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The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster
May, C.M. ; Doroszuk, A. ; Zwaan, B.J. - \ 2015
Ecology and Evolution 5 (2015)6. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 1156 - 1168.
thrifty phenotype hypothesis - ischemic-heart-disease - dietary restriction - larval nutrition - caenorhabditis-elegans - resource-allocation - prenatal exposure - history evolution - food limitation - body-size
Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of resource acquisition and allocation
Relationship of coagulation and fibrinolytic variables with arterial structure and function in Africans
Pieters, M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Lange, Z. de; Schutte, A.E. ; Schutte, R. ; Greeff, M. ; Ariens, R.A.S. - \ 2014
Thrombosis Research 134 (2014)1. - ISSN 0049-3848 - p. 78 - 83.
tissue-plasminogen-activator - individual participant metaanalysis - ischemic-heart-disease - cardiovascular-disease - myocardial-infarction - plasma-fibrinogen - edinburgh artery - risk-factors - inflammatory markers - hemostatic factors
Introduction: Although both coagulation and fibrinolysis are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) the underlying nature and pathways of many of these associations are still unclear. Our aim was to determine which of the current or 5-year prior levels of total fibrinogen, fibrinogen gamma', plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1(act)) and global fibrinolytic potential were the stronger determinant of arterial structure and function. Materials and methods: This prospective study consisted of 2010 Africans over the age of 35 years with 5-year follow-up data available for 1288 participants. Cardiovascular measurements included arterial stiffness, blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness. Results: Fibrinogen gamma' showed stronger associations with blood pressure than total fibrinogen also in the presence of other CVD risk factors. PAI-1(act) was positively associated with blood pressure both cross-sectionally and prospectively, with the longitudinal association being the stronger determinant, also after adjustment for known CVD risk factors. Clot lysis time (CLT) was positively associated, both prospectively and crosssectionally, with intima media thickness and negatively with markers of arterial stiffness but not after adjustment for known CVD risk factors. Conclusions: Fibrinogen gamma' was more strongly associated with CVD function than total fibrinogen. PAI-1(act) was significantly associated with blood pressure with changes in PAI-1 levels preceding changes in blood pressure. Different mechanisms may be at play determining arterial wall stiffness/thickening and blood pressure as observed from the opposing associations with PAI-1act and CLT. CLT was not independently related to cardiovascular measures as its associations were weakened in the presence of other known CVD risk factors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study
Boers, I. ; Muskiet, F.A.J. ; Berkelaar, E. ; Schut, E. ; Penders, R. ; Hoenderdos, K. ; Jong, M.C. de; Wichers, H.J. - \ 2014
Lipids in Health and Disease 13 (2014). - ISSN 1476-511X - 13 p.
obese postmenopausal women - mediterranean-like diet - ischemic-heart-disease - hunter-gatherer - cardiovascular-disease - life-style - macronutrient - 21st-century - metaanalysis - individuals
Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolithic-type diet and may provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome. In addition, more information on feasibility and designing an innovative dietary research program on the basis of a Palaeolithic-type diet was obtained. Methods Thirty-four subjects, with at least two characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, were randomized to a two weeks Palaeolithic-type diet (n¿=¿18) or an isoenergetic healthy reference diet, based on the guidelines of the Dutch Health Council (n¿=¿14). Thirty-two subjects completed the study. Measures were taken to keep bodyweight stable. As primary outcomes oral glucose tolerance and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal circumference, blood pressure, glucose, lipids) were measured. Secondary outcomes were intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Data were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Results Subjects were 53.5 (SD9.7) year old men (n¿=¿9) and women (n¿=¿25) with mean BMI of 31.8 (SD5.7) kg/m2. The Palaeolithic-type diet resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (-9.1 mmHg; P¿=¿0.015), diastolic blood pressure (-5.2 mmHg; P¿=¿0.038), total cholesterol (-0.52 mmol/l; P¿=¿0.037), triglycerides (-0.89 mmol/l; P¿=¿0.001) and higher HDL-cholesterol (+0.15 mmol/l; P¿=¿0.013), compared to reference. The number of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome decreased with 1.07 (P¿=¿0.010) upon the Palaeolithic-type diet, compared to reference. Despite efforts to keep bodyweight stable, it decreased in the Palaeolithic group compared to reference (-1.32 kg; P¿=¿0.012). However, favourable effects remained after post-hoc adjustments for this unintended weight loss. No changes were observed for intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Conclusions We conclude that consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet for two weeks improved several cardiovascular risk factors compared to a healthy reference diet in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
A consideration of biomarkers to be used for evaluation of inflammation in human nutritional studies
Calder, P.C. ; Ahluwalia, N. ; Albers, R. ; Bosco, N. ; Bourdet-Sicard, R. ; Haller, D. ; Holgate, S.T. ; Jönsson, L.S. ; Latulippe, M.E. ; Marcos, A. ; Moreines, J. ; M'Rini, C. ; Müller, M.R. ; Pawelec, G. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Watzl, B. ; Zhao, J. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)S1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. S1 - S34.
c-reactive protein - necrosis-factor-alpha - low-grade inflammation - coronary-artery-disease - blood mononuclear-cells - ischemic-heart-disease - plasma il-6 levels - obstructive pulmonary-disease - endoplasmic-reticulum stress - systemic-lupus-erythematosus
To monitor inflammation in a meaningful way, the markers used must be valid: they must reflect the inflammatory process under study and they must be predictive of future health status. In 2009, the Nutrition and Immunity Task Force of the International Life Sciences Institute, European Branch, organized an expert group to attempt to identify robust and predictive markers, or patterns or clusters of markers, which can be used to assess inflammation in human nutrition studies in the general population. Inflammation is a normal process and there are a number of cells and mediators involved. These markers are involved in, or are produced as a result of, the inflammatory process irrespective of its trigger and its location and are common to all inflammatory situations. Currently, there is no consensus as to which markers of inflammation best represent low-grade inflammation or differentiate between acute and chronic inflammation or between the various phases of inflammatory responses. There are a number of modifying factors that affect the concentration of an inflammatory marker at a given time, including age, diet and body fatness, among others. Measuring the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream under basal conditions is probably less informative compared with data related to the concentration change in response to a challenge. A number of inflammatory challenges have been described. However, many of these challenges are poorly standardised. Patterns and clusters may be important as robust biomarkers of inflammation. Therefore, it is likely that a combination of multiple inflammatory markers and integrated readouts based upon kinetic analysis following defined challenges will be the most informative biomarker of inflammation.
Consumption of dairy products and associations with incident diabetes, CHD and mortality in the Whitehall II study
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Masset, G. ; Verberne, L.D.M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Brunner, E.J. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 718 - 726.
ischemic-heart-disease - postmenopausal women - metabolic syndrome - vascular-disease - life-style - fat intake - vitamin-d - risk - mellitus - milk
Few prospective studies have examined the effects of different types of dairy food on the risks of type 2 diabetes, CHD and mortality. We examined whether intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and fermented dairy products were related to these outcomes in the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. At baseline, dairy consumption was assessed by FFQ among 4526 subjects (72 % men) with a mean age 56 (sd 6) years. Death certificates and medical records were used to ascertain CHD mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Incident diabetes was detected by the oral glucose tolerance test or self-report. Incidence data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for lifestyle and dietary factors. During approximately 10 years of follow-up, 273 diabetes, 323 CHD and 237 all-cause mortality cases occurred. In multivariable models, intakes of total dairy and types of dairy products were not significantly associated with incident diabetes or CHD (all P values for trend >0·1). Fermented dairy products was inversely associated with overall mortality (hazard ratios approximately 0·7 in the middle and highest tertiles; P for trend <0·01) but not with incident CHD or diabetes (P>0·3). In conclusion, intakes of total dairy and types of dairy products showed no consistent relationship with incident diabetes, CHD or all-cause mortality.
Do dietary patterns in older men influence change in homocysteine through folate fortification? The Normative Aging Study
Knoops, K.T.B. ; Spiro, A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Kromhout, D. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Tucker, K.L. - \ 2009
Public Health Nutrition 12 (2009)10. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1760 - 1766.
folic-acid fortification - ischemic-heart-disease - acute coronary events - vitamin-b status - plasma homocysteine - serum folate - cardiovascular-disease - risk-factor - biochemical indicators - framingham nutrition
Objective We aimed to describe the difference in B-vitamin intake and in plasma B-vitamin and homocysteine concentrations before and after folic acid fortification, in relation to dietary patterns. Design The Normative Aging Study (NAS) is a longitudinal study on ageing. Between 1961 and 1970, 2280 male volunteers aged 21¿80 years (mean 42 years) were recruited. Dietary intake data have been collected since 1987 and assessment of plasma B vitamins and homocysteine was added in 1993. Setting Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Subjects In the present study, 354 men who had completed at least one FFQ and one measurement of homocysteine, both before and after the fortification period, were included. Results Three dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: (i) a prudent pattern, with relatively high intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat milk and breakfast cereals; (ii) an unhealthy pattern, with high intakes of baked products, sweets and added fats; and (iii) a low fruit and vegetable but relatively high alcohol intake pattern. Dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate increased significantly (P <0·05) among all dietary patterns after the fortification period. Homocysteine tended to decrease in supplement non-users and in subjects in the high alcohol, low fruit and vegetable dietary pattern (both P = 0·08). Conclusions After fortification with folic acid, folate intake and plasma folate concentration increased significantly in all dietary patterns. There was a trend towards greatest homocysteine lowering in the high alcohol, low fruit and vegetable group
Dietary intake and status of folate and vitamin B12 and their association with homocysteine and cardiovascular disease in European populations
Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Bree, A. de; Put, N.M.J. van der; Staveren, W.A. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 18 - 30.
ischemic-heart-disease - food-frequency questionnaire - randomized controlled-trial - acute myocardial-infarction - plasma total homocysteine - acute coronary events - folic-acid - b-vitamins - risk-factor - life-style
Background/Objectives: Folate and vitamin B12 have been suggested to play a role in chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases. The objectives are to give an overview of the actual intake and status of folate and vitamin B12 in general populations in Europe, and to evaluate these in view of the current vitamin recommendations and the homocysteine concentration. Methods: Searches in Medline with 'folic acid', 'folate' and 'vitamin B12', 'B12' or 'cobalamin' as key words were combined with the names of the European countries. Populations between 18 and 65 years were included. Results: Sixty-three articles reporting on studies from 15 European countries were selected. Low folate intakes were observed in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. Low intakes of vitamin B12 were not common and only seen in one small Greek study. In the countries with a low intake of folate, the recommended levels were generally not achieved, which was also reflected in the folate status. Vitamin B12 intake was not strongly associated with the vitamin B12 status, which can explain why in the Netherlands and Germany the vitamin B12 status was inadequate, despite sufficient intake levels. In countries with a low folate intake in particular, the Hcy concentration was higher than ideal. Conclusions: Populations from the Nordic countries, the Netherlands, Germany and Greece may need to improve their intakes of folic acid, B12 or both to either meet the recommendations or to optimize their statuses. This could be achieved via a food-based approach, food fortification or supplements.
Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women
Dalmeijer, G.W. ; Olthof, M.R. ; Verhoef, P. ; Bots, M.L. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der - \ 2008
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62 (2008). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 386 - 394.
plasma homocysteine concentrations - food-frequency questionnaire - ischemic-heart-disease - folic-acid - vascular-disease - healthy-men - myocardial-infarction - relative validity - stroke - vitamin-b-6
Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in the PROSPECT¿EPIC cohort, which is 1 of the 2 Dutch contributions to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Each participant completed a validated food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was calculated with the Dutch National Food Database. Betaine and choline intakes were calculated with the USDA database containing choline and betaine contents of common US foods. Data on coronary heart disease (CHD) events and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) events morbidity data were obtained from the Dutch Centre for Health Care Information. Results: During a median follow-up period of 97 months, 717 women were diagnosed with CVD. After adjustment, neither folate, nor betaine, nor choline intakes were associated with CVD (hazard ratios for highest versus lowest quartile were 1.23 (95% confidence interval 0.75; 2.01), 0.90 (0.69; 1.17), 1.04 (0.71; 1.53), respectively). In a subsample of the population, high folate and choline intakes were statistically significantly associated with lower homocysteine levels. High betaine intake was associated with slightly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion: Regular dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline were not associated with CVD risk in post-menopausal Dutch women. However, the effect of doses of betaine and choline beyond regular dietary intake ¿ for example, via supplementation or fortification ¿ remains unknown.
Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55000 vascular deaths (Prospective Studies Collaboration)
Kromhout, D. - \ 2007
The Lancet 370 (2007)9602. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1829 - 1839.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - ischemic-heart-disease - floating absolute risk - asia-pacific region - serum-cholesterol - cardiovascular-disease - myocardial-infarction - follow-up - stroke - men
Background Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol at baseline, to determine the joint relevance of these two risk factors. Methods Information was obtained from 61 prospective observational studies, mostly in western Europe or North America, consisting of almost 900000 adults without previous disease and with baseline measurements of total cholesterol and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55000 vascular deaths (34000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12000 stroke, 10000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150000 participants, among whom there were 5000 vascular deaths (3000 IHD, 1000 stroke, 1000 other). Reported associations are with usual cholesterol levels (ie, corrected for the regression dilution bias). Findings 1 mmol/L lower total cholesterol was associated with about a half (hazard ratio 0 . 44 [95% CI 0.42-0.48]), a third (0.66 [0.65-0.68]), and a sixth (0.83 [0.81-0.85]) lower IHD mortality in both sexes at ages 40-49, 50-69, and 70-89 years, respectively, throughout the main range of cholesterol in most developed countries, with no apparent threshold. The proportional risk reduction decreased with increasing blood pressure, since the absolute effects of cholesterol and blood pressure were approximately additive. Of various simple indices involving HDL cholesterol, the ratio total/HDL cholesterol was the strongest predictor of IHD mortality (40% more informative than non-HDL cholesterol and more than twice as informative as total cholesterol). Total cholesterol was weakly positively related to ischaemic and total stroke mortality in early middle age (40-59 years), but this finding could be largely or wholly accounted for by the association of cholesterol with blood pressure. Moreover, a positive relation was seen only in middle age and only in those with below-average blood pressure; at older ages (70-89 years) and, particularly, for those with systolic blood pressure over about 145 mm Hg, total cholesterol was negatively related to haemorrhagic and total stroke mortality. The results for other vascular mortality were intermediate between those for IHD and stroke. Interpretation Total cholesterol was positively associated with IHD mortality in both middle and old age and at all blood pressure levels. The absence of an independent positive association of cholesterol with stroke mortality, especially at older ages or higher blood pressures, is unexplained, and invites further research. Nevertheless, there is conclusive evidence from randomised trials that statins substantially reduce not only coronary event rates but also total stroke rates in patients with a wide range of ages and blood pressures.
Dispositional Optimism and the Risk of Cardiovascular Death : The Zutphen Elderly Study
Giltay, E.J. ; Kamphuis, M.H. ; Kalmijn, S. ; Zitman, F.G. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2006
Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (2006). - ISSN 0003-9926 - p. 431 - 436.
positive life orientation - ischemic-heart-disease - middle-aged women - carotid atherosclerosis - myocardial-infarction - depressive symptoms - trait anxiety - mortality - health - hopelessness
Background: Dispositional optimism, defined in terms of life engagement and generalized positive outcome expectancies for one¿s future, may be related to lower cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to determine whether dispositional optimism is a stable trait over time and whether it is independently related to lower cardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Methods: In a cohort study with a follow-up of 15 years, we included 545 (61.4%) of 887 men, aged 64 to 84 years, who were free of preexisting cardiovascular disease and cancer and who had complete data on cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics. Dispositional optimism was assessed using a 4-item questionnaire in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. In Cox proportional hazards models, the first 2 years of observation were excluded. Results: Optimism scores significantly decreased over 15 years, but showed temporal stability (reliability coefficients, 0.72 over 5 years and 0.78 over 15 years. Optimists in 1985 had a hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality of 0.45 (top tertile vs lowest tertile; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.68), adjusted for classic cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of cardiovascular death was inversely associated with increased tertiles of dispositional optimism (for trend). Similar results were obtained using 1990 data after additional adjustment for depression (assessed ) by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). Conclusion: Dispositional optimism is a relatively stable trait over 15 years and shows a graded and inverse association with the risk of cardiovascular death
Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen elderly study
Milder, I.E.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (2006)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 400 - 405.
breast-cancer risk - ischemic-heart-disease - plant lignans - phytoestrogen intake - mammalian lignans - postmenopausal women - serum concentrations - enterolactone - secoisolariciresinol - lariciresinol
Plant lignans are converted to enterolignans that have antioxidant and weak estrogen-like activities, and therefore they may lower cardiovascular disease and cancer risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the intakes of 4 plant lignans (lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol) were inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a prospective cohort study in which 570 men aged 64-84 y were followed for 15 y. We recently developed a database and used it to estimate the dietary intakes of 4 plant lignans. Lignan intake was related to mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: The median total lignan intake in 1985 was 977 microg/d. Tea, vegetables, bread, coffee, fruit, and wine were the major sources of lignan. The total lignan intake was not related to mortality. However, the intake of matairesinol was inversely associated with CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality (P
Acute effect of folic acid, betaine, and serine supplements on flow-mediated dilation after methionine loading: A randomized trial
Olthof, M.R. ; Bots, M.L. ; Katan, M.B. ; Verhoef, P. - \ 2006
PloS Clinical trials 1 (2006)1. - ISSN 1555-5887
coronary-artery-disease - vascular endothelial dysfunction - homocysteine-lowering therapy - placebo-controlled trial - ischemic-heart-disease - healthy-human subjects - saturated fatty-acids - plasma homocysteine - dependent vasodilation - cardiovascular events
Objectives: We investigated whether reducing post-methionine homocysteine concentrations via various treatments other than folic acid affects vascular function, as measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. High fasting and post-methionine homocysteine concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, but homocysteine might be a surrogate marker for low folate status. Design: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Setting: The study took place at Wageningen University in Wageningen in the Netherlands. Participants: Participants were 39 apparently healthy men and women, aged 50 - 70 y. Interventions: Participants ingested 10 mg of folic acid, 3 g of betaine, 5 g of serine, and placebo together with an oral methionine load. Each supplement was tested on two different days. Outcome Measures: On each of the eight treatment days, plasma homocysteine concentrations and FMD were measured before ( t = 0 h, fasting) and 6 h ( t = 6 h) after methionine loading. Results: The mean (+/- SD) fasting homocysteine concentrations averaged over the eight test days were 9.6 +/- 62.1 mu mol/l. Mean fasting FMD was 3.1 +/- 2.4 FMD%. A methionine load with placebo increased homocysteine concentrations by 17.2 +/- 9.3 mu mol/l at 6 h after loading, similar to the increase following methionine loading with folic acid. A methionine load together with betaine and with serine increased homocysteine by 10.4 +/- 2.8 mu mol/l ( p<0.001 relative to placebo) and by 12.1 +/- 8.2 mu mol/l ( p<0.001 relative to placebo), respectively. Methionine loading with placebo did not affect FMD, and neither did methionine loading with folic acid, betaine, or serine; differences relative to placebo were +0.7 FMD% (95% CI, - 0.6; 1.9), +0.2 FMD% (- 1.0; 1.3), and +0.3 FMD% ( - 0.8; 1.4), respectively. Conclusions: Experimentally induced acute changes in homocysteine concentrations did not affect FMD in healthy volunteers. This implies that potential adverse effects of high homocysteine concentrations on the cardiovascular system are not mediated through vascular function. However, homocysteine or folate may affect cardiovascular disease risk through other mechanisms.
Folate and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C ---> T mutation correlate with cognitive performance
Durga, J. ; Boxtel, M.P.J. van; Schouten, E.G. ; Bots, M.L. ; Kok, F.J. ; Verhoef, P. - \ 2006
Neurobiology of aging 27 (2006)2. - ISSN 0197-4580 - p. 334 - 343.
ischemic-heart-disease - alzheimers-disease - risk factor - folic-acid - 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase - mendelian randomization - plasma homocysteine - oxidative stress - elderly patients - common mutation
Low folate status has been associated with cognitive decline. We investigated the association of folate status and the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C ¿ T polymorphism with performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association of folate with cognitive performance was mediated by plasma homocysteine or risk of vascular disease. We used cross-sectional data from 818 individuals aged 50¿70 years old. Low concentrations of erythrocyte folate but not serum folate were associated with poor performance on complex speed and memory tasks, independent of educational level and conventional risk factors of vascular disease. These associations were not mediated by homocysteine concentrations or carotid intima-media thickness. Subjects with the MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to perform better on cognitive tasks than CC/CT subjects, although this was significant for sensorimotor speed only (differences in Z-scores between MTHFR 677TT homozygotes and CC homozygotes ¿0.15, 95% CI: ¿0.30 to 0.00). Low concentrations of erythrocyte folate are associated with decreased cognitive performance, possibly through a homocysteine-independent mechanism such as DNA infidelity and mitochondrial decay.
Effect size estimates of lifestyle and dietary changes on all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease patients. A systematic review
Iestra, J.A. ; Kromhout, D. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Grobbee, D.E. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Staveren, W.A. van - \ 2005
Circulation 112 (2005). - ISSN 0009-7322 - p. 924 - 934.
randomized controlled-trials - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - acute myocardial-infarction - atherosclerotic cardiovascular-disease - moderate alcohol-consumption - gissi-prevenzione trial - ischemic-heart-disease - male british doctors - 1st national-health - long-
Background¿Guidelines for lifestyle and dietary modification in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are mainly supported by evidence from general population studies. CAD patients, however, differ from the general population in age (older) and treatment with preventive drugs. This review seeks to provide evidence for a prognostic benefit of lifestyle and dietary recommendations from studies in CAD patients. Methods and Results¿A literature search was performed on the effect of lifestyle and dietary changes on mortality in CAD patients. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of patients with established CAD were included if they reported all-causes mortality and had at least 6 months of follow-up. The effect estimates of smoking cessation (relative risk [RR], 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.71), increased physical activity (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.98), and moderate alcohol use (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.83) were studied most extensively. For the 6 dietary goals, data were too limited to provide reliable effect size estimates. Combinations of dietary changes were associated with reduced mortality (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.74). Conclusions¿Available studies show convincingly the health benefits of lifestyle changes in CAD patients. Effect estimates of combined dietary changes look promising. Future studies should confirm these findings and assess the contribution of the individual dietary factors.
No effect of folic acid supplementation in the course of 1 year on heamostasis markers and C-reactive protein in older adults
Klerk, M. ; Durga, J. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Kluft, C. ; Kok, F.J. ; Verhoef, P. - \ 2005
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 94 (2005)1. - ISSN 0340-6245 - p. 96 - 100.
von-willebrand-factor - ischemic-heart-disease - plasminogen-activator inhibitor - homocysteine-lowering treatment - endothelial dysfunction - cardiovascular-disease - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase - risk-factor - hyperhomocysteinaemic patients - myocardial-
Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. High homocysteine might affect the endothelium, and consequently lead to impaired haemostasis. In a randomized placebo controlled trial among 276 older adults with plasma total homocysteine concentrations above 13 mM at screening, we investigated the effect of homocysteine lowering by folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/day) for 1 year on markers of endothelial function (vonWillebrand factor), coagulation (tissue factor, factor VIIa, fragments 1+2), and fibrinolysis (fibrin degradation products, tissue-type plasminogen activator), and inflammation (C-reactive protein). Despite a 24% reduction in plasma homocysteine concentration and four-fold increase in serum folate concentration in the folic acid group compared to the placebo group, there was no clear change in any of the haemostasis markers, nor CRP. Although homocysteine is associated with vascular disease risk in the general population,marked lowering of slightly elevated homocysteine concentrations by one-year folic acid supplementation does not influence haemostasis markers
Plasma carotene and a-tocopherol in relation to 10-y all-cause and cause-specific mortality in European elderly: the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action (SENECA)
Buijsse, G.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Schlettwein, D. ; Ferry, M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kromhout, D. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2005
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2005)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 879 - 886.
ischemic-heart-disease - vitamin-e - oxidative stress - beta-carotene - cardiovascular-disease - myocardial-infarction - antioxidant vitamins - serum concentrations - older persons - lung-cancer
Only a few observational studies have related plasma carotene and -tocopherol to mortality in elderly subjects. Objective: The objective was to study the association of plasma carotene ( -and -carotene) and -tocopherol with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in elderly subjects who participated in a European prospective study. Design: Plasma concentrations of carotene and -tocopherol were measured in 1168 elderly men and women. After a follow-up period of 10 y, 388 persons had died. The association between plasma antioxidants and mortality was analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard models. To put our results in context, we performed a metaanalysis of 5 studies on plasma antioxidants and all-cause mortality in elderly populations. Results: Plasma carotene concentrations were associated with a lower mortality risk [adjusted rate ratio (RR) for an increment of 0.39 mol/L: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.89]. This lower mortality risk was observed for both cancer (RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.79) and cardiovascular disease (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.00). The lower risk of cardiovascular death was confined to those with a body mass index (in kg/m2) 25 (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.94). Plasma concentrations of -tocopherol were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality. The results for both plasma antioxidants and all-cause mortality were confirmed by the meta-analysis. Conclusions: This prospective study suggests that high plasma concentrations of carotene are associated both with lower mortality from all causes and with cancer in the elderly. For cardiovascular mortality, the inverse association was confined to elderly with body mass indexes
Is blood donation induced low iron status associated with favourable levels of OxLDL, s-ICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF-antigen in healthy men.
Hoydonck, P.G.A. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Hoppenbrouwers, K.P.M. ; Temme, E.H.M. - \ 2004
Atherosclerosis 172 (2004)2. - ISSN 0021-9150 - p. 321 - 327.
ischemic-heart-disease - cardiovascular risk-factors - low-density lipoproteins - serum ferritin - myocardial-infarction - metabolic syndrome - body iron - stores - oxidation - ldl
The potential effect of iron depletion by blood donation and its relevance to cardiovascular diseases are still under debate. Markers of vascular integrity are increasingly applied in investigations of atherothrombotic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether a lower iron status through blood donation was associated with markers of vascular integrity (circulating oxidised LDL, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF-antigen) by comparing healthy male voluntary donors to non-donors, taking into account differences in baseline characteristics. Two fasting blood samples were collected within I week from 41 donors and 39 non-donors. The iron status was estimated by measuring the concentration of plasma iron, ferritin, haemoglobin and hematocrit. The markers of iron status were all significantly lower in donors compared to non-donors, especially for ferritin concentrations. However, the lower iron status by blood donation was not reflected in the concentrations of OxLDL, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF-antigen in men after adjustment for BMI and ratio total/HDL cholesterol. In order to avoid possible selection-bias related to donorship, we have additionally investigated the difference in marker concentrations within the non-donors, comparing low- and high-ferritin concentrations. This analysis suggests that ferritin concentration is not associated with in vivo LDL oxidation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dispositional optimism and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of elderly dutch men and women.
Giltay, E.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Zitman, F.G. ; Hoekstra, T. ; Schouten, E.G. - \ 2004
Archives of General Psychiatry 61 (2004)11. - ISSN 0003-990X - p. 1126 - 1135.
generalized outcome expectancies - ischemic-heart-disease - myocardial-infarction - explanatory style - risk-factor - physical-activity - major depression - health - hopelessness - predictors
Background: Major depression is known to be related to higher cardiovascular mortality. However, epidemiological data regarding dispositional optimism in relation to mortality are scanty. Objective: To test whether subjects who are optimistic live longer than those who are pessimistic. Design: Our analysis formed part of a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (Arnhem Elderly Study). Setting: General community. Participants: Elderly subjects aged 65 to 85 years (999 men and women) completed the 30-item validated Dutch Scale of Subjective Well-being for Older Persons, with 5 subscales: health, self-respect, morale, optimism, and contacts. A total of 941 subjects (466 men and 475 women) had complete dispositional optimism data, and these subjects were divided into quartiles. Main Outcome Measure: Number of deaths during the follow-up period. Results: During the follow-up period of 9.1 years (19912001), there were 397 deaths. Compared with subjects with a high level of pessimism, those reporting a high level of optimism had an age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.74; upper vs lower quartile) for all-cause mortality. For cardiovascular mortality, the hazard ratio was 0.23 (95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.55) when adjusted for age, sex, chronic disease, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of cardiovascular disease or hypertension, body mass index, and total cholesterol level. Protective trend relationships were observed between the level of optimism and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (P