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Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Maarten Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

The metis of responsible innovation : helping society to get better at the conversation between today and tomorrow
Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2016
Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573758 - 16 p.
technology - innovations - innovation adoption - future - technologie - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - toekomst
Smartphone controleert koeien op doping
Versluis, K. ; Ludwig, S.K.J. ; Sterk, S.S. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 33.
melkveehouderij - rundveehouderij - hormonen - informatietechnologie - innovatie adoptie - monitoring - dairy farming - cattle husbandry - hormones - information technology - innovation adoption
RIKILT Wageningen UR heeft een methode ontwikkeld voor het opsporen van verboden hormonen bij koeien. Een klein meetapparaatje kan samen met een smartphone op de boerderij bepalen of een boer zijn dieren het verboden hormoon rbST geeft.
Health, comfort, energy use and sustainability issues related to the use of biobased building materials : to what extent are the effects supported by science and data? : what are next steps to take?
Visser, C.L.M. de; Wijk, C.A.P. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2015
Lelystad : Applied Plant Research of Wageningen UR, Business Unit arable farming, multifunctional agriculture and field production of vegetables (PPO-Rapport 641) - 43
bouwmaterialen - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - binnenklimaat - eigenschappen - innovatie adoptie - marketing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - energiebesparing - building materials - biobased materials - indoor climate - properties - innovation adoption - sustainability - energy saving
With the exception of wood, the use of natural (biobased) materials (based on hemp, flax, straw or other natural resources) is still limited. Nevertheless, many benefits are attributed to these materials in terms of a healthier and more comfortable indoor climate. Other potential benefits of natural insulation materials that are often mentioned are energy savings and reduced environmental impact. This report focuses on the empirical support for these claims, identifies research gaps and suggests, where appropriate, recommendations for next steps.
Nitraat voeren: methaan en N-kringloop
Sebek, L.B. - \ 2015
Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen (2015)42. - p. 2 - 2.
nitraat - methaanremmers - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - innovatie adoptie - melkproductie - melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - nitrate - methane inhibitors - farm management - innovation adoption - milk production - dairy farming - greenhouse gases
De Marke loopt voor met milieukundige innovaties. Het proefbedrijf implementeert bewezen innovaties om milieukundige winst te halen. Het voeren van nitraat is daarvan een voorbeeld. Daarmee wordt de grootste bron van broeikasgasemissie op het melkveebedrijf, methaan, flink verminderd.
Ontwikkeling kennis- en innovatiesystemen in de Greenportregio’s: regionale aanpak gouden driehoek
Geerling-Eiff, Florentien - \ 2015
horticulture - knowledge transfer - innovations - economic cooperation - agricultural regions - regional development - monitoring - innovation adoption - technology transfer - best management practices
Kennis- en innovatiesystemen in de Greenportregio’s: Notitie monitor IDC Duin- en Bollenstreek 2014
Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Os, G.J. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Notitie ) - 9
tuinbouw - bloembollen - kennissystemen - kennisoverdracht - kennisvalorisatie - landbouwregio's - economische samenwerking - methodologie - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - bollenstreek - horticulture - ornamental bulbs - knowledge systems - knowledge transfer - knowledge exploitation - agricultural regions - economic cooperation - methodology - innovations - innovation adoption
De notitie ‘Kennis- en innovatiesystemen in de Greenportregio’s: monitor IDC Duin- en Bollenstreek 2014’ is een publicatie van onderzoeksthema Methodieken Kennisoverdracht (MK). Het betreft een aanvulling van de stand van zaken (2014) op de paragraaf greenportregio Duin- en Bollenstreek (pp. 40-43) in de gelijknamige tweede tussenrapportage resultaten monitorstudie 2013 (
The Farmer’s Perspective: Bridging the Last Mile to Market
Doorneweert, R.B. ; Bhan, N. ; Kumunya, W. ; Esko, S. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI 14-006) - 25
landbouwontwikkeling - innovatie adoptie - duurzame ontwikkeling - aanpassingsvermogen - kenya - houding van boeren - sociale participatie - waardeketenanalyse - informatiesystemen - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - agricultural development - innovation adoption - sustainable development - adaptability - farmers' attitudes - social participation - value chain analysis - information systems - development cooperation
The Kenyan ‘farmer’ value chain was not just a neat box in the formal structure of a value chain, but a flexible, multipurpose node in the rural economy’s complex web of human interaction and exchange of goods, services and knowledge. Therefore we have called it the agricultural value web. This is the main conclusion from the inquiry on adoption of information and technology services with farmers in their rural communities. LEI Wageningen UR has executed this inquiry on behalf of the Dutch Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Economic Affairs.
The views of experts and the public regarding societal preferences for innovation in nanotechnology
Gupta, N. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; Frans Kampers. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737625 - 175
nanotechnologie - aanvaardbaarheid - innovatie adoptie - innovaties - deskundigen - consumenten - attitudes - opinies - voedselproductie - consumentengedrag - voedselacceptatie - nanotechnology - acceptability - innovation adoption - innovations - experts - consumers - opinions - food production - consumer behaviour - food acceptability
Nanotechnology represents an emerging technology with varied application areas. It has been identified as the next scientific breakthrough with potential for positive impacts for society. The development and application of emerging technologies has been shown to be contingent upon societal responses to those technologies and their applications. Socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to nanotechnology, and play an important role in its development and commercialisation. The views of both experts and the general public regarding societal preferences for innovations in nanotechnology will be important in identifying which applications will be commercialised. If expert views regarding the determinants of societal acceptability do not align with those held by the general public, applications that consumers will reject may be introduced early in the commercialisation trajectory and focus public opinion on the negative aspects of nanotechnology. Conversely, applications which are acceptable to consumers may never be commercialised if experts perceive that consumers are likely to reject them. This thesis identifies and describes factors influencing societal response to nanotechnology by incorporating views from experts and the general public. Three research approaches were utilised. The first focussed on reviewing previous scientific research into the socio-psychological factors that influence public acceptance of new technologies. The second focussed on identifying and quantifying expert views on the factors that will influence societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology. The third tested whether the different factors do, in fact, drive public opinion.
Unravelling the role of innovation intermediaries in smallholder agricultural development: case studies from Kenya
Kilelu, C.W. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Laurens Klerkx. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737670 - 174
innovaties - landbouw - boeren - landbouwontwikkeling - kleine landbouwbedrijven - innovatie adoptie - landbouwsector - bedrijfssystemen - melkveehouderij - kenya - innovations - agriculture - farmers - agricultural development - small farms - innovation adoption - agricultural sector - farming systems - dairy farming
Understanding agricultural innovation processes and recognizing the potential for catalysing them is crucial for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Kenya. This is because the smallholder dominated agricultural sector remains critical to realizing economic growth and poverty reduction goals. There is a growing focus in agricultural innovation studies on understanding how innovation processes are orchestrated and particularly the role of innovation intermediaries that have emerged as specialised actors that support such processes.
De succesformule van een topsector
Bakker, J.C. ; Poot, E.H. - \ 2012
Syscope Magazine 2012 (2012)30. - p. 6 - 7.
glastuinbouw - innovaties - samenwerking - ondernemerschap - innovatie adoptie - kennisoverdracht - greenhouse horticulture - innovations - cooperation - entrepreneurship - innovation adoption - knowledge transfer
De glastuinbouw is een topsector. De sector lijkt het in zich te hebben dat te blijven en die positie verder uit te breiden. Zelfs in deze tijd. Samen optrekken, onder meer bij investeringen in onderzoek, is de sleutel tot succes. Misschien haalt de sector niet de geplande ambities in 2020, maar dan later vast wel.
Teelt de grond uit : Wat vinden burgers belangrijk?
Dijk, S.M. van - \ 2011
consumentengedrag - interviews - opinies - teeltsystemen - cultuur zonder grond - vollegrondsteelt - innovatie adoptie - consumentenvoorkeuren - consumer behaviour - opinions - cropping systems - soilless culture - outdoor cropping - innovation adoption - consumer preferences
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie. Eind 2011 hebben LEI en PPO vier groepsinterviews gehouden met burgers. Doel van deze groepsinterviews was inzicht te krijgen in de meningen van burgers over de teeltsystemen los van de (onder)grond en de producten die voortkomen uit deze teeltsystemen.
Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba
Curry Machado, J.M. - \ 2011
New York : Palgrave Macmillan - ISBN 9780230111394 - 278
cuba - latijns-amerika - geschiedenis - agrarische geschiedenis - suikerindustrie - suiker - beplantingen - migranten - migrantenarbeid - interraciale relaties - immigranten - ontwikkeling - technologie - innovatie adoptie - industrialisatie - stoommachines - slavernij - agrarische handel - latin america - history - agricultural history - sugar industry - sugar - plantations - migrants - migrant labour - race relations - immigrants - development - technology - innovation adoption - industrialization - steam engines - slavery - agricultural trade
Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's growing economic dependency, privileged scapegoats unconsciously caught up in the island's political insecurities. This book tells the story of a group of forgotten migrant workers who anonymously contributed to Cuba's development and whose experience helps illuminate both the advance of the Cuban sugar industry and the processes by which the island was bound into global commodity-driven networks of control, dependency, and resistance.
Social learning in innovation networks: how multisectoral collaborations shape discourses of sustainable agriculture
Hermans, F.L.P. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; J.T. Mommaas, co-promotor(en): Kasper Kok. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730985 - 182
duurzame landbouw - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - sociaal leren - netwerken - discoursanalyse - landgebruik - sustainable agriculture - innovations - innovation adoption - social learning - networks - discourse analysis - land use

The increasing complexity of modern day society has led to the emergence of a specific type of sustainability problems known as complex problems. These types of problems can be characterised by their cognitive complexity and inherent insecurity, their normative complexity that allows for completely different interpretations rooted in different worldviews and finally the occurrence of a conflict of interests between different actors.

Sustainable agriculture is the case in point. The Dutch countryside is standing on the threshold of a major transition. Rural development in The Netherlands nowadays involves far more than just restructuring agricultural production. The linear innovation perspective where new knowledge was discovered at universities and subsequently transferred to farmers by means of government sponsored extension services has given way to a new perspective on innovation. This perspective takes a relational view on innovation in which knowledge and innovations are co-created together with stakeholders and it emphasises the importance of experimentation and social learning involving a multisectoral network of actors from science, businesses, government agencies and nongovernmental organisations. The aim of these collaborative innovation networks is to contribute to the transition to sustainable agriculture, a radical and structural change of the agricultural system as a whole.

This thesis focuses on these innovation networks in the context of sustainable agriculture. Its aim is to explore some of the underlying social mechanisms at play in these collaborative networks. Network perspectives have been used extensively to model the linear diffusion of knowledge from universities to farmers and between farmers themselves. However, bottom-up innovation projects with stakeholders do not only require knowledge transfer, but also need to change the organisational structures, laws and institutions governing the sector. This thesis consists of two main parts. The first part of this thesis addresses the content of the concept of sustainable agriculture. It conceptualises innovation as a social learning process in which participants forge new relationships to enhance information flows and learn from each other. The results can thus be divided into ‘outputs’ and ‘outcomes’. Outputs are the plans, scenarios, computer models and indicators that form the physical results of a collaborative process. The outcomes are formed by the building of trust and the development of a new discourse, a new shared language with which to communicate with each other. Using discourse analysis and Q-methodology the existing rurality discourses in the Netherlands were compared to the discourses that were present in the number of innovation projects dealing with sustainable agriculture. Results show that discourses of sustainable agriculture are a natural continuation of existing rurality discourses. The use of technology and the agricultural production function of rural landscapes are among the two most contested elements within the discourses. They are either anti-technological focusing on a multi-functional use of the countryside, or technophile with a strong sense of entitlement of agrarian production in the countryside. Both these extremes are limiting the possibilities for innovative projects to become successful. This thesis defines the concept of Metropolitan Agriculture as a form of sustainable agriculture that combines a technological approach of agriculture on the one hand with a multifunctional use of the countryside.

The second part of the thesis elaborates a new network perspective that links three network functions in innovation systems to individual skills of knowledge creation, institutional entrepreneurship and innovation brokerage. These functions are necessary for the up- and outscaling of a local innovation. Social Network Analysis was used to study the distribution of these three functions over the participants of a collaborative innovation network. Results showed that these three functions are concentrated in three small core-groups and that these core-groups only displayed a very limited overlap. To what extent people are capable to perform one of these three functions depends for a large part on the type of organisation they work for.

Finally, this thesis presents a new mapping technique to investigate and explain the network dynamics of a collaborative innovation network. Using this technique a longitudinal two-mode affiliation network was constructed over a period of 16 years. The analysis of the network dynamics shows how the structural characteristics of size, composition, connectedness and centralisation of a collaborative network change and how these changes are the result of the social relations between actors at the project level as they choose their partners to cooperate with and enter a process of social learning. This thesis therefore shows how the macro-level network dynamics can be explained by micro-level niche processes. It shows how the ideas in the niche change over time with new actors entering the network and other ones leaving after a certain period. The two parts of the thesis together explain how collaboration processes at the niche level can only gradually change societal discourses. In order to ‘sell’ a new idea it has to be embedded within familiar discourse elements. At the same time, these ideas play an important role in finding new partners to collaborate with and expand the existing innovation network.

Facilitating innovations
Buurma, J.S. ; Visser, A.J. ; Migchels, G. - \ 2011
Syscope Magazine 2011 (2011)summer. - p. 16 - 17.
innovaties - systeeminnovatie - innovatie adoptie - netwerken - agro-industriële ketens - samenwerking - innovations - system innovation - innovation adoption - networks - agro-industrial chains - cooperation
Many innovations involve changes which transcend the individual business or are only achievable when various businesses and/or interested parties take up the challenge together. In System Innovation Programmes, the necessary innovations are facilitated by means of workshops related to specific areas and by forming socio-technical networks.
Willy Wortels tegen het onkruid
Janmaat, L. ; Bleeker, P.O. - \ 2011
Ekoland 32 (2011)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 12 - 13.
onkruidbestrijding - mechanische bestrijding - akkerbouw - biologische landbouw - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - machines - landbouwtechniek - weed control - mechanical control - arable farming - organic farming - innovations - innovation adoption - agricultural engineering
Zodra de herbiciden in de kast blijven, is de akkerbouwer aangewezen op mechanische onkruidbestrijding en aanvullend handmatig wiedwerk. Ieder gewas vraagt weer om een om een specifieke aanpak. Inventieve telers ontwerpen hun eigen werktuigen, en soms nieuwe methoden.
Samenwerking krijgt teelt uit de grond
Stilma, E.S.C. - \ 2011
Kennis Online 2011 (2011)14 juni. - p. 10 - 10.
teeltsystemen - hydrocultuur - publiek-private samenwerking - innovatie adoptie - Nederland - cropping systems - hydroponics - public-private cooperation - innovation adoption - Netherlands
Innovatieve, nieuwe teeltmethoden waarbij gewassen niet langer in de grond worden geteeld maar in water, vinden makkelijker ingang als ondernemers vanaf het begin betrokken zijn bij het ontwikkelen van de technieken. Dat zegt Eveline Stilma van Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, die de ontwikkeling van nieuwe teeltmethoden bij verschillende gewassen met elkaar vergeleek.
Innovatieve tuinbouw en Emissieloze kas BO-12.03-006 en BO-12.03-010
Verkerke, W. - \ 2011
innovatie adoptie - emissie - glastuinbouw - kassen - innovaties - teeltsystemen - waterbeheer - innovation adoption - emission - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - innovations - cropping systems - water management
Informatieposter over Innovatieve tuinbouw en Emissieloze kas. In dit programma is gewerkt aan verduurzaming van de productiesystemen in de tuinbouw. Co-innovatie, waarbij samen met de ervaring uit de praktijk gericht nieuwe kennis wordt ontwikkeld, speelt hierin een belangrijke rol
Syscolumn : weerbaar of weerbarstig
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2010
Syscope Magazine 2010 (2010)27. - p. 27 - 27.
gewasbescherming - aanvaardbaarheid - verbale communicatie - taal - innovatie adoptie - systeeminnovatie - plant protection - acceptability - verbal communication - language - innovation adoption - system innovation
Column over de transitie van chemische bestrijdingsmiddelen naar gewasbescherming en wellicht binnenkort naar weerbare systemen. Taal doet er toe, zeker ook in een transitie. Kennis mag dan macht zijn, het is ook kwetsbaar bij verkeerde interpretatie.
Zelfsturing & Profit in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden : projectbeschrijving en overzicht van publicaties
Drooge, G. van; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2010
[S.l.] : TransForum - 24
landbouwontwikkeling - innovatie adoptie - landschapsbeheer - natuurbeheer - agrarisch natuurbeheer - milieubeheer - inventarisaties - nationale landschappen - friese wouden - agricultural development - innovation adoption - landscape management - nature management - agri-environment schemes - environmental management - inventories - national landscapes
De agrarische sector binnen het Nationaal Landschap De Noordelijke Friese Wouden bevindt zich in een transitieproces. De agrarische sector speelt in toenemende mate een leidende rol in het verbeteren van de milieukwaliteit en de natuur- en landschapswaarden in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden. Belangrijke aanjager van dit proces was en is de Vereniging Noardlike Fryske Wâlden, de koepelorganisatie van zes agrarische natuurverenigingen in het gebied. De aanwijzing van het gebied tot Nationaal Landschap bevestigt de prominente rol van de agrarische sector in dit proces. In de voorbereiding van dit project tekende zich de behoefte af bij de betrokken overheden en de Vereniging NFW om de tot dan toe overheersende agrarische invalshoek te verbreden.
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