Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Post-exceptionalism in public policy : transforming food and agricultural policy
Daugbjerg, Carsten ; Feindt, Peter H. - \ 2017
Journal of European Public Policy 24 (2017)11. - ISSN 1350-1763 - p. 1565 - 1584.
Exceptionalism - ideas - institutions - interests - policy change - policy legacies

Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy arrangements in democratic welfare states. Often these arrangements have been characterized by an exceptionalist ideational framework that legitimizes a sector’s special treatment through compartmentalized, exclusive and producer-centered policies and politics. In times of internationalization of policy-making, increasing interlinkage of policy areas and trends towards self-regulation, liberalization and performance-based policies, policy exceptionalism is under pressure to either transform or give way to (neo-)liberal policy arrangements. Post-exceptionalism denotes a partial transformation of exceptionalist ideas, institutions, interest constellations and policy instruments. It reflects the more complex, open, contested and fluid nature of contemporary policy fields that nevertheless still maintain their policy heritage. Discussing stability, the authors distinguish between complementary and tense post-exceptionalism.

What hat are you wearing? On the multiple roles of fishery scientists in the ICES community
Dankel, D.J. ; Stange, K. ; Nielsen, K.N. - \ 2016
ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 209 - 216.
common fisheries policy - credibility - fishery management - fishery science - institutions - legitimacy - science-policy interface - stakeholder participation - transparency
Trends towards a more participatory agenda in policy-relevant science imply that the roles and work tasks of scientists become more multifaceted. In Europe, the increased use of multiannual plans creates a need for fishery scientists to contribute with their expertise in a wide variety of situations. We identify and characterize four roles for scientists as developers, reviewers, judges, and messengers in arenas where management plans are produced and evaluated. Using examples of producing and evaluating management plans for pelagic fish stocks in Europe, we present different scientific roles and how they may intertwine. The examples illustrate that fishery scientists increasingly interact with advisory councils and industry stakeholders when performing roles as developers and messengers. The roles as reviewers and judges are typically affiliated with evaluation processes carried out under the auspices of the marine science and advisory organization International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). While it may be difficult to separate the roles in practice, we argue that it must be emphasized to be aware of their different requirements to ensure that scientific credibility is not compromised. By asking the question “What hat are you wearing?”, we encourage individual fishery scientists, their employers, and ICES as a network organization of expertise to reflect on roles, affiliations, mandates, and possible consequences of wearing different “hats”.
Skill selectivity in transatlantic migration : The case of Canary Islanders in Cuba
Juif, Dácil - \ 2015
Revista de Historia Economica - Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History 33 (2015)2. - ISSN 0212-6109 - p. 189 - 222.
human capital - institutions - Latin America - migration - numeracy

The skill composition of European migrants to the New World and their contribution to the human capital and institutional formation in destination countries are popular topics in economic history. This study assesses the skill composition of 19th century transatlantic migrants to Cuba. It finds that nearly half of the European immigrants originate from the Spanish province of the Canary Islands, which displays the lowest literacy and numeracy rates of Spain. Even within this province, those who left belonged to the least skilled section of the population. By promoting the influx of a cheap and poorly educated white workforce that replaced African slaves on their sugar estates, large landowners in Cuba contributed to the perpetuation of high economic, political and social inequality.

Performance of participatory forest management in Ethiopia: institutional arrangement versus local practices
Ayana, A.N. ; Vandenabeele, N. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2015
Critical Policy Studies 11 (2015)1. - ISSN 1946-0171 - p. 19 - 38.
community forest management - design principle - institutions - local practice - PFM arrangement - practice-based approach
The field of community-based natural resource management has been receiving growing scientific attention over the past two decades. Most studies, however, focus on investigating institutional designs and outcomes and pay scant attention to how community-based natural resource management arrangements are carried out in practice. Through an in-depth ethnographic case study in one of the pioneer participatory forest management (PFM) arrangements in southwest Ethiopia, this article demonstrates a significant disparity between the PFM institutional principles and actual local forest management practices. Our study confirms the usefulness of a practice-based approach to understand and explain how a newly introduced institutional arrangement is acted upon by local actors situated in their social, political and historical context. Our findings also contribute to empirical knowledge useful to instigate dialog and to critically reflect on whether and what kind of intervention is actually needed to positively influence forest management practices on the ground.
Local institutions and rural development : evidence from Liberia
Beekman, G. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Lonneke Nillesen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575080 - 200
plattelandsontwikkeling - gezinnen - netwerken - lokale netwerken - sociale netwerken - instellingen - micro-economische analyse - micro-economie - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - liberia - west-afrika - rural development - families - networks - local area networks - social networks - institutions - microeconomic analysis - microeconomics - economic development - agricultural development - west africa

Local institutions and rural development: Evidence from Liberia

This thesis focusses on the role of local (informal) institutions for development, based on data from Liberia. I show that dense family networks can be an obstacle for economic decision making, due to strict income sharing obligations that often belong to them. I also demonstrate the importance of local governance quality: corrupt village leaders negatively affect daily investment decisions by villagers. Finally, I evaluate the impact of a rural development project that aims to strengthen food security and social cohesion between villagers. The results indicate that the impact is marginal at most, and local institutions again do play a role.

Institutions are difficult to change, as they are rooted in an historical context. However, policy makers could support the emergence of alternative institutions. Either way, a deeper understanding of the far-going impact of local institutions is important: this research contributes to that.

Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions

Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia

Mequanint Biset Melesse

Abstract

Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.

Extending the moral economy beyond households: Gendered livelihood strategies of single migrant women in Accra, Ghana
Tufuor, T. ; Niehof, A. ; Sato, C. ; Horst, H.M. van der - \ 2015
Women's Studies International Forum 50 (2015). - ISSN 0277-5395 - p. 20 - 29.
institutions - migration - survival - poverty - porters
This article highlights how single migrant women (SMW) from rural northern Ghana generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and then prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households instead of focusing on maximisation of profits. The setting is the Old Fadama market in Accra, Ghana. Communities of old and new SMW build a “moral community economy” through, amongst others, engaging in reciprocal labour, gift giving, childcare and food sharing. Our study reveals the importance of this moral community economy to SMW's livelihood generation and how it is sustained through social relations amongst women, in which also generation, ethnicity and regional background, play crucial roles. SMW give support to and receive benefits from the community through moral obligations and ethnic commitment. The analysis of these strategies contributes to the understanding of the intersections of household, livelihood strategies, gender and markets in urban settings.
The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid
Adékambi, S.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572461 - 205
marketing - landbouwproducten - export - instellingen - armoede - sheaboter - ontwikkelingseconomie - economische groei - afrika - benin - west-afrika - agricultural products - exports - institutions - poverty - shea butter - development economics - economic growth - africa - west africa

Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers

Abstract

Organizing supply chains that are based in producer groups that live in conditions of widespread poverty and weak institutional support (sometimes referred to as the Base of the Pyramid [BoP] producers) is challenging. These challenges have predominantly been studied in the development literature, while the marketing perspective has received less attention. Drawing on both transaction cost and market learning theories, the thesis integrates producers’ opportunity exploitation and exploration processes with the institutional framework adopted in the development literature to understand producers’ integration with export markets. Overall, the findings show that exploitation mediates between drivers investigated by development economists (quality of infrastructure, microcredit, and community culture) and integration with export markets. The results show that BoP producers’ export market integration also depends on the institutional arrangements that exporting companies offer. The results indicate that contrary to more-developed settings like those in Western Europe and Northern America, there is no need to develop both opportunity exploration and exploitation in environments characterized by scarce opportunities with relatively high purchasing powers. The findings imply that developing competencies that enable to produce the demanded quality are crucial in seizing export market integration opportunities.

The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development
Papaioannou, K.I. ; Zanden, J.L. van - \ 2015
Journal of Institutional Economics 11 (2015)1. - ISSN 1744-1374 - p. 111 - 139.
panel-data - measuring democracy - government size - cross-section - cause growth - institutions - power - democratization - instruments - countries
This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry out sound economic policies. We argue that such economic policies are the result of information asymmetries inherent to dictatorships (known as the ‘dictator dilemma’) and of changes in the personality of dictators (known as the ‘winner effect’). We call the combination of these two terms the ‘dictator effect’. We present evidence to suggest that long years in office impacts on economic growth (which is reduced), inflation (which increases) and the quality of institutions (which deteriorates). The negative effect of long years of tenure (i.e. the ‘dictator effect’) is particularly strong in young states and in Africa and the Near East.
Slavery, Statehood, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Bezemer, D. ; Bolt, J. ; Lensink, B.W. - \ 2014
World Development 57 (2014). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 148 - 163.
colonial legacies - factor endowments - institutions - growth - origins - history - trade - underdevelopment - geography - impact
Although Africa's indigenous systems of slavery have been extensively described in the historical literature, comparatively little attention has been paid to analyzing its long term impact on economic and political development. Based on data collected from anthropological records we conduct an econometric analysis. We find that indigenous slavery is robustly and negatively associated with current income levels, but not with income levels immediately after independence. We explore one channel of transmission from indigenous slavery to income growth consistent with this changing effect over time and find evidence that indigenous slavery impeded the development of capable and accountable states in Africa. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The political economy of agricultural liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe: An empirical analysis
Klomp, J.G. - \ 2014
Food Policy 49 (2014). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 332 - 346.
food policies - initial conditions - budget cycles - panel-data - reform - transition - protection - countries - insights - institutions
We examine the effect of upcoming elections and government ideology on agricultural liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the post-communist period. Our results suggest first that prices and markets liberalization and land market privatization are manipulated in pre-election periods to secure re-election by favouring farmers. Second, we find no evidence that reforms in the agro-process industry, rural finance or institutional environment are affected by upcoming elections. Third, we demonstrate that right-wing governments protect the interest of the agricultural sector more than left-wing governments by affecting the speed of price and market reforms, privatization in the agro-processing industry and land market privatization. Finally, we demonstrate that liberalization the agricultural sector is partly retarded by nationalistic governments. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Innovatie- en Demonstratiecentrum Bomen in de Greenport Regio Boskoop : een verkenning naar de wijze van opzet en invulling
Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 51
boomkwekerijen - regio's - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agrarisch onderwijs - opleiding - participatie - instellingen - doelgroepen - organisaties - innovaties - forest nurseries - regions - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - sustainability - agricultural education - training - participation - institutions - target groups - organizations - innovations
Het doel van het project Kennis & Innovatie Impuls Greenportregio Boskoop is een extra impuls te geven aan het innovatieve vermogen van het greenportcluster boomkwekerij, aan het delen en toepassen van (nieuwe) kennis, aan duurzaam ondernemerschap en het zorgen voor voldoende en gekwalificeerd groen personeel voor de toekomst. Met het project wordt een ‘lerend ondernemersnetwerk’ tot stand gebracht waarin alle relevante regiopartijen participeren. Doelgroepen van het EFRO-project zijn ondernemers, kennisinstellingen (onderzoeks-, onderwijs- en adviespartijen) en overheden actief in de regio Boskoop. Een verkenning naar de wijze van opzet en invulling.
A Story of Large Land Owners and Math Skills: Inequality and Human Capital Formation in the Long-Run Development, 1820-2000
Baten, J. ; Juif, D.T. - \ 2014
Journal of Comparative Economics 42 (2014)2. - ISSN 0147-5967 - p. 375 - 401.
factor endowments - income-distribution - economic-growth - institutions - history - divergence - geography - numeracy - outcomes - africa
We create a new dataset to test the influence of land inequality on long-run human capital formation in a global cross-country study and assess the importance of land inequality relative to income inequality. Our results show that early land inequality has a detrimental influence on math and science skills even a century later. We find that this influence is causal, using an instrumental variable (IV) approach with geological, climatic and other variables that are intrinsically exogenous. A second major contribution of our study is our assessment of the persistence of numerical cognitive skills, which are an important component of modern human capital measures. Early numeracy around 1820 is estimated using the age-heaping strategy. We argue that countries with early investments in numerical education entered a path-dependency of human capital-intensive industries, including skill-intensive agriculture and services. The combined long-run effects of land inequality and human capital path-dependence are assessed for the first time in this article.
Comparative Analysis of the Interactions between the FLEGT and REDD+ Regimes in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo
Tegegne, Y.T. ; Ochieng, R.M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Lindner, M. ; Fobissie, K.B. - \ 2014
International Forestry Review 16 (2014)6. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 602 - 614.
institutions
This paper aims to examine and compare the interactions between policy to combat illegal logging (FLEGT VPA) and avoiding deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo by applying an institutional interaction approach. Several interactions have occurred between the two regimes, and more interactions are expected. In both countries, the process for developing the VPA has served as a policy model for designing elements of REDD+. Overlaps in issue-areas and membership triggered these interactions. Implementation of the VPA is also expected to result in positive behavioural change among forest stakeholders that could in turn have positive impacts on REDD+. There are also disruptive interactions, such as the slow pace of VPA implementation affecting REDD+ progress in both countries. Furthermore, there is substantial similarity in terms of the nature and quality of interactions between Cameroon and Congo. Building understanding and exchange of information among stakeholders and request for assistance and jurisdictional delimitation could enhance synergies and mitigate disruptive interactions between the two regimes in both countries.
Metropolitan Blueprints of Colonial Taxation? Lessons from Fiscal Capacity Building in British and French Africa, c. 1880-1940
Frankema, E.H.P. ; Waijenburg, M.F.M. van - \ 2014
Journal of African History 55 (2014)3. - ISSN 0021-8537 - p. 371 - 400.
sub-saharan africa - growth - education - colonization - institutions - government - legacies - origins - history - world
The historical and social science literature is divided about the importance of metropolitan blueprints of colonial rule for the development of colonial states. We exploit historical records of colonial state finances to explore the importance of metropolitan identity on the comparative development of fiscal institutions in British and French Africa. Taxes constituted the financial backbone of the colonial state and were vital to the state building efforts of colonial governments. A quantitative comparative perspective shows that pragmatic responses to varying local conditions can easily be mistaken for specific metropolitan blueprints of colonial governance and that under comparable local circumstances the French and British operated in remarkably similar ways.
Learning from the past: Trends and dynamics in livelihoods of Bolivian forest communities
Zenteno, M. ; Jong, W. de; Boot, R. ; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 40 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 36 - 48.
social-ecological systems - agricultural expansion - timber markets - rain-forest - amazon - deforestation - management - institutions - governance - complexity
We use social ecological systems theory (SES) to analyse change in forest communities in the northern Bolivian Amazon. SES characterizes interdependent dynamics of social and ecological systems and we hypothesized it to be a useful frame to grasp dynamics of forest communities affected by changes in forest policies, regulations and institutions, as well as economic demands and conservation objectives. We analysed the long-term historical changes since the region became incorporated in the global tropical forest product value chain since the late 19th century and quantitatively analysed changes in 85 forest communities between 1997 and 2009. We collected information on 16 variables related to demographic, productive, and socio-economic characteristics. Results show that forest communities have experienced major changes and have adapted to these changes. Social thresholds, a key concept in SES, are consistent with multiple social economic forces experienced by forest communities. Detrimental feed-back effects of SES can be confronted when innovative exploration mechanisms, such as new productive chains are developed, or the agro-extractive cycles of current productive system are expanded. Competition among households, population growth and more profitable economic opportunities may threaten benign forms of forest products extraction that have persisted through various cycles of internal and external changes.
Let's try to get the best out of it” understanding land transactions during land use change
Holtslag-Broekhof, S.M. ; Beunen, R. ; Marwijk, R.B.M. van; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 561 - 570.
personal relationships - agricultural land - institutions - prices - market - redevelopment - conservation - economics - agents
This article investigates land transactions in relation to intended land use change from a micro-scale perspective. A better understanding of land transactions is important for understanding and influencing how land is used. The aim is to explore how the different aspects and their interrelations influence landowner behaviour during land transactions initiated by the government. The study draws on 42 explorative interviews with land purchasers, land policy experts, planning professionals and local farmers. The study shows that uncertainty, and feelings of justice are pivotal aspects during land transactions. Moreover, land transactions are co-evolving with the planning process. Landowners exhibit strategic behaviour based on their personal situation and their expectations on uncertain aspects. The strategies are strongly interrelated with the evolution of land use change. Land use changes are both input on which actors base their strategies, as well as the outcome of those strategies. The aspects found in this study were strongly interrelated and changed over time. Some aspects were context dependent, while others are expected to influence land transactions in general. In this light, the strength of a successful planner is twofold: on the one hand a planner needs to be a good communicator; on the other hand a planner should be able to deal with uncertainty and expectations during plan processes.
Producer organizations, family farms and market connection. Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil
Belo Leite, J.G. Dal; Bijman, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
Outlook on Agriculture 43 (2014)2. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 101 - 108.
collective action - institutions - arrangements - africa - future - access - policy
Producer organizations (POs) are often recognized as a pathway to boost rural development by enhancing farmers' access to market opportunities. Smallholder production and marketing of new crops (such as those for biodiesel feedstock) are constrained as farmers and buyers face high transaction costs. By investigating cases of POs outside the biofuel industry, the authors explore the extent to which POs could reduce transaction costs. The findings indicate that POs are capable of linking farmers effectively to markets in cases in which high value is added to farm products and/or farmers are highly specialized. However, the scope for POs in linking farmers to biodiesel markets is limited due to organization-specific characteristics, the low value added of the feedstock, plus multiple trade-offs with current farm activities.
Rethinking commons management in Sub-Saharan West Africa: public authority and participation in the agricultural water sector
Venot, J.P.J.N. - \ 2014
Water International 39 (2014)4. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 534 - 548.
upper east region - ghana - productivity - institutions - property - panaceas - schemes
Promoted for over three decades, participatory irrigation management (PIM) and its organizational upshot the water user association (WUA) have been framed as a solution to the irrigation sector problems. Based on a case study of small reservoirs in two countries of West Africa, Burkina Faso and Ghana, this article shows that the PIM/WUA model is based on narrow visions of the commons and participation and does not account for the de facto pluralism and institutional bricolage that characterize natural resources management. Attempts at institutional intervention should be based on better understanding social relationships and existing processes of decision making.
Ecosystem-based marine management in European regional seas calls for nested governance structures and coordination—A policy brief
Raakjaer, J. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Tatenhove, J. van; Hadjimichael, M. - \ 2014
Marine Policy 50 (2014)part B. - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 373 - 381.
baltic sea - multilevel governance - framework - institutions - atlantic - politics - lessons - impact
Marine governance in European seas is at a crossroad aiming towards implementation of eco-system based marine management (EBMM) through integration of different EU policies or directives to protect the environment, while at the same time expected to facilitate growth and employment in support of the blue economy. This article shows that the governance landscape at the regional sea level is very complex, fragmented and faced with several dilemmas. It examines the present governance structures in the four European seas (Baltic, Black, and Mediterranean Seas and North East Atlantic Ocean). It is argued that the implementation of EBMM at the regional sea level is characterized by a highly fragmented European governance system where there is lack of coordination between relevant DGs within the European Commission, between EU, International organisations, Regional Sea Conventions and the Member States and between sectoral governance arrangements that should provide sectoral management measures that support EBMM. The article develops suggestions for a nested governance system in which institutions, policies, laws and sectors are nested into a tiered, internally consistent and mutually re-enforcing planning and decision-making system. Developing institutional interaction and soft modes of governance between the EU, the Regional Sea Conventions, Member States and the governance arrangements of the different marine sectors will be crucial in evolving towards such a nested governance system for EBMM. Moreover, there is no one size fits all approach in implementing EBMM, which means that for each European Sea a context-dependent nested governance system should be developed.
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