Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Is there life after hype for Jatropha? Exploring growth and yield in Indonesia
Tjeuw, Juliana - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller; Meine van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431927 - 223
fuel crops - jatropha curcas - crop yield - new crops - feasibility studies - indonesia - cultural methods - cultivation - disincentives - biobased economy - cropping systems - intercropping - brandstofgewassen - gewasopbrengst - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - haalbaarheidsstudies - indonesië - cultuurmethoden - teelt - belemmeringen - teeltsystemen - tussenteelt

Jatropha curcas L. is a biofuel crop that has not lived up to expectations due to a combination of hype and disappointment and biophysical factors. This PhD thesis is based on the plant production component of the JARAK programme which aimed to bridge the gap between truth and fiction. This study reviewed the jatropha hype and disappointment and further investigated the hypothesis that jatropha growth and yield are limited by biophysical factors of plant characteristics, cropping systems, and management. My review of the hype and disappointment shows that despite the high expectations fuelled by market pull and technology push, and numerous actors, the commercial potential for jatropha is limited by policy and governance, economics, social, technology, logistical, and environmental. A study of the biophysical components confirms that no current varieties suited to different cropping systems and locations are available. Jatropha aboveground biomass is partitioned predominantly into a structure of stem, branches, and twigs. The below to aboveground biomass ratio was 0.5 and fruit which was found only on productive twigs accounted for the smallest portion of biomass measured. Seed yields were disappointingly small (109 kg ha-1) and were largest in monoculture, followed by intercropping and hedgerows in that order, although yields were influenced by age and management of pruning and fertiliser. Seed yield across the three cropping systems can be predicted using plant height and the number of productive twig/branch, although the number of inflorescence clusters per productive twig may be important. Intercropping between jatropha and maize (Zea mays L.) resulted in competition for resources both belowground and aboveground that reduced maize yields. Shoot pruning was effective in managing aboveground competition, while root pruning and root barriers effectively managed competition belowground. Leaf prunings provided a limited, but positive fertility effect on maize yield comparable to 21 kg N ha-1. Jatropha - maize intercropping has potential for long-term productivity provided management practices such as fertiliser, pruning, and planting density can be developed to minimise competition and enhance complementarity. Based on my review of the jatropha hype and disappointment and my biophysical research results, the planting of jatropha by smallholders, or as a plantation crop cannot be recommended. Once the issues I highlight have been resolved and market confidence restored, jatropha may finally become a commercial source of biodiesel able to provide improved socio-economic and environmental benefits.

Role of reservoir operation in sustainable water supply to Subak irrigation schemes in Yeh Ho River Basin
Yekti, Mawiti Infantri - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): E. Schultz, co-promotor(en): I. Nyoman Norken; László Hayde. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138065437 - 250
irrigation systems - irrigation - water supply - sustainability - basin irrigation - indonesia - rivers - irrigatiesystemen - irrigatie - watervoorziening - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kombevloeiing - indonesië - rivieren

A Subak irrigation scheme, primarily in Bali, Indonesia concerns an irrigation system of which the construction, operation and management are based on agreed principles of technology, management of agriculture and religious community. Subak systems have been well known since the 9th Century. As a manifestation of the Cultural Landscape of Bali Province the Subak schemes are since June, 2012 included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. These systems are managed by a Subak Association based on the Tri Hita Karana philosophy - harmony between human beings and God, harmony between people and nature, and harmony between people and people.

The problem of insufficient water in the dry season developed in the Yeh Ho River Basin. Because of this the main objective of this study was to develop an optimal reservoir operation strategy in relation to the water supply of the Subak irrigation schemes, capable to support agricultural productivity at upstream, midstream and downstream level. Based on a Generic Algorithm the RIBASIM model was applied using the dependable 80% of discharge and shifting the start of land preparation. The results provide evidence that the cropping pattern of the fifth scenario results in an overall optimal agriculture production of the Subak schemes. The recoverable flow considered in the river basin scheme model plays an important role in the optimisation. Nevertheless, if a normal hydro-climate occurs, the other scenarios, especially the first scenario, can be applied as well. This reflects the applicability of the Tri Hita Karana philosophy on harmony among people and harmony among people and nature.

Socio-economic modelling of rabies control in Flores Island, Indonesia
Wera, Ewaldus - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430586 - 182
rabies - rabies virus - control programmes - control methods - dogs - indonesia - decision making - vaccination - hondsdolheid - hondsdolheidvirus - bestrijdingsprogramma's - bestrijdingsmethoden - honden - indonesië - besluitvorming - vaccinatie

Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that can cause encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Since its introduction in Flores Island, Indonesia in 1997, it has been a serious public health threat with significant economic consequences. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of any charge. Nevertheless, the campaigns have not been successful in eliminating rabies from the island.

The main objective of this dissertation was to support future decisions on the control of rabies in Flores Island by providing insight into the role of socio-demographic and psychological factors of dog owners in the uptake of rabies control measures and by analyzing the cost-effectiveness of alternative mass dog vaccination strategies.

By means of a cost accounting model, the costs of the currently applied rabies control measures in Flores Island were estimated at US$1.12 million (range: US$0.60–1.47 million) per year. The costs of culling roaming dogs resulted in the highest cost portion (39%), followed by the costs of post-exposure treatment (35%) and mass vaccination (24%).

Risk factors associated with the uptake level of rabies control measures were analysed based upon an extensive survey among 450 dog-owners in the regencies of Sikka and Manggarai. Only 52% of these dog owners had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had a monthly income of more than one million rupiah, and had easy access to their village.

A study based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour demonstrated that the actual intention of dog owners to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign was high (> 90%). The attitude item ‘vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans’, and the perceived behavioural control items ‘availability of time’ and ‘ability to confine dogs’ were shown to be significantly associated with this intention level. Relevant considerations to improve the participation level in future vaccination campaigns are therefore appropriate time management as well as the provision of skills to confine dogs during the vaccination.

The cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies was evaluated by means of a deterministic model simulating transmission of rabies virus through the dog population of one village. Annual vaccination using a short-acting vaccine at a coverage of 50% was far from being cost-effective, suggesting that the currently applied rabies control in Flores Island is not an efficient investment in reducing human rabies burden. An increased investment in either an increase in the current coverage or in a switch from the short-acting vaccine to the long-acting vaccine type would certainly pay off.

The relation between finance utilisation and business performance in Indonesian horticulture
Wulandari, Eliana - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430296 - 147
business economics - farmers - farm enterprises - horticulture - financial planning - financial management - business administration - business management - indonesia - south east asia - bedrijfseconomie - boeren - landbouwondernemingen - tuinbouw - financiële planning - financieel beheer - bedrijfskunde - bedrijfsmanagement - indonesië - zuidoost-azië

Finance is important for Indonesian farmers to purchase agricultural inputs and machinery and to pay for hired labour, which can improve farm performance. Farmers in Indonesia can access finance from various finance providers, i.e. banks, micro-finance institutions, farmers’ associations, traders, agricultural input kiosks and so-called “other sources” such as family and friends. The overall objective of this thesis was to analyse the relation between finance utilisation from different finance providers and horticultural business performance in Indonesia. This thesis first compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by finance providers, and investigates factors that determine farmer knowledge of the requirements. Next, this thesis analyses the relation between finance utilisation from different finance providers and the technical efficiency of horticultural farms using a bootstrap truncated regression. Furthermore, the role of finance utilisation from different finance providers in production risk is analysed using an ordinary least squares regression. Finally, this thesis analyses finance utilisation and its relation with chili supply chain continuity as reflected by contract fulfilment rates using a censored regression analysis. Findings show that farmers generally have little knowledge of the finance requirements. Findings also show that in-kind finance utilisation from farmers’ associations positively associates with farmer knowledge of finance requirements. The results of the bootstrap truncated regression show that commercial credit from banks and in-kind finance from farmers’ associations positively associate with the technical efficiency of some types of horticultural farms. Commercial credit from micro-finance institutions and flexible payment of inputs to agricultural input kiosks generally have negative associations, especially with the technical efficiency of mangosteen farms. Subsidised credit from banks and in-kind finance from traders have both positive and negative associations with the technical efficiency of the horticultural farms. With regard to production risk, results show that depending on the risk measure, risk-reducing associations were found for commercial credit from banks and flexible payments of inputs to kiosks. With respect to supply continuity, outcomes show that chili contract fulfilment rates are positively associated with in-kind finance from farmers’ associations, but negatively associated with subsidised credit from banks and flexible payment of inputs to agricultural input kiosks.

Optimising land use in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia : modelling ecosystem benefits and land use dynamics
Suwarno, Aritta - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578739 - 156
land use - deforestation - decentralization - ecosystem services - ecosystems - forest policy - forests - modeling - kalimantan - indonesia - landgebruik - ontbossing - decentralisatie - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - bosbeleid - bossen - modelleren - indonesië

The rising global population has increased the demand for food, renewable energy and other materials. Yet at the same time to meet this demand requires land and the amount of available land is finite. Considering the importance of land and ecosystems in providing benefits for human, I conducted four independent research on the socio-economic and biophysical aspects of ecosystem service, in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The first three independent studies were used to understand ecosystem management under decentralised forest governance in Indonesia and its influence on ecosystems, ESs and the benefits that different beneficiaries receive. The fourth study combines the outcomes from the previous three studies to assess and select the most appropriate areas for conservation and community development. As the results, I show the applicability of the ecosystem services concept and land-use modelling in optimising land-use under certain decentralised forest governance systems. My thesis’ results were obtained through the application of methods and steps that integrated a comprehensive set of qualitative and quantitative analyses to support land-use optimisation in the Kapuas Protected Forest Management Unit. My results can inform decision makers on the options of land-use optimisation and the consequences of their management decisions regarding land-use intensification, nature conservation and local economic conditions. I show how land-use optimisation provides an important step in preventing further land degradation and ecosystem loss.

Interactions among rice-Xanthomonas-Rhizoctonia and biostimulans : Design of a framword to test the effect of a multiple species control of Xanthomonas and Rhizoctonia in rice
Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Streminska, M.A. ; Elings, A. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Report GTB 1390) - 26 p.
arable farming - rice - oryza - sustainable agriculture - plant protection - biological control - integrated control - xanthomonas - rhizoctonia - indonesia - akkerbouw - rijst - duurzame landbouw - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - geïntegreerde bestrijding - indonesië
The Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture has the ambition to boast the sustainable production of rice in order to meet the increasing demand. Resource use efficiency can be improved if production loss owing to plant
pathogens is resolved. Knowledge on the role of biodiversity on system stability must be translated Agricultural practices. Species with overlap in function may constitute biological control measures to create a resilient system against pathogens. As species may counteract, the approach needs to take into account the diverse effects caused by different pathogens, both above-ground and below-ground. Above-ground as well as belowground biological control may benefit from a multiple species approach. Pest-enemy interactions are often embedded in rich communities of multiple interacting pathogens and natural enemies. Designing IPM for multiple pests requires understanding of all interactions among species, both pests and natural enemies. The goal of the research is to investigate which currently available biological control agents are compatible or even act synergistically in order to build a resilient and sustainable crop protection system against Xanthomonas and Rhizoctonia in rice in Indonesia.
Results of potato late blight demonstrations in Garut and Pangalengan, Indonesia, October 2014-January 2015
Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Gunadi, N. ; Putter, H. de; Moekasan, T.K. ; Prabaningrum, L. ; Karjadi, A.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT 18) - 19 p.
vegIMPACT - arable farming - potatoes - solanum tuberosum - blight - phytophthora infestans - demonstration farms - plant protection - indonesia - akkerbouw - aardappelen - vuur (plantenziektekundig) - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - gewasbescherming - indonesië
Demo plots with potato varieties Atlantic and Granola were laid out in Garut and Pangalengan from October 2014 to January 2015. The objective of the demo plots described in this report are to investigate the influence of three factors on the efficacy of three factors in late blight control strategies:Test the influence of fungicide product choice on the efficacy of late blight control in the most susceptible variety Atlantic; Test the influence of spray volume on the efficacy to control late blight both in Atlantic and Granola; Test the influence of the adjuvant Agristick at normal and reduced spray volumes both in Atlantic and Granola.
Results of fertilizer demonstration trials in Pangalengan and Garut, Indonesia, May-August 2014
Brink, L. van den; Gunadi, N. ; Wustman, R. ; Moekasan, T.K. ; Prabaningrum, L. ; Karjadi, A.K. ; Hengsdijk, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT 16) - 22 p.
vegIMPACT - fertilizer application - indonesia - demonstration farms - vegetable growing - potatoes - crop yield - bemesting - indonesië - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - groenteteelt - aardappelen - gewasopbrengst
Improved potato production by appliing organic manure to increase the yield on small farms in Indonesia.
Endline report – Indonesia, Aliansi Sumut Bersatu MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-042) - 96
organizations - organizational development - empowerment - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - organisaties - organisatieontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, ASB. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, ECPAT MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-041) - 96
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, ECPAT. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, Good Shepherd Sisters MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-036) - 80
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, GSS. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, Institut Dayakologi MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-043) - 88
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, Institut Dayakologi. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, Rifka Annisa MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-046) - 80
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, Rifka Annisa. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, Wetlands International Indonesia MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-047) - 92
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - development projects - organizations - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - organisaties - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, WII. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, Yayasan Kelola MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-049) - 82
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, Yayasan Kelola. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, YPI MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-050) - 100
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, YPI. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Indonesia, YRBI MFS II country evaluations
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Wieriks, M. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-051) - 104
capacity - capacity building - organizational development - organizations - development projects - indonesia - south east asia - asia - capaciteit - capaciteitsopbouw - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - azië
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Indonesia, YRBI. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
PermVeg: a generic tool to design and assess crop rotations for permanent vegetable production systems; User manual
Wassink, B. ; Berg, W. van den; Putter, H. de; Hengsdijk, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT report 9) - 10
rotatie - groenteteelt - computersimulatie - simulatiemodellen - handbediening - vietnam - indonesië - rentabiliteit - arbeidskosten - pesticiden - handleidingen - rotation - vegetable growing - computer simulation - simulation models - manual operation - indonesia - profitability - labour costs - pesticides - guide books
This manual describes a generic tool to design and assess alternative vegetable rotations. The model combines vegetable crops to generate all possible crop rotations for a given period, based on a number of explicit criteria (objectives and restrictions) controlled by the user. The criteria eliminate in early stages those crop rotations that are undesirable. The criteria relate among others to the most important socio-economic and environmental factors in vegetable production, i.e. profitability, labor requirements and costs of pesticide use.
Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Sumarga, E. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Lars Hein. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574854 - 156
landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - ontbossing - oliepalmen - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - kalimantan - indonesië - land use planning - land use - modeling - deforestation - oil palms - ecosystem services - ecosystems - indonesia

Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts, allowing the inclusion of a broader set of ecosystem services types such regulating services and cultural services. Consistent with the principles of national account, ecosystem accounting focuses on assessment of the contribution of ecosystem in generating benefits for human well-being. Those valuation characteristics allow ecosystem accounting to explicitly visualize the comprehensive values of ecosystem contribution, and integrate them in a standardized national account.

There is a wide range of potential application of ecosystem accounting in natural resource management and environmental preservation. This includes the provision of basic data on the values of multiple ecosystem services (both in terms of physical quantities and monetary values), monitoring ecosystem services dynamics, analyzing impacts of land-use change and land management on the trade-offs of ecosystem services, and development of ecosystem services based land-use planning. Ecosystem accounting approach has also been widely involved in addressing critical environmental issues such as deforestation, GHG emissions, and biodiversity conservation.

Considering the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem services distribution, spatial analysis is a key element in ecosystem accounting. The availability of spatial information of the values of ecosystem services creates opportunity for a broad range of applications required for land-use planning and management, such as identification of areas with high variability of ecosystem services (often called as ecosystem services hotspots) and areas with high aggregate values of ecosystem services, identification of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem services demand interaction, and analysing the impacts of land-use change on the trade-offs of ecosystem services. Most importantly, spatial information of a comprehensive set of ecosystem services values allows land-use planners to analyse the relationship between any options of land management and the existence of a combination of ecosystem services, hence the best management type which optimize the provision of ecosystem services can be formulated.

The objective of this thesis is to develop an ecosystem services approach to land-use planning through integration of ecosystem accounting and spatial modelling, with a specific case study on deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan Indonesia. The main motivations of this study includes the high rate of deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, the environmental degradation related to the deforestation such as greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity loss, the uncertainty of provincial land-use planning, and the lack of experiences on the integration of ecosystem accounting in land-use planning.

In chapter 2 of this thesis, seven key ecosystem services (timber production, rattan production, oil palm production, paddy rice production, carbon storage, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat) are assessed and mapped at a provincial scale. The ecosystem services are assessed in term of physical quantities. Three mapping techniques are applied: spatial interpolation, lookup tables, and Maximum Entropy (Maxent) modelling. An ecosystem services based land-use planning is tested using the seven ecosystem services maps to identify areas for oil palm expansion. This study shows that selection of the best spatial modelling technique for ecosystem services mapping highly depends on the availability of input data and the characteristics of spatial distribution of ecosystem services. This study also demonstrates the significant support of spatial information of ecosystem services in provincial land-use planning.

In chapter 3, six ecosystem services mapped in chapter 2 (timber production, rattan production, oil palm production, paddy rice production, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat) are valued in monetary terms. The valuation also includes additional cultural service, i.e. nature recreation. Two valuation methods consistent with the principles of ecosystem accounts are applied: resource rent valuation and costs based approach. The monetary values of ecosystem services are then mapped, allowing analysis on the aggregate values of the seven ecosystem services in different land-use types. This study shows the capability of resource rent valuation in filtering and visualizing the value of ecosystem contribution in providing benefits that have market values, and the applicability of a costs based approach for carbon sequestration valuation. However, application of the cost based approach is considered inappropriate in monetary valuation of biodiversity habitat, and further improvement is required. This study also shows how the trade-offs of ecosystem services from the past and the potential land-use change can be analyzed based on the spatial information of monetary values of ecosystem services.

Chapter 4 of this thesis presents land-use change modelling, with a specific case of modelling oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan. An integrated deductive inductive modelling is developed, using logistic regression and scenario based modelling. The scenarios used in the modelling consist of two scenarios reflecting the past and the current policies on oil palm expansion, i.e. a business as usual scenario and a moratorium scenario, and one alternative scenario, i.e. the sustainable production scenario, developed based on stakeholder workshop and ecosystem services approach studied in chapter 2. Based on the monetary values of ecosystem services valued and mapped in chapter 3, the societal costs and benefits of oil palm expansion based on the three policy scenarios are then analyzed. The model forecasts the continuation of strong oil palm expansion in the period 2015 – 2020, in particular in case of the business as usual scenario, and forecasts that oil palm expansion would level off in the period 2020 – 2025 in all three scenarios. In the business as usual scenario, this expansion would lead to substantial net costs to society resulting from a loss of ecosystem services, particularly from carbon emission emissions. The sustainable production scenario provides the highest net benefits to society, however, implementation of this scenario requires fundamental change of current land-use policy.

Chapter 5 presents hydrological and economic impacts of oil palm development on peat, with a case study in the ex mega rice project area, Central Kalimantan. Hydrological aspect of oil palm development have not been studied in the previous chapters, and this chapter addresses this aspect through modelling three types of flooding on drained peatland for oil palm: impaired drainability, frequent flooding, and near permanent inundation. The model integrates current knowledge on subsidence rates and drinage limits, and uses a high resolution LiDAR DEM. The results of the model are presented up to 2136. The economic impacts are analysed through two land-use scenarios: the oil palm scenario assuming all peatlands in the study area will be converted into oil palm, and the mix scenario combining natural forest preservation, jelutung forest development and oil palm plantation. This study shows that in 100 years’ time only around 10% of the area would still be suitable for oil palm. This study also shows that under the first scenario, the social costs of carbon emissions considerably outweigh the benefits of oil palm production. In term of private benefits, the mixed land-use option scores better even at the first plantation cycle. The mix land-use scenario also potentially preserve about 84,000 ha habitat for orangutan. This study provides useful inputs for a comprehensive analysis on the sustainability of oil palm development on peatland.

In general this thesis demonstrates the significant contribution of ecosystem accounting and spatial modelling for land-use planning. Valuation methods and spatial modelling techniques developed in this study provide basis for completing ecosystem accounting in Central Kalimantan, with potential applicability in other regions. By addressing the critical environmental issues in Central Kalimantan, i.e. deforestation and oil palm expansion and their environmental and economic impacts, this study contributes to formulate a better land-use management, which facilitates the need for oil palm development while maintaining the provision of important ecosystem services.

Yayasan RUANGRUPA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-038)
maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - governance - sociale participatie - beeldende kunsten - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - visual arts - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Yayasan RUANGRUPA that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses RUANGRUPA’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which RUANGRUPA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain RUANGRUPA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
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