Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Combining malaria control with rural electrification : social and behavioural factors that influenced the design, use and sustainability of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island, western Kenya
Oria, Prisca A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): J. Alaii. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578579 - 176
malaria - vector control - public health - culicidae - insect traps - social factors - behaviour - design - solar energy - kenya - vectorbestrijding - volksgezondheid - insectenvallen - sociale factoren - gedrag - ontwerp - zonne-energie

Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis.

Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacted the design and re-design of the intervention. Our analysis focused on the design, re-design and piloting of the innovative approach to controlling malaria largely before its field implementation had started. During the pre-intervention year, various aspects of the intervention were re-designed ahead of the project roll-out. Changes to the technology design included removal of carbon dioxide from the blend, trap improvements and re- design of the electricity provision system. In order to gain and maintain the support of the community and organisations on the island, the project adapted its implementation strategies regarding who should represent the community in the project organisation team, who should receive solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS), and in which order the systems should be rolled out. This process involved not only the project team and the producers of the different components of SMoTS, but also included feedback from the residents of Rusinga Island. This process of incorporating feedback from a broad range of stakeholders utilized data from the entomological, technical and socio-behavioural researches as well as data from more broad engagements with the social environment of the study population and setting. The analysis demonstrates how system innovation theory helps to provide insights into how a promising malaria control intervention evolves and matures through an interaction between technical and social phenomena. This part of the study demonstrated that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but similar to other malaria strategies, required new social organisational arrangements to go with it.

In chapter 3, this thesis investigated immediate community response to the innovation and the implications for ongoing implementation and supportive community communication outreach. The explorations found that the main benefit of SMoTS to study participants was house lighting and suggested that the main reason that people adhered to recommended behaviours for SMoTS deployment was to ensure uninterrupted lighting at night, rather than reducing mosquito biting or malaria risk. Electrification led to a number of immediate benefits including reduced expenditure on kerosene and telephone charging and conveniences (such as lit early mornings and late nights, increased study hours, etc.). The changes brought about by electric lighting provided conveniences which improved the welfare of residents. Some respondents also reported hearing fewer mosquito sounds when interviewed a few weeks after a SMoTS was installed in their house. On the question of maintenance, we found that residents of Rusinga Island adequately maintained SMoTS. Households also reported maintenance needs to the project and project technicians carried out repair and maintenance needs.

Chapter 4 documented the perceived impact of SMoTs on family dynamics, social and economic status, and the community as a whole. The findings suggest that even when the use of energy is restricted, electricity can enhance the value of life. Although data on malaria prevention was yet to be fully collected and analysed, there was evidence of enhanced socio-economic and emotional well-being of study participants which may enhance the desire to sustain the intervention. In the end, this may be a double-edged intervention that delivers health benefits and contributes to improved welfare. The utility, social significance and emotional benefits experienced with the lighting component of SMoTS may create the desire to sustain the intervention. However, the motivation to sustain the whole SMoTS will also depend on the results of the entomological and parasitological components of this intervention.

Chapter 5 evaluated the knowledge, perceptions and practices related to malaria control before and after the roll-out of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems. As a malaria control strategy, SMoTS were installed in Rusinga to complement the existing use of long- lasting insecticidal nets (LLINS) and prompt malaria care seeking. The message about the complementariness of SMoTS as a malaria strategy was further stressed during social mobilisation to encourage continued use of LLINs and prompt malaria care seeking. The findings suggest that overall, the SolarMal project did not induce a negative effect of the innovation on the uptake of existing malaria strategies. The continuation of LLIN use and recommended malaria treatment seeking was likely contributed to by the social mobilisation component of the SolarMal intervention as well as a mass distribution of LLINs campaign, suggesting the need for a strong continuous demand generation exercise. The number of respondents who reported that mosquito densities had reduced was much higher at the end of the research phase confirming that the recorded entomological changes (that showed SMoTS had proved effective in controlling mosquitoes) had also been experienced by residents.

Chapter 6 investigated whether the community preferred individual or cooperative solutions for organising the sustainability components of SMoTS, and whether and how known social dilemma factors could be recognised in the reasoning of actors. The findings of the explorations of sustainability of installed SMoTS beyond the research period did not portray a promising picture. While residents were unanimous that they would like to continue enjoying the benefits of SMoTS (especially house electrification), it appeared that residents preferred largely individual approaches. Yet the individual approaches suggested by residents for sustaining SMoTS may be realistic for sustaining only the lighting component. Sustaining the mosquito control component, which is what would impact malaria, requires more resources (than the lighting component) and may be better facilitated by more collective undertakings by residents. Residents expressed concerns about working collectively with others that seemed to suggest that the situation had features of a social dilemma.

Chapter 7 synthesises the main findings. Subsequently, this results in the overall conclusions of the thesis that are discussed within the broader debates on research and policy. This thesis shows that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but required new social organisational arrangements to go with it. The intervention was a composite of which the technical component was one and focussing on it without the others may have negative implications for effectiveness. By implication, the scaling up of SMoTS will also require scaling-up the intervention process and social organisation that played a role in its effectiveness in the trial setting. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of flexibility and continuous learning in multiple spheres in a complex multidisciplinary innovative intervention to control malaria. The key addition to the knowledge base for similar public health programs is that intervention design is not a one-off occurrence and neither is implementation a linear process. Social science research was a core component in this process and the process required not only integrating social inquiry into the design, but also into planning, implementation, and monitoring. This contributed to ensuring that flexibility and adaptability to the local realities were built into the SolarMal intervention and contributed to the success of the intervention. Rather than project management, persons involved in rolling-out innovations should perhaps focus on adaptive and proactive management and on facilitating change. While managing emphasises control and certainty, an innovation process requires flexibility to allow continuous adaptations which characterise the process. In practice, this means keeping attuned to perceiving signals, analysing feedback loops and using those signals to mitigate what is not going well or amplify what is going well.

Push-pull tactics to disrupt the host-seeking behaviour of malaria mosquitoes
Menger, D.J. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Willem Takken; Joop van Loon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576070 - 173
culicidae - anopheles - vectoren, ziekten - malaria - gedrag bij zoeken van een gastheer - insectenlokstoffen - insectenafweermiddelen - insectenvallen - vectorbestrijding - disease vectors - host-seeking behaviour - insect attractants - insect repellents - insect traps - vector control

Malaria remains a major health burden, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of the main vector control tools, insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is compromised by the development of physiological and behavioural resistance in the target mosquito species and by changes in the species composition of vector populations. These developments underline the need to develop novel vector control approaches which are complementary to insecticide-based methods. In this thesis, the potential of push-pull tactics as a tool to reduce malaria transmission is explored. It is described how the push-pull concept, originally designed for agricultural pest control, may be translated in a system that targets Anopheles mosquitoes. Several novel repellents are identified in the laboratory and a prototype push-pull system is tested in a semi-field setup. The system is improved and evaluated in a malaria endemic field setting and the push-pull approach is compared and combined with the existing practise of eave screening. Based on the experimental results it is concluded that (1) it is possible to reduce house entry of malaria and other mosquitoes using (spatial) repellents and/or attractant-baited traps; (2) the effect of repellents on house entry is larger and more consistent than the effect of attractant-baited traps; (3) the main function of the attractant-baited traps is to deplete mosquito populations through removal trapping; (4) the attractive and repellent components of the push-pull system complement each other and there is no or very little interaction between them; (5) a push-pull system based on repellent and attractive volatiles can be expected to reduce malaria transmission through a strong decrease of the entomological inoculation rate; (6) eave screening is a highly efficient method to reduce house entry of malaria and other mosquitoes and increases outdoor trap catches, while there is little added value in impregnating screening material with a repellent. In the last chapter, the issue of selection for insensitivity to the used compounds is discussed, as well as methods how to manage it. Furthermore, it is described how the principles of behavioural disruption on which push-pull tactics are based make the technique potentially suitable to target a wider selection of arthropod vectors of disease than malaria mosquitoes alone. It is concluded that future vector control strategies will probably consist of the integration of many different approaches, of which push-pull tactics may be one. By integrating different approaches, it will be possible mitigate the development of resistance while targeting vectors in different life stages, uncompromised by changing behavioural patterns and changes in the composition of vector populations. This would require an integrated view on vector control, knowledge on the ecology of vectors and the political will to invest in programmes that focus on long term sustainable control.

Innovatie van insectenvallen
Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2015
biologische bestrijding - gewasbescherming - innovaties - insectenvallen - insectenlokstoffen - insectenbestrijding - trechtervallen - kleefvallen - insectenplagen - conferenties - biological control - plant protection - innovations - insect traps - insect attractants - insect control - funnel traps - sticky traps - insect pests - conferences
De meeste valsystemen om insecten waar te nemen zijn nog steeds gebaseerd op lijmplaten of trechtervallen (water/zeep) waar de insecten aan kleven of in verdrinken. De vangefficiëntie van deze systemen blijkt zeer laag (10-15%). In de natuur doen planten het veel slimmer (o.a. carnivore planten). Het begrijpen hoe de natuur insecten vangt en deze concepten benutten voor het verbeteren van waarnemingsvallen en benutten voor mass-trapping van insecten is nog nauwelijks benut. Poster van PlantgezondheidEvent 12 maart 2015.
Keverval en lokstoffen vangen snuitkevers, Thema: Innovaties duurzame gewasbescherming BO-12.03-003.02-011
Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Bruck, D. ; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2011
curculionidae - otiorhynchus sulcatus - insectenlokstoffen - insectenvallen - gewasbescherming - insect attractants - insect traps - plant protection
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie. In dit project wordt een waarnemingshulpmiddel voor taxuskevers op basis van geurstoffen en vallen ontwikkeld.
Frambozenschorsgalmug vroegtijdig te bestrijden : feromoonval nu beschikbaar
Helsen, H.H.M. - \ 2011
De Fruitteelt 101 (2011)9. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 12 - 12.
resseliella theobaldi - fruitteelt - frambozen - sexferomonen - feromonen - insectenvallen - fruit growing - raspberries - sex pheromones - pheromones - insect traps
Onderzoekers hebben het seksferomoon van de frambozenschorsgalmug weten na te maken. De ontdekking van dit feromoon maakte het mogelijk een feromoonval is nu voor Nederlandse frambozentelers beschikbaar. Inmiddels is er ook een val voor de bramenbladgalmug in ontwikkeling.
PHEROBANK trapping systems; set of 12 instruction leaflets
Stol, W. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Plant Research International, PHEROBANK, Wageningen UR
insectenplagen - feromoonvallen - insectenvallen - plagenbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - plantenplagen - insect pests - pheromone traps - insect traps - pest control - biological control - plant pests
Tekeningen van verschillende soorten insectenvallen van PHEROBANK.
Duponchelia trapt niet in elke val
Deventer, P. van - \ 2008
Groenten & Fruit week 07 (2008)15 februari 2008. - ISSN 0925-9708 - p. 22 - 23.
biologische bestrijding - larven - feromonen - insectenvallen - vangmethoden - insectenbestrijding - insectenlokstoffen - gewasbescherming - biological control - larvae - pheromones - insect traps - trapping - insect control - insect attractants - plant protection
Larven van de vlinder Duponchelia veroorzaken problemen bij de export van paprika naar de VS en Canada. Telers gebruiken inmiddels op grote schaal vallen met een seksferomoon van Duponchelia om dit moeilijk te bestrijden insect vroegtijdig op te sporen
Lokstof als welkome hulp bij plaagbeheersing onder glas
Neefjes, H. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Teulon, D. ; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2007
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 20 (2007) (2007). - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 42 - 43.
lokstoffen - insectenlokstoffen - insectenvallen - plagenbestrijding - kassen - snijbloemen - sierplanten - glastuinbouw - attractants - insect attractants - insect traps - pest control - greenhouses - cut flowers - ornamental plants - greenhouse horticulture
Het gebruik van lokstoffen in de sierteelt neemt toe. Specifieke stoffen lokken insecten naar vangplaten of in vallen en dat kan scouten verbeteren. Soms kan zo'n lokstof in een andere toepassing van waarde zijn bij de bestrijding van insecten
Suikerrot praktijktoets : effectiviteit fruitvliegenval
Scholte-Wassink, G.M. ; Hoope, M.A. ten - \ 2007
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Nota / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 480) - 24
gerbera - drosophila - schimmelziekten - plantenziekten - plagenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - insectenvallen - snijbloemen - fungal diseases - plant diseases - pest control - plant protection - insect traps - cut flowers
De waarde van een door PPO ontwikkelde fruitvliegenval tegen fruitvliegjes en daarmee suikerrot in gerbera is in de praktijk getest. Op twee gerberabedrijven zijn de vallen uitgebreid getest met intensieve begeleiding, zes andere bedrijven hebben de vallen getest zonder intensieve begeleiding. De val bleek zeer aantrekkelijk voor Drosophila spp. Met de val ontstaat een goed beeld van de ontwikkeling van de vliegenpopulatie. De val is daarom bruikbaar bij de inzet van (chemische) bestrijding, echter actiedrempels zijn nog niet vastgesteld. ook bleek er geen duidelijke relatie te bestaan tussen aantal vliegen en optreden van suikerrot. De zes telers beoordeelden de val als redelijk hanteerbaar, en gaven suggesties voor verbetering.
Recente waarnemingen van de loopkever Harpalus griseus: is er een trend (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
Noordijk, J. ; Heijerman, Th. ; Turin, H. - \ 2007
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 2007 (2007)26. - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 43 - 50.
carabidae - harpalus - zoögeografie - nederland - heidegebieden - habitats - verspreiding - insectenvallen - biologische technieken - veluwe - zoogeography - netherlands - heathlands - dispersal - insect traps - biological techniques
De loopkever Harpalus griseus staat bekend als zeldzaam in Nederland. Recentelijk zijn er echter relatief veel waarnemingen gedaan met behulp van bodemvallen, maar ook met zogenaamde raamvallen en op licht. Naast waarnemingen van heide- en stuifzandgebieden op de Veluwe, is de soort ook opvallend vaak waargenomen in enkele agrarische en ruderale gebieden rond Wageningen. Het aantal waarnemingen lijkt dus toe te nemen. Daarentegen lijkt het areaal van deze soort in Nederland juist in oppervlak af te nemen. Als gevolg van de effecten van verschillende verzamelmethoden is het vrijwel onmogelijk om voor deze soort een trend vast te stellen. Zeer waarschijnlijk geldt dit in meer of minder mate voor alle loopkevers
Mot Duponchelia zit in de val
Deventer, P. van; Griepink, F.C. - \ 2006
Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2006 (2006)15. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 25 - 25.
gewasbescherming - insectenbestrijding - insectenvallen - insectenlokstoffen - feromonen - feromoonvallen - sexferomonen - lepidoptera - capsicum - rupsen - plant protection - insect control - insect traps - insect attractants - pheromones - pheromone traps - sex pheromones - caterpillars
Door de toenemende biologische bestrijding ontstaan vaker rupsenplagen dan voorheen, zoals van de 'verborgen veelvraat' Duponchelia fovealis. De Plantenziektenkundige Dienst is met de sector in overleg over maatregelen om het door de rupsen van dit motje verorzaakte probleem bij de export van paprika's en plantaardig uitgangsmateriaal naar de VS en Canada onder controle te krijgen
Aanpak kniptorren werkt beter dan bestrijding ritnaalden
Griepink, F.C. ; Ester, A. ; Rozen, K. van - \ 2004
Oogst : weekblad voor de agrarische ondernemer. Landbouw 17 (2004)10. - ISSN 1566-2616 - p. 36 - 37.
elateridae - agriotes obscurus - agriotes lineatus - plantenplagen - insectenplagen - plagenbestrijding - insectenbestrijding - chemische bestrijding - spuiten - pyrethroïden - pyrethroïdinsecticiden - toepassingsdatum - monitoring - feromonen - sexferomonen - feromoonvallen - insectenvallen - trechtervallen - gewasbescherming - plant pests - insect pests - pest control - insect control - chemical control - spraying - pyrethroids - pyrethroid insecticides - application date - pheromones - sex pheromones - pheromone traps - insect traps - funnel traps - plant protection
Ritnaalden, de larven van kniptorren, veroorzaken schade in bol-, knol- en graangewassen. Als alternatief voor grondontsmetting ter bestrijding van de ritnaalden, ontwikkelden PRI en PPO een methode van geleide bestrijding waarmee de kniptorren worden aangepakt. Met sexferomonen in trechtervallen wordt de omvang van de populatie kniptorren vastgesteld. Boven een bepaalde drempel worden gewasbespuitingen uitgevoerd met een pyrethroïde. Het tellen en bestrijden van kniptorren is goedkoper dan grondbehandeling tegen ritnaalden maar vraagt wel continu aandacht van de teler. In grafieken de resultaten van deze bestrijdingsmethode voor twee kniptorsoorten (Agriotes obscura en A. lineatus)
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