Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Allemaal andersdenkenden: omgaan met cultuurverschillen
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2011
Amsterdam/Antwerpen : Uitgeverij Contact - ISBN 9789025419851 - 572
rassen (taxonomisch) - etnische groepen - psychologie - intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - socialisatie - interraciale relaties - sociologie - cultuursociologie - communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - groepen - organisaties - sociale interactie - sociale antropologie - races - ethnic groups - psychology - cross cultural studies - culture - socialization - race relations - sociology - cultural sociology - communication - nonverbal communication - groups - organizations - social interaction - social anthropology
Mensen uit andere landen denken, voelen en handelen anders dan wij hier gewend zijn. Ook landgenoten uit een andere streek of een andere sociale klasse gedragen zich vaak anders dan wij. In een open samenleving komt iedereen vaker met zulke andersdenkenden in aanraking dan vroeger. Voor die anderen zijn wij de andersdenkenden. Wat ons scheidt is de "cultuur" waarin we zijn opgegroeid, de met de paplepel ingegoten en daardoor vaak onbewuste waarden die maken dat wij "normaal" vinden wat anderen slecht vinden, en vies wat voor anderen schoon is. Allemaal andersdenkenden laat zien wat deze verschillen betekenen voor onze persoonlijkheid, onze gezondheid, ons gezinsleven, ons onderwijs, ons werk, onze overheid en voor de dingen waar we in geloven. Het gaat dieper in op de verschillende manieren waarop organisaties functioneren, zowel van land tot land als binnen een en hetzelfde land, en op wat er gebeurt als verschillende culturen elkaar ontmoeten.
Welkom in Rotterdam! : een studie naar interculturele ontmoetingen tussen 'oude' en 'nieuwe' Rotterdammers
Muijres, M.E.A. ; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 273) - 64
bevolking - cultuur - diversiteit - etnische groepen - etniciteit - minderheden - sociale interactie - culturele integratie - sociale integratie - sociale participatie - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - interculturele communicatie - cultuursociologie - intercultureel onderzoek - rotterdam - zuid-holland - nederland - human population - culture - diversity - ethnic groups - ethnicity - minorities - social interaction - cultural integration - social integration - social participation - community involvement - intercultural communication - cultural sociology - cross cultural studies - netherlands
Maatschappelijke solidariteit tussen verschillende bevolkingsgroepen bestaat nog wel degelijk in de huidige multiculturele samenleving van Rotterdam. Dat concluderen onderzoekers in een studie van de Wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) naar de effecten van de interculturele ontmoetingen die het project 'Welkom in Rotterdam' organiseert. Zowel ‘oude’ als ‘nieuwe’ Rotterdammers staan open voor contact met elkaar, maar de drempel voor spontane contacten is voor veel mensen te hoog. Hun sociale netwerken zijn gescheiden waardoor de gelegenheid vaak ontbreekt.
Cultures et organisations
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2010
Paris : Pearson Education France - ISBN 9782744074141 - 512
cultuur - organisaties - intercultureel onderzoek - cultureel gedrag - communicatie - nationaal bewustzijn - internationale samenwerking - etnische groepen - pluriforme samenleving - culturele differentiatie - psychologie - nationalisme - culture - organizations - cross cultural studies - cultural behaviour - communication - national consciousness - international cooperation - ethnic groups - plural society - cultural differentiation - psychology - nationalism
La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professionnels en management interculturel, sociologie des organisations, psychosociologie... Dans un monde divisé malgré la globalisation et l'avènement des nouvelles technologies, cet ouvrage est d'autant plus essentiel pour comprendre les origines des conflits culturels et permettre enfin la mise en place d'une coopération pacifique dans l'intérêt de tous. Des recherches empiriques et une théorie révolutionnaire Dans cette nouvelle édition, les auteurs complètent leur étude des années 1970 menée auprès des employés d'IBM à travers le monde, en utilisant des sources de données récentes, comme le World Values Survey, fondé sur des échantillons représentatifs de la population d'une centaine de nations et de régions, y compris l'ex-bloc soviétique. Ils identifient aujourd'hui six dimensions dans les différences culturelles (la distance hiérarchique, le contrôle de l'incertitude, l'individualisme/le collectivisme, la féminité/la masculinité, l'orientation au court terme/long terme et l'indulgence/la sévérité) et distinguent cultures organisationnelles et nationales. Des applications pratiques Les auteurs analysent également l'influence des cultures nationales sur le traitement des problèmes économiques, commerciaux, politiques, éthiques et religieux de nos sociétés contemporaines, en étudiant par exemple les racines culturelles de la crise économique qui a commencé en 2007. Ils prêtent une attention particulière aux rencontres entre cultures dans un contexte de mondialisation (éducation, tourisme, communications en ligne, négociations internationales), ainsi qu'à la communication interculturelle, offrant une aide précieuse pour évaluer concrètement l'impact des différences culturelles, en particulier dans la gestion des entreprises.
Kulturer og organisationer
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2010
København : Handelshøjskolens Forlag - ISBN 9788762903777 - 553
cultuur - organisaties - intercultureel onderzoek - cultureel gedrag - nationaal bewustzijn - internationale samenwerking - communicatie - etnische groepen - pluriforme samenleving - culturele differentiatie - nationalisme - psychologie - culture - organizations - cross cultural studies - cultural behaviour - national consciousness - international cooperation - communication - ethnic groups - plural society - cultural differentiation - nationalism - psychology
Kultur er de grundfæstede og ofte ubevidste værdier vi er vokset op med. Det er de kulturelle forskelle der adskiller os fra de andre. Bogen afdækker de værdier, der kendetegner de forskellige kulturer - såvel de nationale og regionale som de organisatoriske. Forfatterne redegør for disse værdier via kulturelle dimensioner som forholdet mellem magt og lighed, forholdet mellem individ og gruppe, sociale roller for kvinder og mænd samt usikkerhedsundvigelse og krisehåndtering. Disse begreber og værdier gøres levende og vedkommende med en række eksempler fra dagligdagen rundt om i verden. Forfatterne viser desuden hvordan man håndterer det interkulturelle - dvs. slår bro over forskellene i de kulturelle værdinormer, f.eks. i internationale koncerner. Bogen henvender sig især til ledere, faglige specialister og forhandlere i såvel erhvervslivet som organisationer, hvor der arbejdes på tværs af de kulturelle skel. Men alle med interesse for interkulturelle forhold og ønske om en større kulturforståelse, kan få glæde af denne spændende bog. I denne ajourførte 3. udgave medvirker Michael Minkov som ny medforfatter. Dette har bl.a. betydet, at datagrundlaget er udvidet med en række østeuropæiske lande, således at resultater, eksempler og kulturmodeller er blevet endnu bedre og mere nuancerede.
Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for survival
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2010
USA : McGraw-Hill - ISBN 9780071664189 - 561
cultuur - intercultureel onderzoek - cultureel gedrag - organisaties - communicatie - internationale samenwerking - nationaal bewustzijn - etnische groepen - pluriforme samenleving - culturele differentiatie - psychologie - bedrijfsvoering - volkenkunde - culture - cross cultural studies - cultural behaviour - organizations - communication - international cooperation - national consciousness - ethnic groups - plural society - cultural differentiation - psychology - management - ethnology
This book reveals: * The unexamined rules behind the thoughts and emotions of people of different cultures * Ways in which cultures differ in the areas of collectivism/individualism, assertiveness/modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification * How organizational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can be managed
Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies
Buijsse, B. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Edith Feskens. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049609 - 135
antioxidanten - plantaardige producten - groenten - vruchten - hart- en vaatziekten - intercultureel onderzoek - internationale vergelijkingen - epidemiologische onderzoeken - nederland - cacao - oxidatieve stress - kreta - antioxidants - plant products - vegetables - fruits - cardiovascular diseases - cross cultural studies - international comparisons - epidemiological surveys - netherlands - cocoa - oxidative stress - crete
Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidants (alpha-carotene, gamma-tocopherol, cocoa flavanols), and oxidative stress (enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase-3) with CVD risk.
Methods: In cross-cultural studies, the Cretan (Greece) and Zutphen (The Netherlands) cohorts of Seven Countries Study were compared with respect to long-term mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD), diet, and indicators of oxidative stress. In prospective cohort studies, data were used from the Zutphen Elderly Study (~500 men aged 65-84 y), the ‘Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a Concerted Action’ (SENECA, 1168 men and women aged 70-75 y), and the Minnesota Heart Survey (270 men and women aged 26-85 y).
Results: The comparison between the Cretan and Zutphen cohorts revealed a 3-fold lower 40-year CHD mortality rate in Crete. This lower mortality in Crete was paralleled by a higher consumption of fruit, tomatoes, and olive oil, amongst others, and by a lower consumption of meat, poultry, and dairy. Consequently, the Cretan men had higher intakes of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and dietary fiber, and lower intakes of trans and saturated fatty acids. This was confirmed at the age of ≥80 years, when the Cretan men had higher plasma concentrations of major dietary antioxidants (major carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol), a lower iron status, and a lower level of oxidative stress. In the Zutphen Elderly Study, the relative risk (RR) of 15-y CVD mortality for 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in dietary intake was 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.99] for alpha-carotene and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66-0.97) for beta-carotene. The intake of tocopherols was not related to CVD death. In SENECA, plasma concentrations of carotene (sum of alpha- and beta-carotene) were inversely related to CVD mortality (RR for 1 SD increase: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00), but plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were not. The daily use of 4 grams of cocoa, a rich source of flavanols, was related to a 3.7 mm Hg lower systolic (95% CI: –7.1 to –0.3) and a 2.1 mm Hg lower (95% CI: –4.0 to –0.2) diastolic blood pressure. The same amount of cocoa was also related to a 50% lower risk of 15-year CVD mortality (RR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.78). Finally, in the Minnesota Heart Survey, the odds ratio of CVD mortality for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of glutathione peroxidase-3 activity was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.21-0.86). This inverse relation was confined to those with low concentrations of HDL cholesterol (odds ratio highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.06-0.47).
Conclusion: The Cretan Mediterranean diet is rich in antioxidants, which may partly contribute to the low observed CHD mortality. The findings on beta-carotene support previous observational studies suggesting that this carotenoid relates to a lower CVD risk. We showed that alpha-carotene is correlated with beta-carotene in the diet, and alpha-carotene was also related to a lower CVD mortality. The results on alpha-tocopherol are in line with the outcomes of clinical trials and do not indicate a role for this vitamin in lowering CVD mortality in elderly populations.
Corruption and the secret of law: a legal anthropological perspective
Nuijten, M.C.M. ; Anders, G. - \ 2007
Aldershot : Ashgate Publishing Company - ISBN 9780754671107 - 222
law - corruption - cross cultural studies - culture - anthropology - recht - corruptie - intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - antropologie
Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge
Platenkamp, V. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Jaap Lengkeek; H.P. Kunneman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045663 - 256 p.
toerisme - vrije tijd - intercultureel onderzoek - vrijetijdsactiviteiten - recreatieonderzoek - kennis - informatieverspreiding - tourism - leisure - leisure activities - leisure research - cross cultural studies - knowledge - diffusion of information
Kulturer & Organisationer
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2006
Kopenhagen : Handelshøjskolens Forlag - ISBN 8762902520 - 437
intercultureel onderzoek - rassen (taxonomisch) - interraciale relaties - etnische groepen - karakteristieken - psychologie - cultuur - socialisatie - etnografie - sociologie - cultuursociologie - communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - groepen - organisaties - wereld - theorie - bedrijfsvoering - internationale vergelijkingen - bedrijfsmanagement - denken - cross cultural studies - races - race relations - ethnic groups - characteristics - psychology - culture - socialization - ethnography - sociology - cultural sociology - communication - nonverbal communication - groups - organizations - world - theory - management - international comparisons - business management - thinking
Lokales Denken, globales Handeln : Interkulturelle Zusammenarbeit und globales Management
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2006
München : Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag - ISBN 3406533221 - 555
intercultureel onderzoek - rassen (taxonomisch) - interraciale relaties - etnische groepen - karakteristieken - psychologie - cultuur - socialisatie - etnografie - sociologie - cultuursociologie - communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - groepen - organisaties - wereld - theorie - bedrijfsvoering - internationale vergelijkingen - bedrijfsmanagement - denken - cross cultural studies - races - race relations - ethnic groups - characteristics - psychology - culture - socialization - ethnography - sociology - cultural sociology - communication - nonverbal communication - groups - organizations - world - theory - management - international comparisons - business management - thinking
Cross-Racial Envy and Underinvestment in South Africa
Haile, D.T. ; Sadrieh, A. ; Verbon, H. - \ 2006
Munich, Germany : CESifo (Working Papers 1657) - 23
intercultureel onderzoek - interraciale relaties - etnische groepen - etniciteit - oorlog - inkomensverdeling - sociale economie - menselijk gedrag - economische ontwikkeling - zuid-afrika - cross cultural studies - race relations - ethnic groups - ethnicity - war - income distribution - socioeconomics - human behaviour - economic development - south africa
Trust games are employed to investigate the effect of heterogeneity in income and race on cooperation in South Africa. The amount of socio-economic information available to the subjects about their counterparts is varied. No significant behavioural differences are observed, when no such information is provided. However, when the information is available, it significantly affects individual trust behaviour. The low income subjects from both racial groups invest significantly less in partnerships with the high income subjects of the other racial group than in any other partnership. We attribute this behaviour to cross-racial envy, which on aggregate may lead to substantial underinvestment in the economy.
Allemaal andersdenkenden: omgaan met cultuurverschillen
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2005
Amsterdam/Antwerpen : Contact - ISBN 9025426816 - 431
rassen (taxonomisch) - etnische groepen - psychologie - intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - socialisatie - interraciale relaties - sociologie - cultuursociologie - communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - groepen - organisaties - wereld - theorie - bedrijfsvoering - bestuur - bedrijfseconomie - races - ethnic groups - psychology - cross cultural studies - culture - socialization - race relations - sociology - cultural sociology - communication - nonverbal communication - groups - organizations - world - theory - management - administration - business management
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Third Millennium Edition
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2005
New York : McGraw-Hill - ISBN 0071439595
cultuur - organisaties - communicatie - intercultureel onderzoek - etnische groepen - rassen (taxonomisch) - internationale samenwerking - individuele kenmerken - samenleving - bedrijfsvoering - psychologie - culture - organizations - communication - cross cultural studies - ethnic groups - races - international cooperation - individual characteristics - society - management - psychology
The world is a more dangerously divided place today than it was at the end of the Cold War. This despite the spread of free trade and the advent of digital technologies that afford a degree of global connectivity undreamed of by science fiction writers fifty years ago. What is it that continues to drive people apart when cooperation is so clearly in everyone's interest? Are we as a species doomed to perpetual misunderstanding and conflict? Find out in Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. A veritable atlas of cultural values, it is based on cross-cultural research conducted in seventy countries for more than thirty years. At the same time, it describes a revolutionary theory of cultural relativism and its applications in a range of professions. Fully updated and rewritten for the twenty-first century, this edition: * Reveals the unexamined rules by which people in different cultures think, feel, and act in business, family, schools, and political organizations * Explores how national cultures differ in the key areas of inequality, collectivism versus individualism, assertiveness versus modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification * Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can--sometimes--be managed * Explains culture shock, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, differences in language and humor, and other aspects of intercultural dynamics
Werken met cultuurverschillen
Hofstede, G.J. ; Pedersen, P. ; Hofstede, G. - \ 2004
Amsterdam/Antwerpen : Business contact - ISBN 9789025418267 - 221
intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - cultureel gedrag - culturele waarden - cultuursociologie - culturele interactie - communicatie - cross cultural studies - culture - cultural behaviour - cultural values - cultural sociology - cultural interaction - communication
Spaces of intercultural communication. An interdisciplinary introduction to communication, culture, and globalizing/localizing identities
Lie, R. - \ 2003
Cresskill, New Jersey : Hampton Press (IAMCR book series ) - ISBN 157273499X - 241
communicatie - wereld - groepen - globalisering - televisie - intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - cultuursociologie - groepsinteractie - sociale interactie - antropologie - etnografie - identiteit - communication - culture - cultural sociology - world - groups - group interaction - social interaction - globalization - television - anthropology - ethnography - cross cultural studies - identity
This volume explores spaces where cultures meet and mix in entangled flows and levels of globality and locality. It makes a contribution to our understanding of the complex processes of communications across and beyond borders. It provides an introduction to intercultural/international communication and changing identities. Through its interdisciplinary approach it integrates theories from communication studies, cultural studies, media studies and social anthropology. The book consists of three major parts and eight chapters. The first part specifically addresses the concepts of communication and culture. The second addresses globalizing/localizing identities. Chapters in the third part theorize the spaces in which these processes take place and use the socio-cultural phenomenon of television as an example to focus on the interdisciplinary potential of television studies.
The impact of national culture in MNC's home country on the strategy making process in their overseas subsidiaries: a comparison between Dutch and Japanese companies in Thailand
Meekanon, K. - \ 2002
University. Promotor(en): J.C. van Dalen; J.A. Stam. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086624 - 274
multinationale corporaties - cultuur - intercultureel onderzoek - internationale vergelijkingen - cultuursociologie - thailand - nederland - japan - bedrijfsvoering - culturele waarden - culturele differentiatie - multinational corporations - management - culture - cross cultural studies - international comparisons - cultural sociology - cultural values - cultural differentiation - netherlands
<font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">The main purpose of this dissertation is to understand that the national cultures of MNCs' home countries play an important role in determining the SMPs in their overseas subsidiaries. To attain this purpose, a comparison between Dutch and Japanese companies in Thailand concerning the relationship between national culture and SNIP has been the focal point of this dissertation. The research findings with the integrative model answer the central research question that the national cultures of the Netherlands and Japan intervene in the SMPs of Dutch and Japanese companies in Thailand respectively.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">The research findings have theoretical implications for further developments in comparative management because the outcome of this investigation discovers some constructs that can minimise difficulty in and complexity of conceptualising and operationalising some variables for comparing SMPs across cultures. A synthesis of Hofstede's model of national culture and Wheelen and Hunger's model of SNIP develops a model of comparative strategic management for comparing SMPs in MNCs when taking national culture into account. However, the empirical evidence from this study is insufficient to verify the validity of Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) CVM even if a presumed linkage between SNIP and corporate performance exists. However, the relationship between national culture and SNIP does presumably exist.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">With the qualitative research design developed for this cross-cultural study, the interaction between theory and evidence generates the propositions for the future research. In comparison with the outcomes from most cross-cultural survey research, the research findings from this dissertation give a more profound, comprehensive, integral picture of the SMPs of the companies under this study.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">The research findings also help the practitioners, the corporate strategists and the top executives in MNCs, both in the parent companies, the regional head offices and the overseas subsidiaries, international managers and expatriates to understand how national culture of MNCs' home countries has an influence on the SNIP in their overseas operations. This comprehension helps them to formulate better corporate strategy when dealing with other cultural perspectives different<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">from their own ones. The employees of MNCs also derive the benefit of hindsight from the research findings. When these employees understand the impact of foreign cultures on foreign-based companies in their countries, they can accommodate themselves to the foreign working conditions and behaviours in these companies. All the parties in MNCs can work out a better solution for multicultural problems on the basis of mutual understandings.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">Nevertheless, the limitations of this study comprises lack of combinatorial and broader factors, indigenous subjectivity on interpretation, asymmetrical perspectives on corporate settings, less responsiveness to and less interaction with the local national culture in the host country and lack of HQs', RHOs' and other host countries' perspectives. To minimise these shortcomings in the future research, the inquirers must analyse the effect of combinatorial factors concomitantly, include more macro factors, co-operate with foreign researchers, pay more attention to a lowest-rank workers' perspective, and embrace the industries that are more responsive to local markets and the perspectives of HQs, RH0s, and other host countries.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">To gain a better insight into the cultural impact on SNIP, the researchers in the future need to pursue more comparative research. They must change the choice of MNCs' nationalities and the locations of the host countries. To counterpoise a tendency to conduct this kind of research in industrialised countries, the locations in the future research must be industrialising countries. If possible, these researchers must test the integrative model through the use of quantitative survey with a largescale sample. The outcome of the future research might help to develop a new theoretical framework for comparing SMPs across cultures further. The field of comparative strategic management might emerge from a synthesis of comparative management and strategic management when the linkage between national culture and SNIP is confirmed.
24-hour dietary recalls as reference calibration measurements in EPIC: from statistical theory to epidemiological application
Slimani, N. - \ 2002
University. Promotor(en): W.A. van Staveren; E. Riboli. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087102 - 262
voedingsanamnese - voedingsonderzoektechnieken - dieetstudies - dieetonderzoeken - voeding - ziektestatistieken - statistiek - kwaliteitscontroles - internationale vergelijkingen - intercultureel onderzoek - europa - dietary history - diet study techniques - diet studies - dietary surveys - nutrition - disease statistics - statistics - quality controls - international comparisons - cross cultural studies - europe
<p>Large multi-centre cohort studies have been set up with the aim of increasing the statistical power to detect an association between diet and disease by including study populations varying both in dietary exposures and outcome diseases. However, such studies raise also new statistical and methodological challenges to improve the comparability of dietary measurements collected from populations from different geographical and socio-cultural origins. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), involving half a million subjects from 23 centres in 10 European countries, a calibration approach was adopted to correct for systematic errors in individual dietary measurements obtained by means of different dietary assessment methods across centres, by re-expressing them according to the same reference scale (between-cohort calibration). 24-hour diet recall was selected as the reference calibration method in EPIC. In order to meet the theoretical requirements, such a reference calibration method must be highly standardized across study centres, provide accurate dietary estimates at the population level and should not be an obstacle to the collection of data from a representative sub-sample of the entire cohort. This thesis deals with translating the theoretical statistical concept of the calibration into an epidemiological application in the context of a large multi-centre study on diet and cancer.</p><p>The thesis presents first some theoretical concepts of the main sources of measurement errors associated with the 24-hour diet recall method and the standardisation procedures used to prevent or minimize them in the context of a large multi-centre study. An ad hoc face-to-face computerized 24-hour diet recall interview programme (EPIC-SOFT) is then described as the end product used as reference calibration method across the EPIC centres. The rationale and a new theoretical concept of standardizing food composition tables in large multi-centre studies such as EPIC is discussed separately. In a second part, the design and the populations of the calibration sub-studies set up in each EPIC centre are described, as well as the representativeness of the calibration sub-sample compared to the whole cohort.</p><p>In order to estimate the degree of standardisation of the 24-hour diet recalls across interviewers an analysis of variance was performed using mean total energy per interviewer as dependent variable. Furthermore, a validation study using urinary nitrogen as independent reference measurements was conducted to estimate the reliability of mean 24-hour diet recall measurements of protein (and total energy) for between-cohort calibration. Finally, the 36,900 24-hour recalls collected in EPIC were used to study the large heterogeneity in dietary patterns existing between the EPIC centres, using the same detailed dietary methodology.</p><p>This was the first time that calibration sub-studies using the same dietary methodology has been set up in a large multi-centre European study. Despite inherent methodological and practical problems, the calibration worked well in a large multi-centre setting, and the calibration sub-sample can reasonably be considered to be representative of the entire EPIC cohort in most centres. The standardisation across interviewers and the validation of 24-hour diet recalls for between-cohort calibration shown encouraging results. However, measurement errors, particularly conscious or unconscious behaviour of respondents and/or interviewers, cannot be prevented entirely, and the problem of measurement errors and its determinants need to be considered in the application of the calibration, as well as day of the week and seasonal coverage. This first experience should also lead to additional improvements in the reference method and setting up nested calibration sub-studies in the future. Furthermore, it demonstrates that standardized dietary methodologies can be developed in an international context and opens perspectives for using the EPIC-SOFT programme or other approaches in large European nutritional studies.
Exploring Culture : Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures
Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2002
Yarmouth, Maine : Intercultural Press - ISBN 9781877864902 - 234
intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - cultureel gedrag - culturele waarden - cultuursociologie - culturele interactie - communicatie - cross cultural studies - culture - cultural behaviour - cultural values - cultural sociology - cultural interaction - communication
A unique training book containing over 100 culture awareness exercises, dialogues, stories incidents and simulations that bring to life Geert Hofstede's five dimensions of culture. These dimensions are: power distance, collectivism versus individualism, femininity versus masculinity, uncertainly avoidance, and long-term versus short-term orientation. Exploring Culture also contains new material on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the synthetic cultures. An excellent partner to Hofstede's popular Cultures & Organizations.
Exploring heterogeneity: educational challenges in international and intercultural study programmes.
Brinkman, B. ; Witteveen, L.M. - \ 1998
Wageningen : Wageningen Agricultural University - ISBN 9789067545556 - 114
hoger onderwijs - onderwijsonderzoek - studenten - buitenlandse studenten - intercultureel onderzoek - culturele differentiatie - higher education - educational research - students - foreign students - cross cultural studies - cultural differentiation
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