Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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A New Value Chain for Rubber and Inulin Production in the European BioEconomy
Hingsamer, Maria ; Beerman, M. ; Jungmeier, Gerfried ; Meer, I.M. van der; Dijk, P. van; Muylle, Hilde ; Kirschner, Jan ; Kappen, F.H.J. ; Gevers, N. - \ 2017
biobased economy - biobased materials - biomass - rubber - taraxacum kok-saghyz - inulin
DRIVE4EU - ‘Dandelion Rubber and Inulin Valorization and Exploitation for Europe’, a European demonstration project sets up a European chain for the production and processing of natural rubber and inulin from Taraxacum koksaghyz (TKS, Rubber dandelion) to become less dependent on the import of natural rubber. Natural rubber is a sustainable material that is used for more than 40,000 products, e.g. natural rubber is applied in construction (adhesives, sealants), medicine (gloves, tubing) and transportation (matting, tyres) industries. Because of the specific quality aspects of natural rubber in many products it cannot be replaced by synthetic rubber. At the moment natural rubber is exclusively harvested from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) of which about 90% is grown in South East Asia.
Biobased Economy: Paardenbloem als rubberleverancier
Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
rubber - taraxacum kok-saghyz - inuline - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - inulin - biobased materials
Natuurrubber is een onmisbaar bestanddeel in tienduizenden toepassingen, van auto- en vliegtuigband tot condooms en medische apparatuur. De Russische paardenbloem kan het Europese alternatief zijn voor natuurrubber van de rubberboomplantages in Azië en kwalitatief minder goede synthetische rubber, dat van aardolie wordt gemaakt. Ingrid van der Meer van Wageningen University & Research vertelt er alles over.
Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.
Peeters, B.P.H. ; Tonnis, W.F. ; Murugappan, S. ; Rottier, P. ; Koch, G. ; Frijlink, H.W. ; Huckriede, A. ; Hinrichs, W.L.J. - \ 2014
Vaccine 32 (2014)48. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 6445 - 6450.
a h5n1 - aerosol vaccination - immune-responses - mass vaccination - powder - transmission - delivery - poultry - inulin - birds
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is, however, problematic in emergency situations, e.g. during outbreaks in poultry, as there are currently no mass application methods to effectively vaccinate large numbers of birds within a short period of time. To evaluate the suitability of needle-free pulmonary immunization for mass vaccination of poultry against HPAI H5N1, we performed a proof-of-concept study in which we investigated whether non-adjuvanted spray-freeze-dried (SFD) whole inactivated virus (WIV) can be used as a dry powder aerosol vaccine to immunize chickens. Our results show that chickens that received SFD-WIV vaccine as aerosolized powder directly at the syrinx (the site of the tracheal bifurcation), mounted a protective antibody response after two vaccinations and survived a lethal challenge with HPAI H5N1. Furthermore, both the number of animals that shed challenge virus, as well as the level of virus shedding, were significantly reduced. Based on antibody levels and reduction of virus shedding, pulmonary vaccination with non-adjuvanted vaccine was at least as efficient as intratracheal vaccination using live virus. Animals that received aerosolized SFD-WIV vaccine by temporary passive inhalation showed partial protection (22% survival) and a delay in time-to-death, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the method, but indicating that the efficiency of vaccination by passive inhalation needs further improvement. Altogether our results provide a proof-of-concept that pulmonary vaccination using an SFD-WIV powder vaccine is able to protect chickens from lethal HPAI challenge. If the efficacy of pulmonary vaccination by passive inhalation can be improved, this method might be suitable for mass application.
Selective carbohydrate utilization by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria
Watson, D. ; O'Connell Motherway, M. ; Schoterman, M.H.C. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Nauta, A. ; Sinderen, D. van - \ 2013
Journal of Applied Microbiology 114 (2013)4. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 1132 - 1146.
galacto-oligosaccharides - comparative genomics - beta-galactosidase - gut microbiome - prebiotics - growth - inulin - milk - oligofructose - modulation
Aim - To evaluate the ability of specific carbohydrates, including commercially available products, to support the growth of representatives of two well-known groups of gut commensals, namely lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Methods and Results - Sixty-eight bacterial strains, representing 29 human-derived lactobacilli and 39 bifidobacteria (both human- and animal-derived), were tested for their ability to metabolize 10 different carbohydrates. Analysis of growth and metabolic activity was performed using a combination of diagnostic parameters, such as final OD600, final pH, fermentation end products and growth rate. Conclusions - The data assembled in this study provide significant complementary and comparative information on the growth-promoting properties of a range of carbohydrates, while also investigating interspecies differences between lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria with regard to their carbohydrate utilization abilities. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and lactulose were shown to support the most favourable growth characteristics, whereas relatively poor growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed on inulin, maltodextrin and polydextrose. GOS/inulin (9 : 1) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/inulin mixtures supported mostly similar growth abilities to those obtained for GOS and FOS, respectively. Microbial consumption of GOS, as determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, was evident for both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
Immune Modulation by Different Types of ß2¿1-Fructans Is Toll-Like Receptor Dependent
Vogt, L. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Venema, K. ; Faas, M.M. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
chain fatty-acids - nf-kappa-b - blood mononuclear-cells - dendritic cells - lactobacillus-rhamnosus - bifidobacterium-lactis - signal-transduction - innate immunity - dietary fiber - inulin
Introduction ß2¿1-fructans are dietary fibers. Main objectives of this study were 1) to demonstrate direct signalling of ß2¿1-fructans on immune cells, 2) to study whether this is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing proteins (NODs), and 3) to relate the observed effects to the chain length differences in ß2¿1-fructans. Methods Four different ß2¿1-fructan formulations were characterised for their chain length profile. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro with ß2¿1-fructans, and production of IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-a was analysed. Reporter cells for TLRs and NODs were incubated with ß2¿1-fructans and analysed for NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Results Cytokine production in human PBMCs was dose- and chain length-dependent. Strikingly, short chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans induced a regulatory cytokine balance compared to long chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans as measured by IL-10/IL-12 ratios. Activation of reporter cells showed that signalling was highly dependent on TLRs and their adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88). In human embryonic kidney reporter cells, TLR2 was prominently activated, while TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2 were mildly activated. Conclusions ß2¿1-fructans possess direct signalling capacity on human immune cells. By activating primarily TLR2, and to a lesser extent TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2, ß2¿1-fructan stimulation results in NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Chain length of ß2¿1-fructans is important for the induced activation pattern and IL-10/IL-12 ratios.
Fructan biosynthesis in crop plants : the molecular regulation of fructan biosynthesis in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)
Arkel, J. van - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Harro Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): Ingrid van der Meer. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736635 - 158
cichorium intybus - gewassen - zea mays - solanum tuberosum - transgene planten - koolhydraten - fructanen - biosynthese - inuline - polymerisatie - crops - transgenic plants - carbohydrates - fructans - biosynthesis - inulin - polymerization

Fructan is a polymer of fructose produced by plants and microorganisms. Within the plant kingdom about 45.000 species accumulate fructan as storage carbohydrate in addition to, or instead of, starch. Fructan accumulating species are mainly found in temperate and sub-tropical regions with seasonal or sporadic rainfall. During the last decades, the use of fructan in the (food) industry has rapidly evolved, because of its health promoting characteristics and interesting functional properties.Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a biennial taproot-bearing crop plant that is grown for the production of inulin on an industrial scale. Inulin, a ß(2,1) linked linear fructan with a terminal glucose residue, is stored in the chicory taproots. The degree of polymerisation (DP) determines the application of the inulin and hence the value of the crop. This leads us to the central question of this thesis:

What regulates the fructan yield and the degree of polymerisation, and how can we modify this?

The DP is highly dependent on the field conditions and harvest time, and therefore the first step in answering this question was tostudy the regulation of fructan (inulin) metabolism throughout the growing season. This is described in Chapter 2. Metabolic aspects of inulin production and degradation in chicory were monitored in the field and under controlled conditions. We determined the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, the inulin mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), inulin yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism in the taproots. Inulin biosynthesis - catalysed by sucrose: sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) (1-SST) and fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100) (1-FFT) - started at the onset of taproot development. Inulin yield increased with time following a sigmoid curve reaching a maximum in November. The maximum inulin mDP of 15 was reached in September and then gradually decreased. Based on the changes observed in the pattern of inulin accumulation, we defined three phases in the growing season and analysed product formation, enzyme activity and gene expression in these defined periods. The results were validated by performing experiments under controlled conditions in climate rooms. Our results show that the decrease in 1-SST is not regulated by day length and temperature. From mid-September onwards the mDP decreased gradually although inulin yield still increased. This is most probably the result from back-transfer activity of 1-FFT and fructan exohydrolase activity (EC 3.2.1.153) (1-FEH). In plants 1-FEH catalyses the breakdown of fructan in order to release the stored carbohydrates necessary in periods of stress, like cold or drought periodsor flowering. This information was used to design two strategies to obtain the desired, increased inulin DP and yield. Overexpression of 1-SSTwas performed to increase the mDP and to keep the sucrose concentration low, to prevent 1-FFT from depolymerizing inulin. The result was a higher mDP during the growing season. Unfortunately, no effect on the mDP was seen at the end of the growing season, most probably due to activity of FEH. Secondly, anFEH I antisense fragment was introduced into chicory in order to block depolymerisation at the end of the growing season. This resulted in a reduction in FEH Iexpression upon cold induction, but had only minor effects on the mDP. The degradation of inulin was most probably caused by the remaining 1-FEH activity. Overall this study showed that inulin metabolism in chicory is tightly regulated, but also revealed options to further steer inulin metabolism in chicory.

The next step in answering the central question was to study the regulation of the genes involved in fructan biosynthesis. In Chapter 3this was studied at three different levels. Firstly, fructan gene expression and carbohydrate concentrations were studied in axial sections of mature chicory root, revealing the highest expression levels and carbohydrate levels in the phloem. Correlations were found between the gene expression patterns of 1-SST, 1-FFT and the carbohydrate levels, suggesting a possible involvement of sugars in the regulation of 1-SSTand 1-FFTgene expression. Secondly, the induction of 1-SSTand 1-FFTexpression was studied in excised chicory leaves. Expression of both 1-SSTand 1-FFTwas induced upon sucrose and glucose feeding, suggesting that both genes are at least partly regulated in the same way. Upon fructose feeding, the induction of fructan biosynthesis was less pronounced than with sucrose. The expression of 1-SSTwas induced by fructose but this resulted in only low amounts of 1-kestose. The expression of 1-FFTwas not induced upon fructose feeding.Thirdly, to further unravel the mechanism of induction, the promoters of 1-SSTand 1-FFTfrom chicory were isolated and characterized through in silicoand in planta(only 1-FFT) analysis. Computational analysis of fructosyltransferase (FT) promoters revealed elements that are common in fructan biosynthesis-promoters among different species and also occur in Arabidopsis promoter sequences. One of these elements is predominantly present in genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport. This element did also contain a core sequence involved in MYB transcription factor binding important for fructan biosynthesis activation in wheat, as was published recently. An 1100bp 1-FFTpromoter fragment was shown to be functional in transgenic chicory and in the non-fructan accumulating plants species, Arabidopsis and potato. Application of carbohydrates resulted in the expression of the reporter gene GUS comparable to 1-FFTexpression upon carbohydrate feeding in chicory. This study provides information on the regulation of inulin biosynthesis, suggestions for studies on transcription factors, and provides a promoter for steering the expression of fructan biosynthetic genes in transgenic plants. An alternative way for the production of inulin with the desired DP and yield, circumventing the problems in chicory rather than trying to solve them, is the introduction of the fructan biosynthetic pathway in non-fructan metabolizing and catabolizing plant species.

Towards this end we have expressed the inulin synthesizing enzymes, 1-SST and 1-FFT from Jerusalem artichoke, in maize and potato, as described inChapter 4. Transgenic maize plants produced inulin type fructan (at 3.2 milligram per gram kernel) and kernel development was not affected. Potato tubers expressing 1-SSTaccumulated 1.8 milligram inulin per gram tuber while tubers with a combined expression of 1-SSTand 1-FFTaccumulated 2.6 milligram inulin per gram tuber. Inulin accumulation in maize kernels was modulated by kernel development, first peaking in young seeds and then decreasing again through degradation during late kernel development. In potato, inulin mDP was relatively stable throughout tuber development and little evidence of degradation was observed. The accumulation of 1-kestose in transgenic maize correlated positively with kernel sucrose concentration and introduction of the fructan biosynthetic pathway in a high-sucrose maize background increased inulin accumulation to 41 milligram per gram kernel kernel. This study shows the importance of sugar availability and the absence of degradation mechanisms in platform crops for tailor-made fructan production.

Further evaluation of the production of tailor-made inulin and putative platform crops is discussed in Chapter5.Here we come to the conclusion that the mDP, the distribution and yield depend on the origin of the fructan biosynthesis genes and the availability of sucrose in the host. The combination of genes from different origins could result in new types and different lengths of fructan molecules resulting in (new) specific properties of fructan. Limitations for the production of tailor-made fructan in chicory are not seen in putative new platform crops, such as sugar beet, sugarcane and rice.

The work described in this thesis on fructan biosynthesis in chicory and in new platform crops has resulted in new insights that will lead new applied and fundamental research in this field.

Novel surface-active oligofructose fatty acid mono-esters by enzymatic esterification
Kempen, S.E.H.J. van; Boeriu, C.G. ; Schols, H.A. ; Waard, P. de; Linden, E. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 138 (2013)2-3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1884 - 1891.
lipase-catalyzed synthesis - candida-antarctica lipase - solid-phase synthesis - regioselective acylation - fructose esters - chain-length - disaccharides - inulin - oligosaccharides - ingredients
This article describes the synthesis of a series of oligofructose monoesters with fatty acids of different chain length (C8, C12, C16 and C18) to obtain food-grade surfactants with a range of amphiphilicity. Reactions were performed in a mixture of DMSO/ButOH (10/90 v/v) at 60 °C and catalysed by immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the crude reaction products were mixtures of unmodified oligofructose and mostly mono-esters. The conversion into mono-esters increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reflecting the specificity of the lipase towards more lipophilic substrates. Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to fractionate the products, which lead to sufficient purity (>93%) of the fatty acid esters for functionality testing. It was shown that derivatives of longer (C16 and C18) fatty acids were more efficient in lowering surface tension and gave a much higher dilatational modulus than derivatives of the shorter (C8 and C12) fatty acids.
Effects of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) on juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) performance, immune responses and gastrointestinal microbial community
Geraylou, Z. ; Souffreau, C. ; Rurangwa, E. ; Hondt, S. D'; Callewaert, L. ; Courtin, C.M. ; Delcour, J.A. ; Buyse, J. ; Ollevier, F. - \ 2012
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 33 (2012)4. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 718 - 724.
in-vitro fermentation - xylo-oligosaccharides - nonspecific immunity - dietary inclusion - by-product - wheat bran - prebiotics - growth - inulin - rats
Arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are a newly discovered class of candidate prebiotics that exert different properties depending on their structure. In this study the effects of two different structures of AXOS, namely AXOS-32-0.30 (average degree of polymerization: 32, average degree of substitution: 0.30) and AXOS-3-0.25, were investigated on growth performance, immune responses, gut microbial fermentation and gut bacterial composition of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). After a two weeks acclimation, fish (25.9 ± 0.9 g) were distributed over 24 aquariums (8 replicates per treatment) and fed a control diet or a diet containing 2% AXOS-32-0.30 or AXOS-3-0.25 for 12 weeks. Growth performance and feed utilization tend to improve in sturgeon fed on diets supplemented with AXOS-32-0.30, however not significant. Survival was high in all groups. Both AXOS preparations significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of fish macrophages compared to the control group, while the alternative haemolytic complement activity and total serum peroxidase content improved only in the group fed AXOS-32-0.30 (P <0.05). The lysozyme activity was not affected by AXOS addition. Simultaneously, the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was highest in the hind gut of sturgeon fed AXOS-32-0.30. The concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total SCFAs in fish fed AXOS-32-0.30 was significantly higher than in the groups fed the control diet or AXOS-3-0.25. Study of the bacterial community in the sturgeon hindgut using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that both preparations of AXOS induced changes in the bacterial composition. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), hindgut microbiota of each treatment group clustered apart from one another (P = 0.001). DNA sequencing of the dominant DGGE bands recovered from the different treatments showed that AXOS mainly stimulated the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp., with more pronounced effects of AXOS-32-0.30. It is concluded that AXOS improves sturgeon health through prebiotic action, but the induced effects depend on the specific structure of AXOS. A higher degree of polymerization of AXOS had a stronger beneficial impact in this sturgeon species
Enzymatic Production and Characterization of Konjac Glucomannan Oligosaccharides
Albrecht, S.A. ; Muiswinkel, G.C.J. van; Xu, Jiqiang ; Schols, H.A. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2011
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (2011)23. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 12658 - 12666.
in-vitro fermentation - human colonic microbiota - dietary modulation - prebiotics - purification - microflora - mannan - inulin - pigs
Enzymes from a balanced human gut flora are promising tools to design prebiotic oligosaccharides. In this study, we investigated the action of enzymes from fecal bacteria on the complex polysaccharide konjac glucomannan (KGM). The oligosaccharides produced were compared to oligosaccharides from KGM digests with fungal endo-ß-(1,4)-glucanase (EG) or endo-ß-(1,4)-mannanase (EM). For this purpose, the oligosaccharides from the different digests were first studied for their structural characteristics like monosugar composition and exo-enzymatic degradability, as monitored by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Whereas the oligosaccharides produced by EG and EM were characteristic for the selectivity of the respective enzyme in cleaving the mannose-/glucose-sugar linkages of KGM, oligosaccharides produced by the fecal enzymes did not point to a sugar-selective degradation. The oligosaccharide fragments from the different digests indicated the KGM polysaccharide to be composed of a backbone composed of short mannose and glucose sequences, to which branches rich in mannose are attached.
Dietary calcium decreases but short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides increase colonic permeability in rats
Schepens, M.A.A. ; Rijnierse, A. ; Schonewille, A.J. ; Vink, C. ; Brummer, R.J.M. ; Willemsen, L.E.M. ; Meer, R. van de; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J. - \ 2010
British Journal of Nutrition 104 (2010)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1780 - 1786.
intestinal permeability - ulcerative-colitis - crohns-disease - fatty-acids - bile-acids - inulin - salmonella - humans - oligofructose - translocation
An increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diseases. Nutrition can influence gut permeability. Previously, we showed that dietary Ca decreases whereas dietary short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) increase intestinal permeability in rats. However, it is unknown how and where in the gastrointestinal tract Ca and scFOS exert their effects. Rats were fed a Western low-Ca control diet, or a similar diet supplemented with either Ca or scFOS. Lactulose plus mannitol and Cr-EDTA were added to the diets to quantify small and total gastrointestinal permeability, respectively. Additionally, colonic tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers and exposed to faecal water of these rats. Dietary Ca immediately decreased urinary Cr-EDTA excretion by 24 % in Ca-fed rats compared with control rats. Dietary scFOS increased total Cr-EDTA permeability gradually with time, likely reflecting relatively slow gut microbiota adaptations, which finally resulted in a 30 % increase. The lactulose: mannitol ratio was 15 % higher for Ca-fed rats and 16 % lower for scFOS-fed rats compared with control rats. However, no dietary effect was present on individual urinary lactulose and mannitol excretion. The faecal waters did not influence colonic permeability in Ussing chambers. In conclusion, despite effects on the lactulose: mannitol ratio, individual lactulose values did not alter, indicating that diet did not influence small-intestinal permeability. Therefore, both nutrients affect permeability only in the colon: Ca decreases, while scFOS increase colonic permeability. As faecal water did not influence permeability in Ussing chambers, probably modulation of mucins and/or microbiota is important for the in vivo effects of dietary Ca and scFOS.
Factoranalyse voor het verklaren van opbrengst- en gehalteverschillen tussen percelen cichorei
Brink, L. van den - \ 2008
Kennisakker.nl 2008 (2008)24 nov.
bladgroenten - cichorium - groeistadia - teeltsystemen - bodemtypen (naar textuur) - oogsttijdstip - factoranalyse - statistische analyse - gewasopbrengst - inuline - gewasgroeimodellen - bedrijfsgegevens - akkerbouw - leafy vegetables - growth stages - cropping systems - soil types (textural) - harvesting date - factor analysis - statistical analysis - crop yield - inulin - crop growth models - farm accountancy data - arable farming
502-F-3 513-G-1
Highly Stable Foams from Block Oligomers Synthesized by Enzymatic Reactions
Sagis, L.M.C. ; Boeriu, C.G. ; Frissen, A.E. ; Schols, H.A. ; Wierenga, P.A. - \ 2008
Langmuir 24 (2008)2. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 359 - 361.
vesicles - inulin
We have synthesized a new amphiphilic block oligomer by the enzymatic linking of a fatty acid (lauric acid) to a fructan oligomer (inulin) and tested the functionality of this carbohydrate derivative in foam stabilization. The structure of the modified oligosaccharide was found to be (Fruc)n(Glc)1CO-C11H23, which implies that on average one lauric acid molecule was linked to one inulin molecule. The new component produces foams with exceptional stability. Our results show that enzymatic acylation can produce an entirely new class of amphiphilic materials, with functionality comparable to that of synthetic block copolymers
Met yacòn de boer op : vaststellen van de grenzen aan bruikbaarheid, verwerkbaarheid en geschiktheid van yacòn
Braaksma, A. ; Heijden, C.H.T.M. van der - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 233) - ISBN 9789085850755 - 20
groenten - wortelgewassen als groente - productontwikkeling - beschrijvingen - recepten - voedselbereiding - verkleuring - inuline - asteraceae - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - vegetables - root vegetables - product development - descriptions - recipes - food preparation - discoloration - inulin - new crops
Effects of dietary fructo- oligosaccharide on villous height and disaccharidase activity of the small intestine, pH, VFA and ammonia concentrations in the large intestine of weaned pigs
Shim, S.B. ; Williams, I.H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2005
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A-Animal Science 55 (2005)2-3. - ISSN 0906-4702 - p. 91 - 97.
crypt depth - cell-proliferation - villus height - piglets - inulin - fructooligosaccharides - digestion - supplementation - bifidobacteria - oligofructose
An experiment was conducted to investigate changes in the lumen and wall of the intestinal tract of weaned pigs caused by fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and consequences for growth. Twelve male pigs weaned at 24 days were individually housed and fed either control, 0.25% FOS, or 3% FOS diets for 21 days after weaning. The pH of chyme in the caecum and proximal colon were lower (p
Prebiotics and other microbial substrates for gut functionality
Ouwehand, A.C. ; Derrien, M.M.N. ; Vos, W.M. de; Tiihonen, K. ; Rautonen, N. - \ 2005
Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16 (2005)2. - ISSN 0958-1669 - p. 212 - 217.
chain fatty-acids - human-colon - large-intestine - fructo-oligosaccharides - anaerobic-bacteria - trefoil factors - dietary-fibers - fermentation - rat - inulin
The intestinal microbiota is of great importance to our health and wellbeing. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota by exogenous and endogenous substrates can be expected to improve various physiological functions of our body, not just those in the intestine. Recently, new targets such as immune function and areas outside the colon have been considered to be influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Novel approaches might include the application of prebiotics in different combinations or the provision of nutrients to different bacterial groups and to different parts of the intestine.
Real-time PCR detection of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents of Eimeria tenella-infected broilers fed soybean oligosaccharides and soluble soybean polysaccharides
Lan, Y. ; Xun, S. ; Tamminga, S. ; Williams, B.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Erdi, G. - \ 2004
Poultry Science 83 (2004)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1696 - 1702.
competitive-exclusion - quantitative pcr - inulin - lactobacillus - oligofructose - differentiation - colonization - fluorescence - performance - chickens
This experiment was conducted to test whether dietary soybean meal oligosaccharides (SMO) and water-soluble polysaccharides (SMP) can assist broiler chickens in resisting Eimeria tenella, and to determine the survival of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents postinfection. All birds received a soybean meal-free diet. The 6 experimental treatments were as follows: positive (COR) and negative (COW) control groups, 2 groups fed diets containing either 1% SMO or 0.5% SMP from 1 to 11 d of age; a vaccinated group (VAC), and an anticoccidial medicated group (ANT). Chickens of all treatments except COW were orally infected with 1000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella on d 15. Fecal oocyst shedding was monitored per treatment group between d 5 and 13 postinfection. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in cecal contents were evaluated by a real-time PCR technique on d 7 postinfection. The results showed that the SMO and SMP groups had a lower number of oocysts per gram of feces during the monitoring period than the COR group. Threshold cycles were 22.21, 27.68, 13.99, 14.92, 12.97, and 14.85, for COW, COR, SMO, SMP, VAC, and ANT groups, respectively; specific PCR products were confirmed by the results of melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that these LAB communities were promoted by SMO and SMP and have a competitive exclusion function when broiler chickens are infected with E. tenella
Bewaring van cichorei
Brink, L. van den - \ 2003
Kennisakker.nl 2003 (2003)15 juli.
cichorei - cichorium - oogsten - opslagruimte - opslag - inuline - opslagverliezen - akkerbouw - chicory - harvesting - storage space - storage - inulin - storage losses - arable farming
Elk jaar is het nodig dat een gedeelte van de cichorei-oogst bewaard wordt bij telers. De laatste cichorei kan namelijk pas in februari bij de fabriek geleverd worden. Veelal wordt er in de praktijk naar gestreefd om de cichorei uiterlijk begin december van het veld te hebben. Dit betekent dat er partijen cichorei zijn die zeven à acht weken opgeslagen moeten worden op het bedrijf van de teler. Tijdens deze bewaring treden er verliezen op aan wortelopbrengst en ook het inulinegehalte loopt terug. De mate waarin dit gebeurt, blijkt sterk te verschillen van partij tot partij en ook van jaar tot jaar. In de jaren 1997 t/m 2002 is er onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden om de bewaarverliezen te beperken en de kwaliteit zoveel mogelijk op peil te houden. Gebleken is dat cichorei het beste kan worden bewaard in onafgedekte hopen. Afdekken is alleen gewenst indien de temperatuur in kuil onder het vriespunt dreigt te komen. Voor een goed bewaarresultaat zijn wel enkele praktische punten belangrijk
Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides and latulose inhibit intestinal colonisation but stimulate translocation of salmonella in rats
Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J. ; Bruggencate, S.J.M. ten; Lettink-Wissink, M.L.G. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2003
Gut 52 (2003). - ISSN 0017-5749 - p. 1572 - 1578.
chain fatty-acids - nitric-oxide - resistant starch - bacterial translocation - fecal microflora - mucin secretion - in-vitro - calcium - inulin - fermentation
Background and aims: It is frequently assumed that dietary non-digestible carbohydrates improve host resistance to intestinal infections by stimulating the protective gut microflora. However, compelling scientific evidence from in vivo infection studies is lacking. Therefore, we studied the effect of several non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of rats to Salmonella enteritidis infection. Methods: Rats (n = 8 per group) were fed "humanised'' purified diets containing 4% lactulose, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), resistant starch, wheat fibre, or cellulose. After an adaptation period of 2 weeks the animals were orally infected with S enteritidis. Supplement induced changes in faecal biochemical and microbiological parameters were studied before infection. Colonisation of salmonella was determined by studying the faecal excretion of this pathogen and translocation by analysis of urinary nitric oxide metabolites over time and classical organ cultures. Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase activity was determined to quantify intestinal inflammation after infection. Results: Despite stimulation of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and inhibition of salmonella colonisation, FOS and lactulose significantly enhanced translocation of this pathogen. These supplements also increased cytotoxicity of faecal water and faecal mucin excretion, which may reflect mucosal irritation. In addition, caecal and colonic, but not ileal, mucosal myeloperoxidase activity was increased in infected rats fed FOS and lactulose. In contrast, cellulose, wheat fibre, and resistant starch did not affect the resistance to salmonella. Conclusions: In contrast to most expectations, FOS and lactulose impair the resistance of rats to intestinal salmonella infection. Obviously, stimulation of the endogenous lactobacilli and bifidobacteria is no guarantee of improved host defence against intestinal infections.
Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops
Sevenier, R.E. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Bino, R.J. ; Koops, A.J. - \ 2002
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21 (2002)3S. - ISSN 0731-5724 - p. 199S - 204S.
helianthus-tuberosus colombia - fructan biosynthesis - oligofructose - purification - enzymes - inulin - cells
Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved in fructan synthesis, the sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (isolated from Jerusalem artichoke), into sugar beet. The transgenic sugar beet showed a dramatic change in the nature of the accumulated sugar, 90% of the sucrose being converted into fructan. The use of transgenic sugar beet for the production and isolation of fructans will result in a more efficient plant production system of fructans and should promote their use in human food. The second example shows how the over-expression of the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis could increase anti-oxidant levels in tomato. Introduction of a highly expressed chalcone isomerase led to a seventyfold increase of the amount of quercetin glucoside, which is a strong anti-oxidant in tomato. We were also able to modify the essential amino acid content of potato in order to increase its nutritional value. The introduction of a feedback insensitive bacterial gene involved in biosynthesis of aspartate family amino acids led to a sixfold increase of the lysine content. Because the use of a bacterial gene could appear to be controversial, we also introduced a mutated form of the plant key enzyme of lysine biosynthesis (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) in potato. This modification led to a 15 times increase of the lysine content of potato. This increase of the essential amino acid lysine influences the nutritional value of potato, which normally has low levels of several essential amino acids. These three examples show how the metabolism of primary constituents of the plant cell such as sugar or amino acids, but also of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, can be modified by genetic engineering. Producing fructan, a soluble fiber, increasing the level of flavonoids, an antioxidant, in tomato or increasing the level of essential amino acids in potato are all clear examples of plant genetic modifications with possible positive effects on human nutrition
Intibo als alternatief voor amgb's bij gespeende biggen
Krimpen, M.M. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Plagge, J.G. ; Prado, C. del - \ 2002
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (Praktijkboek / Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij 2) - 31
biggen - postspeeninterval - inuline - fructanen - oligosacchariden - medicinale planten - antimicrobe-eigenschappen - medicinaal voer - groeibevorderaars - voedertoevoegingen - varkenshouderij - dierlijke productie - prestatieniveau - varkensvoeding - alternatieve methoden - piglets - postweaning interval - inulin - fructans - oligosaccharides - medicinal plants - antimicrobial properties - medicated feeds - growth promoters - feed additives - pig farming - animal production - performance - pig feeding - alternative methods
Het gebruik van antimicrobiële groeibevorderaars (AMGB's) staat ter discussie en wordt in de toekomst mogelijk verboden. Met het vooruitzicht hierop is de mengvoersector bezig met het ontwikkelen van voerconcepten die een alternatief moeten zijn voor AMGB's. :Op verzoek van Speerstra Feed Ingredients BV te Lemmer heeft het Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de effectiviteit van Intiboe, een fructooligosaccharide, als alternatief voor AMGB. :In het onderzoek zijn twee experimenten uitgevoerd, met elk drie proefbehandelingen (een positieve en negatieve controle en de behandeling met Intiboe). In beide experimenten werd een dosering van 300 gram/ton werkzame stof Intiboe toegepast. In experiment I werd een verdund (10 %-tig) mengsel (Intiboe 9-10) verwerkt en in experiment II een onverdund product (Intiboe9). Op een leeftijd van gemiddeld 4 weken zijn de biggen gespeend en ingedeeld voor de proef. Zij zijn vanaf spenen 34 dagen gevolgd. In beide experimenten zijn circa 540 biggen gevolgd. Per behandeling zijn 18 herhalingen uitgevoerd.
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