Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Competence modelling for export performance improvement in Ethiopia
Birru, W.T. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Piety Runhaar; Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578999 - 146 p.
competency based education - professional competence - organizations - international organizations - international trade - management science - management skills - ethiopia - east africa - vaardigheidsonderwijs - vakbekwaamheid - organisaties - internationale organisaties - internationale handel - bedrijfswetenschap - managementvaardigheden - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Export is increasingly seen as an important route for entrepreneurial firms to realize their growth potential. Consequently, a better understanding of the determinant factors for export performance of the firm is of great importance for firms’ success and expansion in the export markets. In this context, international business competence (IBC) is an essential intangible strategic resource that engenders export performance of the firm. This thesis studies the relationships between international business competence and export performance in a developing country context. The thesis shows that IBC comprises a number of specific competence domains; hence, in order to strengthen the said competitive advantages and achieve enhanced export performance, firms need to have suitable IBCs to the context in which they are operating. Furthermore, the thesis shows that IBCs influence each other’s effects, and organizational learning orientation strengthens the effects of the various IBCs. The thesis generally argues that firms need to develop the required competencies in their context to increase export performance, but if this would be exclusively based on the direct relationships between the competencies and export performance, results may be suboptimal. Thus, they need to maintain the optimal balance between their competencies on the one hand, and establish and maintain higher levels of organizational learning orientations on the other hand. The thesis implies that studies that ignore the interaction between different competencies and which do not include contextual factors in the examination provide an incomplete and simplistic picture of the relationship between international business competencies and export performance.

Brexit : verkenning van de gevolgen voor de Nederlandse agrosector
Berkum, S. van; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2016
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789086157334 - 35 p.
european union - european union countries - great britain - politics - economic situation - agricultural sector - international trade - tariffs - netherlands - europese unie - landen van de europese unie - groot-brittannië - politiek - economische situatie - landbouwsector - internationale handel - tarieven - nederland
This study explores the possible consequences of a Brexit for Dutch agrifood chains. The UK is assumed to apply zero or low import tariffs for agricultural products. Whether that impacts Dutch exports, depends on the sector’s competitiveness. The Dutch agrifood sector, though, benefits from the UK’s vicinity and the sector’s efficient organisation of logistics, in particular for fresh products (such as cut flowers, vegetable, fruit, dairy and meat), which provide the sector a strong point of departure to maintain current positions at the British market after a Brexit.
Fairtrade certification in the banana hired labour sector
Rijn, F.C. van; Judge, L.O. ; Fort, Ricardo ; Koster, Tinka ; Waarts, Y.R. ; Ruben, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2015-056) - ISBN 9789086157129 - 146 p.
bananas - plantations - fair trade - certification - international trade - hired labour - working conditions - ghana - dominican republic - colombia - bananen - beplantingen - certificering - internationale handel - loonarbeiders - arbeidsomstandigheden - dominicaanse republiek
Evidence is needed about the difference that certification makes to workers on banana plantations. The Fairtrade system is therefore investing in monitoring to understand the difference certification makes to banana workers’ employment, living and working conditions, and empowerment. This study meets this need by gathering data on a range of indicators. This study 1) gathers baseline data on indicators and themes that monitor the progress of implementation of Fairtrade’s revised hired labour standards on certified plantations in key banana origins; 2) based on this data it researches and analyses the difference that Fairtrade makes across key themes in comparison to non-certified contexts; it prioritises workers’ voices and perspectives in achieving the objectives of the study. It particularly focuses on understanding the role of Fairtrade in supporting worker empowerment and empowerment-related goals. Focus countries are Ghana, Colombia and the Dominican Republic.
Competitiveness of the EU food industry : ex-post assessmentof trade performance embedded in international economic theory
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-018) - ISBN 9789086157358 - 79 p.
food industry - market competition - competitive ability - terms of trade - economic indicators - international trade - world markets - european union - usa - voedselindustrie - marktconcurrentie - concurrerend vermogen - ruilvoet - economische indicatoren - internationale handel - wereldmarkten - europese unie - vs
This study assessed the competitiveness of the EU food industry benchmarked against USA, Australia, Brazil and Canada. This assessment is based on trade indicators (Relative Net trade advantage and export share on the world market) and on economic indicators (value added, labour productivity and share value added in total manufacturing). This study is an update of an earlier study executed in 2007. The overall competitiveness performance of the EU28 (intra-EU trade excluded) remained weak: the three economic indicators weakened and the trade indicators improved in period (2) 2008-2012 compared to period (1) 2003-2007. The position in period 2 was even weaker than the relative weak position in period 1. Brazil remained the strongest and the USA became strong.
Opportunities for development of the Moringa sector in Bangladesh : Desk-based review of the Moringa value chains in developing countries and end-markets in Europe
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI 15-102) - 50
markets - trade - international trade - moringa - exports - european union - bangladesh - south asia - asia - markten - handel - internationale handel - export - europese unie - zuid-azië - azië
Moringa trees in Bangladesh and in other developing countries have great potential in terms of nutrition security and income generation, but often seem to be underutilized. The European market does offer opportunities for those suppliers that are willing to, and capable of, meeting EU regulations. However, entering the EU market for some developing countries like Bangladesh seems to be farfetched at the time of writing. Firstly, awareness around the nutritional value and market potential of Moringa products needs to be raised so farmers and households begin to maximise the returns of Moringa trees. Secondly, a detailed cost and benefit analysis around a Moringa production company should be conducted. Thirdly, upcoming suppliers need to get acquainted with the regulations and standards required when targeting the export market. This also means that suppliers should establish, and nurture, trading relationships with EU importers or even intermediaries since the volume supplied is likely to be limited according to European terms.
Perspectives for sustainable Prunus africana production and trade. Factsheets
Ingram, V.J. ; Loo, J. van; Dawson, I. ; Vinceti, B. ; Duminil, J. ; Muchugi, A. ; Awono, A. ; Asaah, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Factsheet 2015-102) - 10
prunus africana - tropische bossen - afrika - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - medicinale planten - internationale handel - overheidsbeleid - tropical forests - africa - sustainability - medicinal plants - international trade - government policy
This brief documents current knowledge about pygeum (Prunus africana). It aims to inform decision makers in governments in producing and consumer countries, international and civil society organisations and researchers, about sustainable (international) trade and governance of the species.
Effecten van Russische boycot op invoer van Europees vlees, zuivel, groente en fruit ; stand van zaken in juni 2015
Berkum, S. van; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 7
agrarische economie - export - landbouwprijzen - vlees - groenten - fruit - nederland - internationale handel - agricultural economics - exports - agricultural prices - meat - vegetables - netherlands - international trade
Op 7 augustus 2014 heeft Rusland een invoerverbod ingesteld op de invoer van vlees, zuivel en groente en fruit uit de EU. Door deze boycot moest de export een andere bestemming vinden. Niet alleen gold/geldt dat voor Nederlandse afzet, maar ook voor andere EU-landen. Hierdoor ontstond een fors prijseffect voor met name de verse groente en fruitproducten op de Europese markt, die na een korte periode overigens ook al weer afzwakte. Deze korte notitie gaat in op in hoeverre de Nederlandse export van de geboycotte producten zich met name na het afkondigen van de Russische importstop heeft ontwikkeld.
DaVinc³i: sierteeltlogistiek in een dynamische eeuw : van onderbuik naar onderbouwing
Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Ossevoort, R.S. - \ 2015
DaVinc³i - 46
sierteelt - logistiek - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - informatietechnologie - internationale handel - strategisch management - agrarische productiesystemen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - telecommunicatie - elektronische handel - ornamental horticulture - logistics - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - information technology - international trade - strategic management - agricultural production systems - agricultural research - telecommunications - electronic commerce
In het DaVinc³i (Dutch Agricultural Virtualized International Network with Consolidation, Coordination, Collaboration and Information availability) onderzoek deden drie Nederlandse universiteiten en een groot aantal bedrijven strategisch onderzoek naar deelgebieden van de sierteeltlogistiek. Die deelgebieden zijn: samenwerking/ businessmodellen, logistieke netwerken, retourlogistiek/plannen en ICT in de sector. Bij veel bedrijven is concreet en strategisch onderzoek gedaan op basis van onderzoeksvragen op bedrijfsniveau. Dit boekje verhaalt, in een aantal interviews, eerst over de algemene strategische onderzoeken en de daaruit voortvloeiende scenario’s. Daarna komt de bedrijfspraktijk aan de orde. De volgende vragen kwamen hierbij aan de orde: Met welke logistieke ketens en afzetketens krijgt de sierteeltsector in de toekomst te maken? Welke functies en processen zijn aan die ketens verbonden? Waar kun je die functies geografisch gezien het best uitoefenen? Hoe ondersteun je dat optimaal met ICT-toepassingen en businessmodellen? Wat betekent dit alles voor de sierteeltlogistiek?
Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector
Berkum, S. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-036) - ISBN 9789086157068 - 42
handelsakkoorden - internationale handel - europese unie - landbouwproducten - landbouwsector - agro-industriële sector - voedselindustrie - nederland - trade agreements - international trade - european union - agricultural products - agricultural sector - agroindustrial sector - food industry - netherlands
This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement would reduce the currently high trade costs related to divergent non-tariff measures, such as pest risk analysis procedures and labelling requirements. Beef and poultry supply from Mercosur is very competitive and is expected to gain from any improved access to EU markets, resulting in more competitive pressure for the Dutch industry on its main markets.
Study on mandatory origin labelling for milk, milk used as an ingredient in dairy products, and unprocessed meat other than beef, pig, poultry, and sheep and goat meat AGRI-2013-EVAL-03 Study Report : Part B – Minor Meats
Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Christodoulou, Maria ; Maréchal, Anne ; Roest, Kees De; Corradini, E. ; Grochowska, Renata - \ 2014
European Commission (EC) - 53 p.
labelling - provenance - milk - milk products - milk production - horse meat - rabbit meat - game meat - cost benefit analysis - consumer information - eu regulations - international trade - european union - etiketteren - herkomst - melk - melkproducten - melkproductie - paardenvlees - konijnenvlees - wild (vlees) - kosten-batenanalyse - consumenteninformatie - eu regelingen - internationale handel - europese unie
Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector : International comparison base year 2013
Horne, P.L.M. van; Bondt, N. - \ 2014
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-report 2014-038) - ISBN 9789086156917 - 49
pluimveevlees - pluimveehouderij - pluimveebedrijf - marktconcurrentie - productiekosten - invoerrechten - internationale handel - marktprijzen - europese unie - poultry meat - poultry farming - poultry industry - market competition - production costs - import levies - international trade - market prices - european union
In this report the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), an independent research institute of Wageningen UR (University and Research) in the Netherlands, presents the results of a study on the competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector. The production costs for poultry meat are calculated for several EU and non-EU countries. Based on these data, several scenarios are described and their effect is calculated to illustrate the impact of lower import levies and changes in exchange rates.
FAO: mondiale vishandel stevent af op nieuw record : maar kleinschalige vissers en viskwekers hebben hulp nodig op op de regionale en mondiale markt te komen
Heijden, P.G.M. van der - \ 2014
Aquacultuur 29 (2014)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 21 - 22.
visserij - visvangsten - internationale handel - visserijbeleid - voedsel- en landbouworganisatie - wereldmarkten - fisheries - fish catches - international trade - fishery policy - food and agriculture organization - world markets
De snel groeiende mondiale vishandel genereert meer welvaart dan ooit tevoren, maar de landen dienen de kleinschalige vissers en viskwekers te helpen om hiervan te profiteren, aldus de Voedsel en Landbouworganisatie van de VN (FAO).
De leerervaringen en oogst van Greenport Holland International
Hoes, A.C. ; Groot, N.S.P. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 14-084) - 20
tuinbouw - wereldmarkten - export - internationale samenwerking - internationale handel - nederland - ondernemerschap - kennisoverdracht - technologieoverdracht - horticulture - world markets - exports - international cooperation - international trade - netherlands - entrepreneurship - knowledge transfer - technology transfer
Ervaringen uit het recente verleden tonen aan dat het een uitdaging is om de Nederlandse tuinbouw te internationaliseren. Hoewel Nederlandse tuinbouwproducten (zoals bloemen) ver over de Nederlandse grenzen worden geëxporteerd, is dit niet het geval voor de Nederlandse tuinbouwexpertise. Het Businessplan Greenport Holland International (2011) schetst dat de trends van urbanisatie en stijging van koopkracht zorgen voor opkomende markten die behoefte hebben aan lokale grootschalige tuinbouw. Nederland zou een rol kunnen spelen in het vervullen van deze behoefte. GHI onderneemt verschillende activiteiten om de internationalisering van de Nederlandse Tuinbouw te ondersteunen. Zo organiseert GHI onder andere buitenlandse missies, neemt deel aan internationale conferenties en laat marktverkenningsstudies uitvoeren. Welke lessen zijn er geleerd met betrekking tot de gehanteerde werkwijze van GHI? In hoeverre hebben de activiteiten van GHI Founding Fathers geholpen met de internationalisering van hun ondernemingen?
Duurzame aanpak van plagen in de handel : duurzame bestrijding van plaaginsecten en plant parasitaire nematoden in de keten van internationale handel in plantmaterialen
Qiu, Y. ; Verschoor, J.A. ; Rozen, K. van; Kogel, W.J. de; Helsen, H.H.M. ; Vreeburg, P.J.M. ; Hoek, H. ; Kruistum, G. van - \ 2014
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit PPO-agv - 38
quarantaine organismen - internationale handel - tuinbouwgewassen - bestrijdingsmethoden - insectenplagen - thrips - trialeurodes vaporariorum - nematoda - methodologie - quarantine organisms - international trade - horticultural crops - control methods - insect pests - methodology
Quarantaine organismen leveren cruciale problemen op in de internationale handel. Ondanks strikte maatregelen en controle worden insecten- en nematodenplagen regelmatig door toenemende internationale handel overgebracht naar niet besmette gebieden. Quarantaine plagen veroorzaken grote economische verliezen en leiden tot handelsbelemmeringen. Sommige kleine insecten zoals trips en witte vliegen of nematoden zijn moeilijk te bestrijden met pesticiden. Fumigatie met ontsmettingsmiddelen was een veel toegepaste methode om quarantaine plagen te bestrijden middels een pre-shipment behandeling. Een van de meest effectieve ontsmettingsmiddelen methylbromide (MeBr) is sinds 2010 niet meer toegelaten in Nederlands vanwege het chadelijke effect op de ozonlaag. Een effectief en milieuvriendelijk alternatief voor MeBr is zeer gewenst. Controlled atmosphere temperature treatment (CATT) is een fysieke behandelingsmethode en heeft een aantoonbaar dodelijk effect op diverse insecten- en nematodenplagen. De CATT methode is een combinatie van lucht en temperatuur over een bepaalde tijdsduur om plagen maximaal af te doden met een minimaal of acceptabel fytotoxisch effect op plantproducten. Dit is een milieuvriendelijke methode en heeft daardoor geen toelating nodig voor toepassing.
IOB Review - Riding the wave of sustainable commodity sourcing. Review of the Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH 2008-2013
Omta, S.W.F. ; Elzakker, B. van; Schoenmakers, W.W.M.E. - \ 2014
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (IOB review, [ISSN 1566-7391] no. 397) - ISBN 9789053284643 - 120
duurzame ontwikkeling - internationale handel - goederenmarkten - publiek-private samenwerking - particuliere ondernemingen - certificering - kennis van boeren - agrarische handel - sustainable development - international trade - commodity markets - public-private cooperation - private firms - certification - farmers' knowledge - agricultural trade
The Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH (Initiatief Duurzame Handel) was set up in 2008 as a multi-stakeholder initiative of private companies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions and the Dutch government with the aim of improving smallholder production systems, market integration and enhancing sustainable sourcing from developing countries. The activities undertaken by IDH focused on improving and transforming the supply chain performance of internationally traded commodities (such as coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, timber, palm oil and fish). They rely on promoting good agricultural practice, farmers’ training and certification as key activities.
Milking to Potential : Joint Dairy Sector Development in Emerging Economies
Lee, J. van der; Westenbrink, G. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - economische ontwikkeling - economie van de veehouderij - internationale samenwerking - kennisoverdracht - ontwikkelingshulp - internationale handel - economisch beleid - nederland - veehouderij - dairy farming - dairy industry - economic development - livestock economics - international cooperation - knowledge transfer - development aid - international trade - economic policy - netherlands - livestock farming
Dairy sectors all over the world are being challenged by expanding populations and economic growth. A growing demand for dairy products has led to a significant increase in Dutch public and private involvement in dairy activities in Africa and Asia, creating new opportunities for many different stakeholders. A fresh approach to joint dairy sector development is called for—one that helps stakeholders to create a shared language, shared objectives, and a shared strategy. The framework presented here is part of a dialogue organised by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs as part of it’s policy to better connect development aid, trade and investments.
Hulp en handel: het duurzame biomassa debat 10 feb 2014 (in het panel o.a. Wolter Elbersen)
Polak, C. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2014
Rode Hoed
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biomassa - bio-energie - discussie - ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - opinies - agro-industriële ketens - internationale handel - biobased economy - sustainability - biomass - bioenergy - discussion - development aid - development cooperation - opinions - agro-industrial chains - international trade
Onder leiding van Clairy Polak ging een panel van ondernemers, financiers, politici en NGO's op maandag 10 februari in de Rode Hoed in debat over duurzame biomassa. Met onder anderen: Eric van den Heuvel (Argos), Sander van Bennekom (Oxfam/Novib) en René Leegte (VVD-Kamerlid). Ondernemen in duurzame biomassa: is dit handel of hulp? Of - mits duurzaam uitgevoerd - allebei? Maar wat is duurzaam en wat is daarvoor nodig? Wat hebben we op dit gebied geleerd? En wat zijn de vooruitblikken voor de toekomst? De nota van het ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken - 'Wat de wereld verdient: Een nieuwe agenda voor hulp, handel en investeringen'- is hierbij het uitgangspunt. In het panel: Harold Martina (GMSP/Colombia/trapisches), René van Venendaal (BTG), Eric van den Heuvel (Argos), Liesbeth van Tongeren (GroenLinks-Kamerlid), Sander van Bennekom (Oxfam/Novib), Danielle van Nie (Natuur en Milieu), René Leegte (VVD-Kamerlid), Dorette Corbey (Commissie Corbey), nn Consultancy) en Wolter Elbersen (WUR). De Nederlandse programma's voor duurzame biomassa In opdracht van de ministeries van Economische Zaken en Buitenlandse Zaken hebben 40 projecten binnen de Nederlandse programma's voor duurzame biomassa volop ervaring opgedaan met de verduurzaming van de biomassaketen voor energie. Nu bijna alle projecten zijn afgerond, is het tijd om de ervaringen en lessen te delen. Organisatie: Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland i.s.m. de Rode Hoed
Aid and trade for livestock development and food security in West Africa
Lee, J. van der; Schiere, J.B. ; Bosma, R.H. ; Olde, E. de; Bol, S. ; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 745) - 101
vee - veehouderij - economische ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingshulp - internationale handel - nigeria - ghana - benin - burkina faso - mali - livestock - livestock farming - economic development - development aid - international trade
Livestock keeping traditionally is very important in West Africa, occurring in many forms and fulfilling roles that change over time and from north to south. This report presents the results of a quickscan done by Wageningen UR Livestock Research and La Ventana consulting, mainly for policy discussions, but also giving suggestions for action by the private sector. The report is written for the Dutch Ministries of Economic Affairs (Department of European Agricultural Policy and Food Security, Directorate-General Agro) and Foreign Affairs (Directorate-General of International Cooperation). The central issue in this study is the search for opportunities for livestock development to enhance food security in West Africa through aid and trade. The report discusses win-win and trade-offs between aid and trade, reflecting a rather traditional divide between development aid and economic development. Nowadays the notion public and private might replace that of aid and trade.
Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector
Horne, P.L.M. van; Bondt, N. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report 2013-068) - ISBN 9789086156641 - 65 p.
pluimveevlees - vleeskuikens - marktconcurrentie - wetgeving - productiekosten - invoerrechten - internationale handel - europese unie - landen van de europese unie - Nederland - poultry meat - broilers - market competition - legislation - production costs - import levies - international trade - european union - european union countries - Netherlands
EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. This report examines how lowering import levies impacts the competitiveness of the EU poultry industry. The results show that the offer price of broiler breast fillet in 2011 of some third countries was already below the average EU price. Despite the current import levy on breast fillet, these third countries can be competitive in the EU market. In a scenario with 50% lower import levies and no additional levy, Brazil, Argentina, the USA, Ukraine and Thailand have a lower offer price for breast fillet than the EU poultry meat industry.
Integrating ecosystem services into the tropical timber value chain : Dutch policy options from an innovation system approach
Berg, J. van den; Ingram, V.J. ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Harms, B. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 344) - 113
tropisch hout - internationale handel - internationale samenwerking - ecosysteemdiensten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - overheidsbeleid - nederland - tropical timbers - international trade - international cooperation - ecosystem services - sustainability - government policy - netherlands
This WOt Working document explores the governance options available to the Dutch government for the promotion of the sustainable use and maintenance of ecosystem services in tropical timber value chains with Dutch links and how ecosystem services can be given a more explicit place in the public and market mechanisms that govern the tropical timber chain. This document presents the results of a discourse analysis on how Dutch policies and practice address ecosystem services along with the results of a detailed examination of four specific cases of innovation from within the tropical timber chain: the Sustainable Trade Action Plan (STAP) 2011-2015, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and ForCES certification, the Dutch public procurement policy and the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiative. From the discourse analysis this document concludes that the term ecosystem services is not yet clearly defined, a result of its strong link to markets and attempts to define it in terms of economic value. Lessons to be learnt from the analysis of the four innovation cases include the need to simplify what is meant by ecosystem services, the need for evidence of the impact of certification and how it maintains or enhances ecosystem services, the need to work towards a list of internationally agreedupon impact indicators; the need to harmonize the array of certification schemes available and the need to know how the government can mix policy strategies using market based ‘carrots’ and incentive based ‘sticks’ (such as tax incentives and pilots) to stimulate new partnerships. These lessons have resulted in five recommendations for the Dutch government on how to further integrate sustainable use and maintenance of ecosystem services in the tropical timber chain.
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