Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Paling op straat
Palstra, A.P. - \ 2015
Visionair : het vakblad van sportvisserij Nederland 10 (2015)38. - ISSN 1569-7533 - p. 34 - 36.
palingen - visconsumptie - japan - palingteelt - aquacultuur - eels - fish consumption - eel culture - aquaculture
Japanners eten graag paling. Het land kent zelfs speciale palingrestaurants. Het is daarom niet vreemd dat in Japan op grote schaal glasaal wordt opgekweekt.
Avian influenza trasnmission risks: analysis of biosecuritiy measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming
Ssematimba, A. ; Hagenaars, T.H.J. ; Wit, J.J. de; Ruiterkamp, F. ; Fabri, T.H.F. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2013
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 109 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 106 - 115.
potential pathways - virus h7n7 - a viruses - netherlands - epidemic - chickens - georgia - canada - japan
In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure risks are considered to be similar for layer and broiler farms. Our results, including those on farmer opinions, are relevant for the communication with farmers and poultry-related businesses about practices and risks. We conclude by providing recommendations for improvement of control strategies.
Development of a virus neutralisation test to detect antibodies against Schmallenberg virus and serological results in suspect and infected herds
Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Quak, J. ; Boer-Luijtze, E.A. de; Hulst, M.M. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Maas, H.A. - \ 2012
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 54 (2012). - ISSN 0044-605X
akabane virus - orthobunyavirus - shamonda - nigeria - cattle - japan
Background: At the end of 2011, a new orthobunyavirus, tentatively named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was discovered in Germany. This virus has since been associated with clinical signs of decreased milk production, watery diarrhoea and fever in dairy cows, and subsequently also with congenital malformations in calves, lambs and goat kids. In affected countries, initial surveillance for the infection was based on examination of malformed progeny. These suspicions were followed up by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on brain tissue. For epidemiological purposes, a serological assay was, however, needed. Results: A virus neutralisation test (VNT) was developed and optimized, and subsequently evaluated. This VNT has a specificity of >99% and the sensitivity is likely also very close to 100%. The assay is highly repeatable and reproducible. The final assay was used to test for antibodies in cows, ewes and does from herds known to be infected or suspected to be so. Targets for sampling in these herds were the mothers of malformed offspring. In herds with an RT-PCR confirmed SBV infection, more than 94% (190 out of 201) of the ewes and 99% (145 out of 146) of the cows were seropositive. In herds with suspicion of SBV infection based on birth of malformed offspring only (no or negative RT-PCR), more than 90% (231 out of 255) of the ewes and 95% (795 out of 834) of the cows were seropositive. In goats, on the other hand, only a low number of seropositives was found: overall 36.4%, being 16 out of 44 goats tested. Conclusions: Given the characteristics of this VNT, it can be used at a relative high throughput for testing of animals for export, surveillance, screening and research purposes, but can also be used as a confirmation test for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA's) and for (relative) quantification of antibodies. Suspicions of SBV infections that were confirmed by RT-PCR were almost always confirmed by serology in cows. Due to individual registration and identification of cows and calves, affected offspring could almost always be traced back to the mother. Ewes on the other hand were not always the mothers of affected lambs, but were in many cases herd mates with unaffected lambs. This indicated a high within-herd seroprevalence of antibodies against SBV.
Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011-2012
Elbers, A.R. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Quak, J. ; Boer-Luijtze, E.A. de; Spek, A.N. van der; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Maas, H.A. ; Spierenburg, M.A.H. ; Kluijver, E.P. de; Schaik, G. van; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
Emerging Infectious Diseases 18 (2012)7. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 1065 - 1071.
akabane virus - orthobunyavirus - arthrogryposis - infections - australia - shamonda - nigeria - japan
Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p
EU meat export opportunities in the Far East
Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2012
market research - exports - export controls - international trade - beef - sheepmeat - slaughterhouse waste - european union - east asia - korea republic - japan - taiwan - china
Estimation of the Likelihood of Fecal-Oral HEV Transmission Among Pigs
Bouwknegt, M. ; Teunis, P.F.M. ; Frankena, K. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Rode Husman, A.M. de - \ 2011
Risk Analysis 31 (2011)6. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 940 - 950.
hepatitis-e-virus - local grocery stores - rt-pcr assay - united-states - experimental-infection - livers sold - sows feces - swine - japan - inactivation
Sources for human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections of genotype 3 are largely unknown. Pigs are potential animal reservoirs for HEV. Intervention at pig farms may be desired when pigs are confirmed as a source for human infections, requiring knowledge about transmission routes. These routes are currently understudied. The current study aims to quantify the likelihood of pig feces in causing new HEV infections in pigs due to oral ingestion. We estimated the daily infection risk for pigs by modeling the fate of HEV in the fecal–oral (F–O) pathway. Using parameter values deemed most plausible by the authors based on current knowledge the daily risk of infection was 0.85 (95% interval: 0.03–1). The associated expected number of new infections per day was ~4 (2.5% limit 0.1, the 97% limit tending to infinity) compared to 0.7 observed in a transmission experiment with pigs, and the likelihood of feces causing the transmission approached 1. In alternative scenarios, F–O transmission of HEV was also very likely to cause new infections. By reducing the total value of all explanatory variables by 2 orders of magnitude, the expected numbers of newly infected pigs approached the observed number. The likelihood of F–O transmission decreased by decreasing parameter values, allowing for at most 94% of infections being caused by additional transmission routes. Nevertheless, in all scenarios F–O transmission was estimated to contribute to HEV transmission. Thus, despite the difficulty in infecting pigs with HEV via oral inoculation, the F–O route is likely to cause HEV transmission among pigs.
Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) throughout the food production chain
Asselt, E.D. van; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2011
Food Chemistry 128 (2011)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1 - 6.
contaminated drinking-water - perfluorinated compounds - human exposure - perfluoroalkyl contaminants - organic-compounds - treatment plants - surface-water - japan - fish - chemicals
Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with adverse effects on human health. Since dietary intake plays an important role in human exposure, the transfer of PFOS throughout the food chain needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of PFOS concentrations and transfer for the various chain steps from farm-to-fork. This reveals that most research focused on levels of PFOS in surface water and fish but data on soil and crops are largely missing. Furthermore, the uptake of PFOS by farm animals and subsequent transfer into meat and animal products needs further attention, as these products will eventually be consumed by the human population. Once the necessary data gaps are filled, the contribution of the various chain steps on the total PFOS intake can be established. Moreover, the effect of pollution events on the food chain can be established enabling appropriate actions in order to protect consumer health.
Collection of information on biorefinery research funding and research organisations (projects). Task 2.3.2 Outside Europe
Annevelink, E. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Star-Colibri Deliverable 2.3.2) - 124
vs - onderzoeksprojecten - onderzoeksinstituten - canada - china - india - japan - brazilië - biobased economy - bioraffinage - usa - research projects - research institutes - brazil - biorefinery
This report provides an outlook on research into biorefineries in the US, Canada, Australia, China, India, Japan and Brazil. The results will be used for benchmarking or to indicate new opportunities. The most recent EU-funded Specific Support Action projects (Bioref-Integ, Biorefinery Euroview, Biopol and Sustoil) on biorefinery knowledge were taken as a starting point for data collection for this report. Furthermore, input was taken from the (country) reports of the IEA Task 42 Biorefinery. Literature research was combined with a thorough scan of the web to find as much information as possible. This survey concentrated on finding basic information. No further analysis of the information has been made in this report.
Japanners importeren aardappelkennis maar houden markt gesloten
Haverkort, A.J. - \ 2009
Aardappelwereld 63 (2009)5. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 19 - 23.
akkerbouw - aardappelen - pootaardappelen - kennis - import - hokkaido - japan - arable farming - potatoes - seed potatoes - knowledge - imports
Onlangs is WUR onderzoeker Anton Haverkort door de Janpanse overheid uitgenodigd om de universiteit van het noordelijke eiland Hokkaido in Sapporo te bezoeken. In dit artikel hij een indruk van de aardappel, die een bescheiden, maar een vaste en gewaardeerde plek in Japan heeft veroverd. Het blijft in Japan voorlopig bij de import van kennis, want de import van pootaardappelen zit er voorlopig niet in
The course of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs after contact-infection and intravenous inoculation
Bouwknegt, M. ; Rutjes, S.A. ; Reusken, C.B.E.M. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. ; Frankena, K. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Roda Husman, A.M. de; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2009
BMC Veterinary Research 5 (2009). - ISSN 1746-6148 - 12 p.
rt-pcr assay - swine - netherlands - transmission - hev - liver - serum - exposure - japan - risk
Background - Worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is observed in pigs and transmission to humans is implied. To be able to estimate public health risks from e.g. contact with pigs or consumption of pork products, the transmission routes and dynamics of infection should be identified. Hence, the course of HEV-infection in naturally infected pigs should be studied. Results - To resemble natural transmission, 24 HEV-susceptible pigs were infected either by one-to-one exposure to intravenously inoculated pigs (C1-pigs; n = 10), by one-to-one exposure to contact-infected pigs (C2-pigs: n = 7; C3-pigs: n = 5) or due to an unknown non-intravenous infection route (one C2-pig and one C3-pig). The course of HEV-infection for contact-infected pigs was characterized by: faecal HEV RNA excretion that started at day 7 (95% confidence interval: 5¿10) postexposure and lasted 23 (19¿28) days; viremia that started after 13 (8¿17) days of faecal HEV RNA excretion and lasted 11 (8¿13) days; antibody development that was detected after 13 (10¿16) days of faecal HEV RNA excretion. The time until onset of faecal HEV RNA excretion and onset of viremia was significantly shorter for iv-pigs compared to contact-infected pigs, whereas the duration of faecal HEV RNA excretion was significantly longer. At 28 days postinfection HEV RNA was detected less frequently in organs of contact-infected pigs compared to iv-pigs. For contact-infected pigs, HEV RNA was detected in 20 of 39 muscle samples that were proxies for pork at retail and in 4 of 7 urine samples. Conclusion - The course of infection differed between infection routes, suggesting that contact-infection could be a better model for natural transmission than iv inoculation. Urine and meat were identified as possible HEV-sources for pig-to-pig and pig-to-human HEV transmission
European market opportunities for Japanese Saury: an exploration
Kole, A.P.W. ; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M. ; Kremer, S. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2008
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group nr. 939) - 57
scomberesocidae - visproducten - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - marketingtechnieken - consumentenvoorkeuren - organoleptische kenmerken - japan - fish products - food marketing - marketing techniques - consumer preferences - organoleptic traits
Hepatitis E Virus RNA in Commercial Porcine Livers in The Netherlands
Bouwknegt, M. ; Lodder-Verschoor, F. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Rutjes, S.A. ; Roda Husman, A.M. de - \ 2007
Journal of Food Protection 70 (2007)12. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 2889 - 2895.
cross-species infection - united-states - phylogenetic analysis - genetic diversity - wild boar - swine - transmission - prevalence - sequences - japan
Human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by genotype 3 strains in industrialized countries are hypothesized to be caused by pigs. To examine this hypothesis, the potential health risks of transmission routes should be examined. Possible foodborne transmission was studied by quantifying the presence and infectivity of HEV in commercial porcine livers in The Netherlands. A comparison of four tissue disruption and seven RNA extraction methods revealed that mechanical disruption followed by silica-based RNA extraction gave the highest RNA yields and was therefore employed on commercial porcine livers. Four (6.5%) of 62 porcine livers were HEV RNA positive by reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Each positive liver was estimated to contain ~65 PCR-detectable units per g. Sequences were obtained for three of four positive livers and classified as HEV genotype 3. Ninety-three percent similarity to Dutch human HEV sequences and 97% similarity to Dutch swine HEV sequences were observed. To determine whether positive livers contained infectious HEV particles, extracts from livers with known HEV RNA sequences were inoculated intravenously in pigs. Two control pigs were included: one was inoculated with a high dose known to result in infection (104 PCR-detectable units of HEV RNA), and the other was inoculated with a lower concentration of virus that equaled the concentration of PCR-detectable units in commercial livers (~20 PCR-detectable units). Infection was observed in the high-dose control, but not in other pigs, suggesting a dose-dependent response in pigs. Hence, the implications of HEV RNA in commercial porcine livers in The Netherlands are unknown. However, HEV RNA is present in commercial porcine livers, and sufficient heating of porcine livers before consumption as precautionary measure is recommended.
Consumer Risk Perceptions and Attitudes about Beef Food Safety : Implications for Improving Supply Chain Management
Schroeder, T.C. ; Tonsor, G.T. ; Mintert, J. ; Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2006
Kansas State University : Kansas State University (Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension service ) - 62
consumenteninformatie - houding van consumenten - voedselveiligheid - risico - rundvlees - rundvleeskwaliteit - canada - japan - mexico - vs - ketenmanagement - consumer information - consumer attitudes - food safety - risk - beef - beef quality - usa - supply chain management
Time allocation of Orius sauteri in attacking Thrips palmi on an eggplant leaf
Yano, E. ; Jiang, N. ; Hemerik, L. ; Mochizuki, M. ; Mitsunaga, T. ; Shimoda, T. - \ 2005
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 117 (2005)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 177 - 184.
wolff heteroptera anthocoridae - parasitoid encarsia-formosa - karny thysanoptera - poppius heteroptera - taiwan - japan - temperature - predation - behavior
Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a polyphagous predator used as a biological control agent of palm thrips, Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). We studied O. sauteri's searching efficiency, time allocation on a leaf, leaving tendency, and attacking of prey. Approximately 78% of the encountered prey was eaten. Searching for prey was concentrated for 86% of the time on the lower leaf side, where palm thrips are usually found. Patch residence times on empty leaves were different from those on leaves with T. palmi larvae. Walking activity was not affected by the thrips density, and walking took place during 64% of the total search time. The leaving tendency of O. sauteri was affected by the time from patch entry and the presence or absence of palm thrips, but not by the thrips density. If prey were present, the leaving tendency decreased (multiplication factor 0.327), resulting in longer giving-up times than when no prey was present. The fact that the leaving tendency increases when patch exploitation lasts longer suggests that not much time is wasted on patches where encounters with prey are scarce
Clinical patterns and characteristics of uveitis in a tertiary center for uveitis in China
Yang, P. ; Zhang, Z. ; Zhou, H. ; Li, B. ; Huang, X. ; Gao, Y. ; Zhu, L. ; Ren, Y. ; Klooster, J. ; Kijlstra, A. - \ 2005
Current Eye Research 30 (2005)11. - ISSN 0271-3683 - p. 943 - 948.
intraocular inflammatory disease - eye care center - endogenous uveitis - changing patterns - association - population - japan
Purpose: To address the clinical pattern and characteristics of uveitis in a tertiary center for uveitis in China and compare the similarity and difference in the distribution of uveitis entities between China and other countries. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with uveitis referred to the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from January 1996 to December 2003. The clinical data including category, etiology, gender, and the age of the patients at uveitis presentation were analyzed and compared with studies published previously from other countries. Results: There were 902 male and 850 female patients in our series. The mean age of these patients at uveitis presentation was 33.8 ± 16.5 years. Anterior uveitis (800, 45.6%) was the most common anatomical entity, followed by panuveitis (727, 41.5%), posterior uveitis (119, 6.8%), and intermediate uveitis (106, 6.1%). Further classification with the etiology criteria revealed 16 entities in anterior uveitis, with idiopathic anterior uveitis being the most common entity (473, 27.0%). Twelve entities were identified in panuveitis, of which Behçet disease (289, 16.5%) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome (278, 15.9%) were the predominant ones. No specific entity was recognized in the intermediate uveitis group. Although a number of specific entities were identified in posterior uveitis, toxoplasmosis was noted in only two patients in this group. Conclusions: Idiopathic anterior uveitis, Behçet disease, and VKH syndrome are the most common entities of uveitis in China. Ocular toxoplasmosis, ocular histoplasmosis, and birdshot retinochoroidopathy are less common or absent in China
The emergence of koi herpesvirus and its significance to European aquaculture
Haenen, O.L.M. ; Way, K. ; Bergmann, S.M. ; Ariel, E. - \ 2004
Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 24 (2004)6. - ISSN 0108-0288 - p. 293 - 307.
cultured cyprinus-carpio - suffering gill necrosis - viral disease - common carp - virus - mortality - tissues - japan - fish - khv
Climate change economics. Why international accords fail
Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2004
Cheltenham, United Kingdom : Edward Elgar - ISBN 1843768127 - 176
economie - milieu - klimaatverandering - kosten-batenanalyse - broeikaseffect - opwarming van de aarde - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - internationale verdragen - canada - japan - nederland - protocollen - economics - environment - climatic change - cost benefit analysis - greenhouse effect - global warming - environmental policy - government policy - international agreements - netherlands - protocols
Although the full extent of the potential damages from global warming remain unknown, scientists have long argued that action should be taken now to mitigate any possible adverse consequences. However, in making such policy recommendations, economic arguments need to be considered as much as scientific ones. This volume examines the appropriate economic incentives for implementing policy to mitigate climate change and then exposes the flaws in current international agreements. The book begins by providing the economic foundations for understanding climate change. It examines how Kyoto's flexibility mechanism departs from more efficient and less-costly approaches for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, and highlights the problems that terrestrial carbon credits pose for emissions trading. Unique case studies of Canada, Japan and The Netherlands indicate that most countries will be unable to meet their own Kyoto obligations. The author then uses an economic analysis of the potential damages to show that even though some countries will experience a detrimental effect from climate change, the majority will actually benefit. In this way, he clearly demonstrates that not only will current policies do little to avert global warming, most countries will also have less incentive to sign up to any future international agreements. Academics, economists and policymakers involved in the climate change debate will find this succinct yet comprehensive analysis of the economic instruments available for mitigating climate change to be essential reading.
Development of databases for use in validation studies of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients
Leclerq, C. ; Arcella, D. ; Armentia, A. ; Boon, P.E. ; Kruizinga, A.G. ; Gilsenan, M.B. ; Thompson, R.L. - \ 2003
Food Additives and Contaminants 20 (2003)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. S27 - S35.
official inspection - additives - budget - japan
The data currently available in the European Union in terms of food consumption and of food chemical and nutrient concentration data present many limitations when used for estimating intake. The most refined techniques currently available were used within the European Union FP5 Monte Carlo project to estimate, as accurately as possible, the intake of food additives, pesticide residues and nutrients. Databases of 'true' intakes of food additives (based on brand level food consumption records and additive concentration data), pesticide residues (based on duplicate diet studies) and nutrients (based on biomarker studies) have thus been generated. These kind of estimates are rarely repeatable because the databases generated and used to calculate them require an extraordinary expenditure of time and resources. The databases created served the purpose of estimating as accurately as possible 'true' chemical intakes for assessing the validity of additive, nutrient and pesticide probabilistic models.
The impact of national culture in MNC's home country on the strategy making process in their overseas subsidiaries: a comparison between Dutch and Japanese companies in Thailand
Meekanon, K. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C. van Dalen; J.A. Stam. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086624 - 274
multinationale corporaties - cultuur - intercultureel onderzoek - internationale vergelijkingen - cultuursociologie - thailand - nederland - japan - bedrijfsvoering - culturele waarden - culturele differentiatie - multinational corporations - management - culture - cross cultural studies - international comparisons - cultural sociology - cultural values - cultural differentiation - netherlands
<font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">The main purpose of this dissertation is to understand that the national cultures of MNCs' home countries play an important role in determining the SMPs in their overseas subsidiaries. To attain this purpose, a comparison between Dutch and Japanese companies in Thailand concerning the relationship between national culture and SNIP has been the focal point of this dissertation. The research findings with the integrative model answer the central research question that the national cultures of the Netherlands and Japan intervene in the SMPs of Dutch and Japanese companies in Thailand respectively.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">The research findings have theoretical implications for further developments in comparative management because the outcome of this investigation discovers some constructs that can minimise difficulty in and complexity of conceptualising and operationalising some variables for comparing SMPs across cultures. A synthesis of Hofstede's model of national culture and Wheelen and Hunger's model of SNIP develops a model of comparative strategic management for comparing SMPs in MNCs when taking national culture into account. However, the empirical evidence from this study is insufficient to verify the validity of Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) CVM even if a presumed linkage between SNIP and corporate performance exists. However, the relationship between national culture and SNIP does presumably exist.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">With the qualitative research design developed for this cross-cultural study, the interaction between theory and evidence generates the propositions for the future research. In comparison with the outcomes from most cross-cultural survey research, the research findings from this dissertation give a more profound, comprehensive, integral picture of the SMPs of the companies under this study.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">The research findings also help the practitioners, the corporate strategists and the top executives in MNCs, both in the parent companies, the regional head offices and the overseas subsidiaries, international managers and expatriates to understand how national culture of MNCs' home countries has an influence on the SNIP in their overseas operations. This comprehension helps them to formulate better corporate strategy when dealing with other cultural perspectives different<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">from their own ones. The employees of MNCs also derive the benefit of hindsight from the research findings. When these employees understand the impact of foreign cultures on foreign-based companies in their countries, they can accommodate themselves to the foreign working conditions and behaviours in these companies. All the parties in MNCs can work out a better solution for multicultural problems on the basis of mutual understandings.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">Nevertheless, the limitations of this study comprises lack of combinatorial and broader factors, indigenous subjectivity on interpretation, asymmetrical perspectives on corporate settings, less responsiveness to and less interaction with the local national culture in the host country and lack of HQs', RHOs' and other host countries' perspectives. To minimise these shortcomings in the future research, the inquirers must analyse the effect of combinatorial factors concomitantly, include more macro factors, co-operate with foreign researchers, pay more attention to a lowest-rank workers' perspective, and embrace the industries that are more responsive to local markets and the perspectives of HQs, RH0s, and other host countries.<br/></font><font size="""3" FACE="Times Roman" COLOR="#000000">To gain a better insight into the cultural impact on SNIP, the researchers in the future need to pursue more comparative research. They must change the choice of MNCs' nationalities and the locations of the host countries. To counterpoise a tendency to conduct this kind of research in industrialised countries, the locations in the future research must be industrialising countries. If possible, these researchers must test the integrative model through the use of quantitative survey with a largescale sample. The outcome of the future research might help to develop a new theoretical framework for comparing SMPs across cultures further. The field of comparative strategic management might emerge from a synthesis of comparative management and strategic management when the linkage between national culture and SNIP is confirmed.
Meervoudig ruimtegebruik onder de loep
Bloemmen, M.H.I. ; Lüdtke, S. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Alterra - 40
meervoudig landgebruik - japan - brazilië - zuid-afrika - meervoudig ruimtegebruik - ruimtelijke ordening - stedenbouw - Amerika - Canada - Montreal - Rio de Janeiro - Alphaville - Johannesburg - Azië - Tokio - Hongkong - multiple land use - brazil - south africa - Durban - China
In dit essay is gezocht naar nieuwe aanknopingspunten in de discussie omtrent meervoudig ruimtegebruik. Hiervoor werd nagegaan welke oorzaken mede ten grondslag liggen aan de toepassing van dit instrument. Buitenlandse voorbeelden van polychrone tijdbeleving tonen aan, dat een alternatieve kijk wenselijk is. Gekeken is naar polychrone, niet-westerse culturen zoals die in Zuid-Afrika, Brazilië, Japan en Hong Kong
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