit - ecohydrologie - bogs - vegetation - soil water - water table - water quality - irish republic - ecohydrology
All hands on deck : an interactive perspective on complex common-pool resource management based on case studies in the coastal waters of the Isle of Wight (UK), Connemara (Ireland) and the Dutch Wadden Sea
Steins, N.A. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; V.M. Edwards. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058080974 - 228
hulpbronnengebruik - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bescherming - herstel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kusten - verenigd koninkrijk - ierse republiek - nederland - nationaal vermogen - resource utilization - natural resources - resource management - protection - rehabilitation - sustainability - coasts - uk - irish republic - netherlands - national wealth
<p>In 1996, the new fish cages of an Irish salmon farm were sabotaged and juvenile salmon with a value of IR£ 250,000 were released, nearly putting the farm out of business. This deed was an act of protest against the growth of the salmon farming industry. The loss of fishing grounds, ecological and environmental concerns, and the perceived impact on the unspoilt scenery of the area are amongst the factors that explain local opposition against salmon farming.</p><p>In 1991, Dutch mussel cultivators in the Wadden Sea and the government agreed on a division of available mussel seed between fishermen and birds. A year later, the mussel cultivators voluntarily closed part of the tidal mudflats for the seed fishery. These actions were a response to the heavy criticisms by environmental groups, who blamed the shellfish fishermen for causing the death of thousands of birds by 'robbing' them of their main diet.</p><p>The above examples are illustrative of the problems associated with the management of complex, multiple-use common-pool resources. <em>Common-pool resources</em> (CPRs) are resources for which: (i) joint use involves subtractability (use by one user will subtract benefits from another user's enjoyment of the resource system), and (ii) exclusion of users involves high transaction costs. For a long time, policies aimed at sustainable CPR management were fuelled by the belief that rational individuals, who are driven by utility maximisation, cannot maintain a common resource (the Tragedy of the Commons). The implementation of a multitude of management regimes to regulate CPR use has, however, not prevented externalities, such as resource degradation and conflicts, from occurring. This is particularly the case in complex, multiple-use CPRs, where different activities take place in the same resource system and where uses may be competing or incompatible (Chapter One). The coastal waters, which are the setting of this study, are an example of a complex CPR.</p><p>The complexity and interconnectedness of coastal management problems, combined with the incapacity of existing institutions for monitoring and protection to deal with the continuous decline of the coastal zone, has resulted in local, national and global collective action initiatives, which consider management issues from a broader perspective and where stakeholders work collectively towards problem solution. Increasingly, a collective action approach is seen as an alternative in dealing with complex problems (Chapter One). This book aims to contribute towards an understanding of the processes that shape collective actions amongst multiple stakeholders in complex CPRs.</p><p>The theoretical argument of this study is that CPR theory - a body of knowledge that deals with the analysis of collective action and the associated social dilemmas, in 'real life' scenarios - is not sufficiently developed for the study and facilitation of collective action in complex CPR management. This argument is elaborated in Chapter One. On the basis of an examination of CPR theory and its roots, rational choice theory and the new institutionalism, it is argued that the application of the conceptual frameworks of CPR theory to the study of complex resources is problematic, since they are based on: (i) the simplistic assumption that CPRs are used for one single type of use, (ii) the exclusive analysis of the internal dynamics of the collective management system, thereby 'black boxing' the influence of external factors, (iii) a static model of strategic rationality, and (iv) the assumption that the outcomes of collective resource management are determined by a number of pre-defined design principles. Building on a grounded theory approach, this book proposes a new perspective for the study and facilitation of collective action processes in complex CPR management scenarios.</p><p>The empirical basis is laid by three case studies in the English, Irish and Dutch coastal waters. In each study area, fishermen were confronted with the arrival of new activities and/or the articulation of other interests in or near their fishing grounds. The cases focus on the interactions amongst fishermen (or their representatives), other marine users and non-governmental and state agencies, and the way (collective) management of resources, spaces and people take shape.</p><p>Chapter Three develops a conceptual framework that assists the analysis of the collective action processes in the empirical studies. This conceptual framework is based on a critical examination of CPR theory and its problems in Chapter One, and supported by a case study of complex CPR management in Cowes Harbour (UK) in Chapter Two. It builds on theoretical notions from Habermas' theory of communicative action, actor-network theory (ANT) and the knowledge systems perspective. It has several methodological consequences for this study. First, the notion of the rational actor is replaced by that of the <em>collectif</em> (Callon & Law, 1995): an actor is considered to be the effect of interactions of human and material resources. The objectives, strategies and rationalities of <em>collectifs</em> are continuously reshaped as new <em>collectifs</em> enter the arena and new relationships are brought into being. Second, following ANT, any pre-defined models and conditions for collective action are left out, and co-operation in a collective action situation is explained in the same way as free-riding. Finally, an <em>action</em> -oriented perspective, aimed at the facilitation of collective action, is adopted. For the organisation of this book, the grounded theory approach to data analysis (Chapter Four) means that the conclusions of each chapter feed into the next one, with the exception of Chapter Four, which describes the research methodology.</p><p>The case study of Cowes Harbour (UK) in Chapter Two follows the oyster fishermen in their collective action aimed at securing access to the fishery, which was threatened by a closure in the interest of navigation and nature conservation considerations. It illustrates the complexities associated with the management of multiple-use CPRs, by showing how the different activities and interests in the harbour are interdependent and why, in a complex scenario, the presence of individual management regimes for the different uses is not a sufficient strategy. The preliminary conclusions support the development of the conceptual framework in Chapter Three.</p><p>Chapter Five presents a comparative case study of two bays in NW Connemara (Ireland). In this area, local marine resource use has become increasingly become contested, particularly because of the development of salmon farming. The case follows fishermen and freshwater fisheries in the two bays in their interactions with the new user groups. While in one bay, collective action by the fishermen is exclusively aimed at preventing the local salmon farm from expanding, in the other bay, 15km to the north, collective actions amongst the same fishermen, the salmon farm and shellfish producers are aimed at balancing resource use. In this later bay, however, the local freshwater fishery is involved in a heavy dispute with the salmon farm over the collapse of its sea trout stocks, while in the former bay, this dispute is not articulated, despite a similar stock collapse. The case study illustrates how different social, historical, institutional and physical contexts, are important in shaping the interaction processes amongst multiple stakeholders. The case study in Chapter Seven is set in the Dutch Wadden Sea, where the shellfish fisheries are contested by nature conservation groups. It follows the shellfish fishermen in their efforts to achieve a balance between their fishing activities and nature conservation. The implementation of voluntary nature conservation measures by the shellfish sector formed the basis for the implementation of a statutory co-management strategy, involving the shellfish industry, the government, nature conservation groups and scientists. The case illustrates how the images that stakeholders have of each other's activities and interests, and the role they adopt towards resource management, influence the decision-making process in the co-management platform.</p><p>In the theoretical intermezzos in Chapters Six and Eight, the cases of NW Connemara and the Wadden Sea are analysed. The conclusions resulting from the analyses are merged and developed further in Chapter Nine. The general conclusion is that, in its present form, CPR theory hampers the analysis of the complex processes through which collective action is achieved (or frustrated), and needs to be redeveloped. First, the definition of the rational, atomised actor is too limited to explain collective action processes. Instead, actors should be regarded as nested <em>collectifs</em> , whose strategies in the collective action arena are constantly reshaped. Second, the use of a static strategic model of rationality is insufficient to appreciate the shaping of collective action (or free-riding). The case studies show how <em>collectifs</em> use different social and material means to achieve their objectives. In trying to enrol other <em>collectifs</em> in collective actions aimed at realising their projects, different forms of strategic and communicative rationality emerge. Third, the use of pre-defined categories and design principles diverts attention from (i) the stakeholders' constructions of collective resource management, and (ii) the influence of contextual factors, and therefore limits the explanatory power of CPR theory. Furthermore, a danger inherent in the design principles is that they are picked up as blueprints for the development of policies and intervention programmes for 'successful' CPR management. For these reasons, CPR theory should become explicitly concerned with contextual analysis, rather than merely describing 'successes on the commons' and developing prescriptive principles. In this context, a number of methodologies for contextual analysis are introduced.</p><p>The second general conclusion concerns the facilitation of collective action, which has only recently emerged on the agenda of CPR scholars. This book demonstrates that balancing a mix of uses is crucial for the management of complex CPRs, since the interdependency of multiple uses is likely to result in externalities. Experiences from the case studies show that nested platforms for CPR use negotiation are a promising heuristic tool for the facilitation of collective problem appreciation and solution. The performance of platforms is, however, associated with, a large number of critical factors, including, amongst others: (i) the influence of different perceptions and 'stereotyping' of participants on collective decision-making, and (ii) the position of third parties, who may act as a facilitator or gatekeeper, but may also frustrate collective action by imposing their own agenda.</p><p>Based on an extensive discussion of the above issues, the book concludes that radical reconstruction of the ontological foundation of CPR theory is needed if it is to be used as (i) a foundation for the analysis of complex CPRs, or as (ii) a conceptual framework in pursuing the idea that collective action is a powerful alternative to deal with complex resource management problems. A social constructivist approach to the study and facilitation of complex CPR management is proposed. Two principles, derived from actor-network theory, form the foundation for this new perspective. The first principle is <em>generalised agnosticism</em> , which means that pre-defined categories (e.g., success, rational behaviour) and design principles have to be abandoned; instead, the focus of analysis should be on the tactics that the nested <em>collectifs</em> employ in mobilising social and material means to enrol others in their projects. The second principle is <em>symmetry</em> , which means that everything in a CPR management scenario needs explaining in the same way; in other words, co-operation in a collective action situation should be explained in the same way as defective behaviour.</p><p>The adoption of these principles will facilitate the understanding of the contingencies involved in the evolution of collective action, by focussing on the sociotechnical construction of CPR management and the internal and contextual factors that influence the action strategies adopted by nested <em>collectifs</em> . In this analytical process, co-operation, free-riding and rationality are outcomes of the interplay and trials of strength amongst the different <em>collectifs</em> with a stake in the CPR, and their mobilisation of social and material resources.</p><p>The book concludes with two main recommendations for future research and policy into complex CPR management. First, the potential of a social constructivist perspective needs further exploration. In particular, the development of new methodologies that make the contingencies involved in collective action processes visible, is required. Second, in view of the increasing reliance on collective action to solve complex resource management problems, the development of a praxeology (a theory that informs practice) for CPR theory needs urgent attention.</p>
Analysis of the hydrology of raised bogs in the Irish Midlands : a case study of Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog
Schaaf, S. van der - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes. - S.l. : Schaaf - ISBN 9789058080622 - 375
hydrologie - veenmoerassen - ierse republiek - ecologie - veengebieden - hydrology - bogs - irish republic - ecology - peatlands
<p>In the framework of the Irish-Dutch Raised Bog Project the hydrology of two raised bogs in the Irish Midlands, Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog, was studied.</p><p>The work focuses on relationships in the bog system and how they are affected by drain-age and turf cutting along margins. The concept of diplotelmy, a differentiation of the bog body into a shallow highly permeable top layer called acrotelm and a subjacent deep poorly permeable peat layer called catotelm, is followed. Some measuring methods yielded wrong results in bogs, so were modified to produce acceptable results. A novel field method to measure the transmissivity of the acrotelm was developed.</p><p>The acrotelm behaves as an aquifer with a constant hydraulic gradient -the surface slope-and a transmissivity that is controlled by the phreatic level. The transmissivity increases by an order of magnitude when the phreatic level rises less than 10 cm and decreases as the level falls. Discharge varies accordingly. This mechanism and the large storage coefficient of the acrotelm ensure small seasonal fluctuations of the phreatic level (20 cm or less). Thus the acrotelm has a regulating effect on the hydrological conditions in a raised bog. Acrotelm transmissivity and -depth depend on surface slope. Well-developed acrotelms occur almost exclusively at surface slopes below 1%.</p><p>The catotelm acts as an aquitard Downward seepage from Clara bog amounts to 5-10 mm a<SMALL>-1</SMALL>. The seepage from Raheenmore Bog is 10-15 mm a<SMALL>-1</SMALL>, in spite of differences of up to 3 m between phreatic levels in the acrotelm and piezometric levels in the mineral sub-soil.</p><p>Water loss by horizontal flow in the catotelm is 1 mm a<SMALL>-1</SMALL>or less in both bogs. Thus the hydrological system of the bogs depends little on its surroundings. Turf cutting and drainage of bog margins directly cause surface subsidence over dis-tances of only a few metres from the margin. This results in a local increase of the surface slope. A steeper surface slope causes a reduction of the regulating properties of the acrotelm and thus a spreading of subsidence into the bogs. Because of the difference in composition of the peat in the centre and along natural margins, subsidence in the centre caused by internal drainage may be larger than along margins, causing watershed positions to shift to the margin. A prominent example is the convergent flow on Clara Bog towards the soak system of Shanley's Lough. Both are the result of subsidence caused by the road that bisects Clara Bog. Drainage on the bog destroys the acrotelm within a few years. Natural recovery of the bog ecosystem from such damage may take more than a century. Evapotranspiration from both bogs was 0.9 to 1.2 times Penman open water evaporation, depending on pre-cipitation in spring and summer.</p>