Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Mission report Kenya : scoping Mission Marine Fisheries Kenya
Hoof, Luc van; Steins, Nathalie A. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C038/17) - 136
marine fisheries - food security - aquaculture - seaweeds - trade - kenya - zeevisserij - voedselzekerheid - aquacultuur - zeewieren - handel
Optimization of breeding schemes for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in smallholder production systems in Kenya
Omasaki, Simion Kipkemboi - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Hans Komen, co-promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; A.K. Kahi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431064 - 167
oreochromis niloticus - tilapia - breeding programmes - selective breeding - genetic improvement - small farms - sustainability - fish culture - aquaculture - kenya - veredelingsprogramma's - selectief fokken - genetische verbetering - kleine landbouwbedrijven - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - visteelt - aquacultuur

The aim of this thesis was to develop a sustainable low cost breeding program for Nile tilapia that addresses both genetic and economic aspects of smallholder fish farmers in Kenya. First, Analytical Hierarchy Process Technique was used to define a breeding goal based on farmer’s preferences for traits. Farmers’ preferences for traits differed significantly depending on income and market orientation. Low and medium income farmers preferred harvest weight (HW) while high income farmers preferred growth (GR) and survival (S) traits. Grouping farmers according to market objective (fingerling production or fattening) showed that fingerling producers preferred GR and S while fattening farmers preferred HW and S. Consensus preference values were obtained using weighted goal programming and these values were used to derive desired gains for a breeding goal that takes into account farmers’ diverse backgrounds and preferences for traits. Secondly, the existence of genetic variation for traits of interest was investigated. Substantial additive genetic effects for HW, GR and shape traits were present that can be exploited through selection under low input production system. Heritability estimates for HW, GR and shape were 0.21 ± 0.03, 0.26 ± 0.04 and 0.12 ± 0.03 for mixed sex (nucleus) respectively. The calculation of economic values for breeding goal traits revealed that economic values for GR differed depending on the definition of the breeding goal and that selection for feed efficiency is the key factor to economic profitability of Nile tilapia breeding programs. A significant genotype by environment re-ranking was found for GR between the mixed sex nucleus and monosex production environments. Genotype by environment interaction (G x E) led to lower genetic gain for GR in production environment. Incorporating sib information from monosex production environment into the selection index resulted in a more accurate estimation of breeding values which increased genetic gain in growth. Using desired gain approach, weights for desired gains in harvest weight, growth rate and survival were derived that maximized genetic gains for these breeding goal traits. It is concluded that these results can be used to develop a sustainable centralized breeding program. However, a reliable well planned and organized decentralized strategy for dissemination of genetically improved fry of Nile tilapia to farmers is paramount.

Dairy matters: Inspiring stories on dairy development in Kenya : Eighteen case studies from SNV's Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme
Rademaker, Ida ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2017
SNV/Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789087403164 - 160 p.
dairy farming - dairy industry - dairy cooperatives - small farms - stakeholders - case studies - kenya - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - zuivelcoöperaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - gevalsanalyse
Sustainable intensification pathways for dairy farming in Kenya : A case study for PROIntensAfrica WP2, Deliverable 2.3
Lee, Jan van der; Omedo Bebe, Bockline ; Oosting, Simon - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 997) - 53
dairy farming - intensification - sustainable animal husbandry - kenya - melkveehouderij - intensivering - duurzame veehouderij
Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides : With courtesy of vegIMPACT a program financed by The Netherlands’ Government
Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Koomen, I. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-029 ) - 40 p.
pesticides - exposure - occupational health - safety at work - horticulture - farmers - training - handbooks - kenya - pesticiden - blootstelling - gezondheid op het werk - veiligheid op het werk - tuinbouw - boeren - opleiding - handboeken
Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and health risks, both for themselves as well as people living in the vicinity of places where pesticides are used. The Practical Training Centre Horticulture Kenya (PTC Horticulture) offers hands-on trainings to the horticultural sector. This manual is developed for PTC Horticulture and is about the safe and responsible use of pesticides – a guide for trainers who have to deliver trainings on ‘Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health’ and ‘Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides’. This manual guides the trainers through the material, provides background and tips to the content and gives suggestions for practical assignments.
Sustainable growth of the Kenyan dairy sector : a quick scan of robustness, reliability and resilience
Rademaker, Corné J. ; Omedo Bebe, Bockline ; Lee, Jan van der; Kilelu, Catherine ; Tonui, Charles - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen Livestock Research (Report 3R Kenya/WLR 979) - 66
dairy farming - dairy industry - supply chain management - governance - constraints - kenya - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - ketenmanagement - beperkingen
This report provides an overview of how the Kenyan dairy sector performs in three analytical domains: the robustness of the supply chains, the reliability of institutional governance and the resilience of the innovation system. Analysis is by literature review, stakeholder interviews and a validation workshop guided by a SWOT framework to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The findings inform the existing opportunities and challenges that potentially impede growth in the sector. The report is a first step towards documenting and sharing insights that support the move towards a more Robust, Reliable and Resilient (3R) dairy sector. The findings and recommendations presented will guide policy engagement and action in the transition of Dutch government bilateral engagement in Kenya from development aid–support to a trade approach in the agricultural sector, with a focus on partnering opportunities to drive competitive market-oriented dairy sector development that attracts investments.
Combining malaria control with rural electrification : social and behavioural factors that influenced the design, use and sustainability of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island, western Kenya
Oria, Prisca A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): J. Alaii. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578579 - 176
malaria - vector control - public health - culicidae - insect traps - social factors - behaviour - design - solar energy - kenya - vectorbestrijding - volksgezondheid - insectenvallen - sociale factoren - gedrag - ontwerp - zonne-energie

Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis.

Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacted the design and re-design of the intervention. Our analysis focused on the design, re-design and piloting of the innovative approach to controlling malaria largely before its field implementation had started. During the pre-intervention year, various aspects of the intervention were re-designed ahead of the project roll-out. Changes to the technology design included removal of carbon dioxide from the blend, trap improvements and re- design of the electricity provision system. In order to gain and maintain the support of the community and organisations on the island, the project adapted its implementation strategies regarding who should represent the community in the project organisation team, who should receive solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS), and in which order the systems should be rolled out. This process involved not only the project team and the producers of the different components of SMoTS, but also included feedback from the residents of Rusinga Island. This process of incorporating feedback from a broad range of stakeholders utilized data from the entomological, technical and socio-behavioural researches as well as data from more broad engagements with the social environment of the study population and setting. The analysis demonstrates how system innovation theory helps to provide insights into how a promising malaria control intervention evolves and matures through an interaction between technical and social phenomena. This part of the study demonstrated that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but similar to other malaria strategies, required new social organisational arrangements to go with it.

In chapter 3, this thesis investigated immediate community response to the innovation and the implications for ongoing implementation and supportive community communication outreach. The explorations found that the main benefit of SMoTS to study participants was house lighting and suggested that the main reason that people adhered to recommended behaviours for SMoTS deployment was to ensure uninterrupted lighting at night, rather than reducing mosquito biting or malaria risk. Electrification led to a number of immediate benefits including reduced expenditure on kerosene and telephone charging and conveniences (such as lit early mornings and late nights, increased study hours, etc.). The changes brought about by electric lighting provided conveniences which improved the welfare of residents. Some respondents also reported hearing fewer mosquito sounds when interviewed a few weeks after a SMoTS was installed in their house. On the question of maintenance, we found that residents of Rusinga Island adequately maintained SMoTS. Households also reported maintenance needs to the project and project technicians carried out repair and maintenance needs.

Chapter 4 documented the perceived impact of SMoTs on family dynamics, social and economic status, and the community as a whole. The findings suggest that even when the use of energy is restricted, electricity can enhance the value of life. Although data on malaria prevention was yet to be fully collected and analysed, there was evidence of enhanced socio-economic and emotional well-being of study participants which may enhance the desire to sustain the intervention. In the end, this may be a double-edged intervention that delivers health benefits and contributes to improved welfare. The utility, social significance and emotional benefits experienced with the lighting component of SMoTS may create the desire to sustain the intervention. However, the motivation to sustain the whole SMoTS will also depend on the results of the entomological and parasitological components of this intervention.

Chapter 5 evaluated the knowledge, perceptions and practices related to malaria control before and after the roll-out of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems. As a malaria control strategy, SMoTS were installed in Rusinga to complement the existing use of long- lasting insecticidal nets (LLINS) and prompt malaria care seeking. The message about the complementariness of SMoTS as a malaria strategy was further stressed during social mobilisation to encourage continued use of LLINs and prompt malaria care seeking. The findings suggest that overall, the SolarMal project did not induce a negative effect of the innovation on the uptake of existing malaria strategies. The continuation of LLIN use and recommended malaria treatment seeking was likely contributed to by the social mobilisation component of the SolarMal intervention as well as a mass distribution of LLINs campaign, suggesting the need for a strong continuous demand generation exercise. The number of respondents who reported that mosquito densities had reduced was much higher at the end of the research phase confirming that the recorded entomological changes (that showed SMoTS had proved effective in controlling mosquitoes) had also been experienced by residents.

Chapter 6 investigated whether the community preferred individual or cooperative solutions for organising the sustainability components of SMoTS, and whether and how known social dilemma factors could be recognised in the reasoning of actors. The findings of the explorations of sustainability of installed SMoTS beyond the research period did not portray a promising picture. While residents were unanimous that they would like to continue enjoying the benefits of SMoTS (especially house electrification), it appeared that residents preferred largely individual approaches. Yet the individual approaches suggested by residents for sustaining SMoTS may be realistic for sustaining only the lighting component. Sustaining the mosquito control component, which is what would impact malaria, requires more resources (than the lighting component) and may be better facilitated by more collective undertakings by residents. Residents expressed concerns about working collectively with others that seemed to suggest that the situation had features of a social dilemma.

Chapter 7 synthesises the main findings. Subsequently, this results in the overall conclusions of the thesis that are discussed within the broader debates on research and policy. This thesis shows that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but required new social organisational arrangements to go with it. The intervention was a composite of which the technical component was one and focussing on it without the others may have negative implications for effectiveness. By implication, the scaling up of SMoTS will also require scaling-up the intervention process and social organisation that played a role in its effectiveness in the trial setting. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of flexibility and continuous learning in multiple spheres in a complex multidisciplinary innovative intervention to control malaria. The key addition to the knowledge base for similar public health programs is that intervention design is not a one-off occurrence and neither is implementation a linear process. Social science research was a core component in this process and the process required not only integrating social inquiry into the design, but also into planning, implementation, and monitoring. This contributed to ensuring that flexibility and adaptability to the local realities were built into the SolarMal intervention and contributed to the success of the intervention. Rather than project management, persons involved in rolling-out innovations should perhaps focus on adaptive and proactive management and on facilitating change. While managing emphasises control and certainty, an innovation process requires flexibility to allow continuous adaptations which characterise the process. In practice, this means keeping attuned to perceiving signals, analysing feedback loops and using those signals to mitigate what is not going well or amplify what is going well.

Smallholder Dairy Value Chain Interventions; The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) – Status Report
Rademaker, I.F. ; Koech, R.K. ; Jansen, A. ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-018 ) - 70 p.
dairy farming - value chain analysis - supply chain management - small businesses - farmers - milk production - marketing - kenya - melkveehouderij - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - kleine bedrijven - boeren - melkproductie
The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) is a 4.5-year programme funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in collaboration with stakeholders in the dairy industry. The overall goal of KMDP is to contribute to the development of a vibrant and competitive private sector-driven dairy sector in Kenya, with beneficiaries across the value chain. KMDP has two pillars, or strategic intervention levels. The first pillar is the smallholder dairy value chain, which has the objective to increase efficiency, effectiveness and inclusiveness in this production and marketing channel. The second pillar concerns systemic issues in the sector, where the objective is to promote and support interventions and innovations in feed and fodder supply, milk quality, practical skills development and the policy or regulatory environment. Work in the second pillar partly supports work in the first pillar and partly addresses issues in the enabling environment and supporting systems. In the smallholder dairy value chain, KMDP has engaged with eighteen farmer-owned milk collection and bulking enterprises (CBEs), dispersed over three main milksheds in Kenya: North Rift region, Central region, and Eastern region (Meru). In addition, KMDP works with two processors that receive and process milk from a number of the eighteen supported CBEs. This report describes the work of KMDP in the smallholder dairy value chain. It looks at the response of CBEs, processors and farmers to KMDP’s interventions, which cover five themes: 1. Capacity building of CBEs in governance and financial management; 2. Training and extension activities for farmers; 3. Fodder development and preservation at CBE- and farmer level; 4. Business development through linkages with input suppliers and service providers; 5. Milk procurement and milk quality along the value chain.
Impact of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control : design and evaluation of a trial using solar-powered mosquito trapping systems in western Kenya
Homan, T. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Willem Takken; T.A. Smith. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577435 - 224 p.
016-3935 - culicidae - mosquito-borne diseases - vector control - malaria - bait traps - odours - solar energy - randomized controlled trials - kenya - ziekten overgebracht door muskieten - vectorbestrijding - vallen met lokaas - geurstoffen - zonne-energie - gestuurd experiment met verloting

The parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium are the cause of the second deadliest infectious disease in the world, malaria. Sub Saharan Africa harbours more than 90% of malaria attributable mortality and morbidity, and most deaths occur in children under 18 years old. Malaria is transmitted to humans by a bite of a Plasmodium infected arthropod vector from the genus Anopheles. Halfway the 20th century malaria was successfully eliminated from most developed countries, nonetheless in the third world effective control remains a laborious challenge. Intensive efforts undertaken to control and eventually eradicate malaria during the past decade have led to substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality. Conversely, scientists became increasingly aware that with the current preventative and curative tools against malaria successful eradication seems unlikely. Not only do current tools not suffice to attain that goal, their efficacy to control malaria as it is, maybe severely threatened. Proper treatment and diagnosis are becoming increasingly less effective because of the adaptive nature of the parasite. Parasites get resistance against drugs and carriers are more often found to have subclinical infections. Likewise prevention of malaria, by vector control, becomes less effective. Malaria vectors become resistant to insecticides and transmission patterns are shifting away from where preventive measures are functional: outside and during the day. It this gap where the SolarMal project experimented with a novel malaria vector control tool, complimentary to existing malaria control methods: odour-baited mosquito traps that mimic human beings to lure and kill mosquitoes to eventually reduce malaria. The ultimate aim of this thesis was to seek proof of principle of the effect of mass trapping of malaria vectors on malaria and mosquito densities by rolling out over 4000 odour-baited mosquito traps at household level on Rusinga Island, Kenya.

Chapter 2 is a study protocol of the SolarMal project and provides a general understanding of how the objectives of the project are translated into a research design. The study comprises of a medical, an entomological and a sociological discipline. A multidisciplinary strategy is presented in which the intervention is explained. Experimental designs of all disciplines are introduced including time frames, participant eligibility, and randomisation. Furthermore, a general overview of the data collected and how it is evaluated and analysed using health and demographic surveillance and monitoring is provided.

In chapter 3 a novel data collection and management platform is presented. The health and demographic surveillance as well as other disciplines in the project are an example of one of the first fully digital data collection systems in a low and middle income country. The development of digital questionnaires and the conducting of these by means of Open Data Kit software enabled the project to efficiently collect data. All residential structures were documented by GPS, and data of individuals attached. Converting the geo-located data to a geodatabase and displayed with Google Earth mobile made navigating from house to house an easy task. By daily uploading of data to the server at the project campus, scientists have access to a near real time database. Once uploaded to the server, data is transferred to the OpenHDS database in which the demography of the study population is updated accordingly. Data quality was further increased by a tool that looked for inconsistencies.

In chapter 4 we explore what experimental design would fit the SolarMal project best. A stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial [SWCRT] design was chosen to make sure that the whole area would cross over from the control to the intervention arm over a period of two years. As elimination was the goal, universal coverage was required. Subsequently, strategies for randomization and crossover of clusters that could measure a possible intervention effect best were simulated with a generic model of disease transmission. Considering sufficient numbers and sizes of clusters a hierarchical SWCRT would best measure a possible effect of OBTs on Rusinga Island. Special care was given to quantifying spill over effects into the control arm. Finally, two new measures of intervention effectiveness are proposed.

Chapter 5 reports on the outcomes of the health and demographic surveillance system on Rusinga Island. Running an HDSS is a thorough but complex method to monitor intervention effects in an area where health surveillance is minimal. As part of the overarching HDSS institution, INDEPTH, data collection methods and reporting are harmonious with many other HDSSs around the world. Demographic parameters are calculated and the HDSS practices are described.

Chapter 6 uses the baseline cross sectional prevalence surveys to elucidate how the epidemiology of malaria on Rusinga Island. Firstly, the malaria distribution and hot spots are identified. Consequently, a standard epidemiological model and a geographically weighted regression are compared, and used to identify risk factors for malaria. The latter model, taking into account non-stationarity, performs better and is able to produce geographically varying risk factors. The strength of the relationship of risk factors for malaria are heterogeneous over the whole island, and for instance social economic status and occupation are strong predictors of malaria in some areas but less in other areas. Considering these risk factor distributions can aid in guiding the implementation of malaria intervention methods.

Chapter 7 presents the main outcomes of the SolarMal project. The impact of OBTs on the prevalence of malaria is pronounced in the contemporaneous comparison between the intervened and the intervened arm. Comparison of baseline data with the intervened clusters does not yield significant effects. A strong decline in cases of clinical malaria was observed starting already in the baseline period, and therefore we cannot attribute this decline to the intervention. Effects on the most prominent malaria vector were large, whereas other vectors did not suffer under the intervention.

Chapter 8 is a general discussion of the work provided. The most important implications of the thesis are discussed underscoring the societal and scientific relevance, and putting the research in a wider perspective. Unaddressed issues are raised and recommendations for further research are provided.

Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233 p.
sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - oost-afrika

Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

Effectiveness of zinc fortified drinking water on zinc intake, status and morbidity of rural Kenyan pre-school children
Kujinga-Chopera, P. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; D. Moretti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577572 - 127 p.
preschool children - drinking water - zinc - fortification - kenya - diarrhoea - nutrient deficiencies - morbidity - childhood diseases - diet - diet studies - peuters en kleuters - drinkwater - zink - fortificatie - diarree - voedingsstoffentekorten - morbiditeit - kinderziekten - dieet - dieetstudies
Objective prioritization of intervention areas for the NAGA Foundation in the Kenya Tanzania border area
Maat, H.W. ter; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Fleskens, L. ; Querner, E.P. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. - \ 2016
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2711) - 67 p.
hydrology - restoration management - climate - soil - geographical information systems - vegetation - models - tanzania - kenya - hydrologie - herstelbeheer - klimaat - bodem - geografische informatiesystemen - vegetatie - modellen
The NAGA foundation aims to establish Hydrologic Corridors, wherein re-greening and restoration of
the landscape interacts with regional rain-bringing wind patterns to intensify the local hydrologic cycle
to a point that a permanently greener and more productive ecosystem can be sustained. The initial
search area, as defined by NAGA, targets the Kenya-Tanzania border region and identified four
possible Hydrological Corridors. This report supports an objective prioritisation of potential
intervention locations in this larger domain. Therefore, readily available, geographically explicit
information on soil, vegetation, hydrology and climate, as well as institutional settings that may affect
the likelihood of success of such projects, were collected and analysed, and some climate-modelling
experiments were performed.
Combining the findings of the four themes: hydrology, soil restoration, climate, and institutions, and
ranking the four potential corridors objectively in order of priority, favours re-greening projects in the
Tanzanian corridors could provide the best starting point: especially the most eastern one. In this
area, many applicable land management options exist in combination with a high potential for
restoring soil organic matter, the highest rainfall recycling potential in the more favourable long rainy
season, and the apparent reliability of the Tanzanian governments at both national- and at local
levels. The GIS data facilitate further focus on this particular corridor in search of specific project
Getting partnerships to work : a technography of the selection, making and distribution of improved planting material in the Kenyan Central Highlands
Ndubi, J.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571150 - 153
plantenveredeling - voedselzekerheid - bananen - aardappelen - technologie - innovaties - landbouwontwikkeling - vennootschappen - samenwerking - kenya - oost-afrika - afrika - plant breeding - food security - bananas - potatoes - technology - innovations - agricultural development - partnerships - cooperation - east africa - africa

In Kenya, bananas and Irish potatoes are important staple crops. In the early 1990s, the crops were devastated by plant diseases resulting in immensely declined productivity and vulnerability of smallholder farmers. To address this problem, disease resistant varieties and tissue culture technology were introduced through partnerships. This thesis examines the working of these partnerships in the process of selecting, multiplying and disseminating improved planting materials under changeable and sometimes unanticipated social and material conditions, and whether this enabled technical change. The study describes how partnerships shape and manage technical change and how distributed task groups coordinate their actions. Partnerships organise and set in motion an evolving chain of sequential socio-technical practices, which incrementally generate technical change. Hence, partnerships are more than just an organisational tool for resource augmentation. Making partnerships work requires constant handling of the politics of selection procedures, the unanticipated consequences of material and technical problems, and the governance and control dimensions of team and group work. The study highlights the often hidden processes coordinating distributed skills and competences and the micro-politics of selection and performance as core elements for making partnerships work. The technographic approach made this visible in the performance of research teams, laboratories and collectively managed nurseries of multiplication sites. The study concludes that partnerships, as an organisational fix, are not a panacea for complicated problems, and a more thorough debate about the conditions under which partnerships may work – and for whom – is needed.

Evaluation of dietary diversity scores to assess nutrient adequacy among rural Kenyan women
Ngala, S.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; A.M. Mwangi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574236 - 149
kenya - gezondheid van vrouwen - voedingsstoffen - sporenelementen - voedingsgeschiktheid - diversiteit - plattelandsbevolking - kwantitatieve methoden - kwalitatieve methoden - women's health - nutrients - trace elements - nutritional adequacy - diversity - rural population - quantitative methods - qualitative methods

Evaluation of dietary diversity scores to assess nutrient adequacy among rural Kenya women

S. A. Ngala


Background:The major cause of micronutrient deficiencies are low intake due to monotonous diets, especially among women of child bearing age. Dietary diversity score has been found to be a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy. However, there are still outstanding methodological questions related to seasonal effects, food intake methods, selection of foods and the cut-off for estimating the prevalence of acceptable nutrient adequacy. This thesis evaluated the performance of a simple dietary diversity score for assessing nutrient adequacy in the diets of rural women in Kenya.

Methods: The study was conducted in Mbooni Division, Makueni District, Kenya among non-pregnant, non-lactating women of reproductive age having a child between 2-5 years. Food consumption data was collected by 3 non-consecutive 24hour-recalls and a qualitative 24hour-recall in pre-harvest (period 1, October 2007, n=73) and post-harvest (period 2, April 2008, n=203) seasons. Dietary diversity scores (DDS) were derived based on 10 and 13 food groups with minimum intake threshold per food group of 0 and 15 g respectively. Mean probability of adequacy (MPA) was calculated based on intake of 11 micronutrients.

Results: The dietary diversity score (DDS) and mean probability of adequacy (MPA) were significantly but moderately associated in both seasons (r=0.40 and r=0.38 period 1 and 2) and the association was independent of season (p=0.45). The DDS from a qualitative 24 hour recall (DDSql) showed little agreement with quantitative 24 hour recall (DDSqn) with a mean difference (DDSqn-DDSql) of -0.51±1.46 (Period 1) and -0.58±1.43 (period 2), with lower correlation between MPA and DDS for DDSql (r=0.14 and 0.19 in period 1 and 2, p>0.05) compared to DDSqn (r=0.40 and 0.54 in period 1 and 2, p<0.01). The Informative food-based scores and the food group-based scores were moderately associated with mean probability of adequacy (r=0.54-0.59 in period 1; r=0.37- 0.45 in period 2) with higher values for informative food based scores. The Minimum Dietary Diversity of Women (MDD-W) and mean probability of adequacy were significantly but moderately associated in both seasons (r=0.43-0.58 in period 1; r=0.24-0.50 in period 2) with but the use of a cutoff of consuming 5 or more food groups as indication of nutrient adequacy resulted in high total misclassification in both periods.

Conclusion: A dietary diversity score can be used as a simple proxy for micronutrient adequacy, independent of season. The dietary diversity score derived from qualitative free-listing 24-hour recall formed a poor indicator, needing further refinement to improve its performance. The informative food-based score performs moderately better in predicting nutrient adequacy, but its advantages do not outway those of the food group-based scores, and the latter is therefore preferred. The Minimum Dietary Diversity score for Women, formed a good indicator to predict nutrient adequacy, but using the cutoff of 5 or more food groups resulted in an overestimation of prevalence of adequate intake in our resource poor population.

Climate Smart Agriculture: Synthesis of case studies in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe
Hengsdijk, H. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Report / Plant Research International 624) - 26
stadslandbouw - biologische landbouw - duurzame landbouw - metriek stelsel - ghana - kenya - zimbabwe - engelssprekend afrika - agrarische productiesystemen - klimaatadaptatie - voedselveiligheid - urban agriculture - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - metric system - anglophone africa - agricultural production systems - climate adaptation - food safety
This study contributes to the current debate on climate smart agriculture and development in Africa, specifically in relation to farm size, food security and intensification in rain fed farming areas. Although the different analyses are rough, because of a combination of incomplete knowledge and limited data sets, the results places the prevailing development discussions in the context of CSA: Provides intensification a way out of poverty and contributes intensification to food security under climate change? How affects climate change crop yields and household income? Conflicts intensification with climate mitigation goals? These are some of the questions addressed for diverging case study areas in this study.
Integrated malaria vector control in different agro-ecosystems in western Kenya : NEV Dissertatie prijs 2010
Imbahale, S.S. - \ 2015
Entomologische Berichten 71 (2015)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 94 - 103.
malaria - ziekten overgebracht door vectoren - kenya - vector-borne diseases
Tijdens de 22e Nederlandse Entolomologendag (Ede,17 december 2010) is de derde NEV Dissertatieprijs uitgereikt aan Dr. Susan Imbahale, voor haar proefschrift 'Integrated malaria vector control in different agro-ecosystems in western Kenya', op 29 oktober verdedigd aan de Universiteit van Wageningen. De prijs bestaat uit een geldbedrag plus een oorkonde en wordt jaarlijks toegekend voor het beste proefschrift op het gebied van de entomologie, verdedigd aan een Nederlandse universiteit in het voorgaande academische jaar (1 september -31 augustus).
Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments
Mwenda, A.N. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): Arend Ligtenberg; T.N. Kibutu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573314 - 123
milieueffect - milieueffectrapportage - publieke participatie - informatie - informatieverspreiding - kenya - environmental impact - environmental impact reporting - public participation - information - diffusion of information

Thesis Summary

Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments

Angela N. Mwenda

Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of development on the environment, and proposes timely mitigation of these impacts to the extent possible. Since then, EIA has continued to be established in countries worldwide, with modifications being made to suit regional and local requirements. Essential to EIA is an attempt to balance environmental concerns with social, economic and other human needs, which has led to partnership with society, to the extent that public participation is deeply incorporated into EIA. Also central to the EIA process is information related to the natural and human environment. Sources of this information, particularly those that contain spatial elements, are valuable due to their ability to provide information on location. Sources of spatial information are numerous, and may include photographs, maps, satellite images, orthophotographs, verbal descriptions, animations, and virtual reality, among others.

Despite its innovative presentation of project-relevant information and communication function during public participation, debate exists on the value of spatial information to EIA. For example, high levels of visual realism may hinder the interpretation of spatial information, while high costs, and technical demands may cause certain types of spatial information to be inaccessible to a large number of stakeholders. These challenges are not unique to any one country, and have also been observed in developing countries, where, in addition to a deficiency of information, less developed and poorly enforced legislative, administrative, institutional and procedural frameworks for EIA intensify the challenges. For example, despite an official recommendation for the use of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya, whether this happens, and the extent, was largely undocumented. In view of this observation, an investigation into the use and status of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya was considered.

The main objective of this research was to establish whether spatial information is used in public participation within EIA, and if so, the extent of its use. Three specific sub-objectives were developed, namely: to confirm the presence and extent of public participation within EIA in Kenya; to establish the extent to which spatial information is used in EIA in Kenya; and to evaluate, using case studies, the use of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya. Combined methods of surveys and case studies were used to address the sub-objectives earlier developed.

In response to the first sub-objective, namely, to confirm the presence and extent of public participation within EIA in Kenya, five dimensions for the evaluation of public participation within EIA were identified from legal and best practice requirements. These five dimensions were: notification, participation methods, venue, language used, and type of participants, which were then constituted into a Consultation and Public Participation Index (CPPI), developed within this research to analyze a sample of 223 EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2010. EIA Study Reports record activities during the EIA Study Stage, where public participation activities are most intensive, hence their choice as a source of data for the survey. Following analysis of the five dimensions presented in the CPPI, public participation was found to be relatively low, with the highest score of 1.65 out of a possible score of 5. The dimensions of ‘participation methods’ and ‘type of participants’ scored the highest, followed by ‘venue’, ‘notification’, and ‘language used’, in that order. Variations within the dimensions was also evident during the study period. Despite a 95% mention of public participation in the EIA Study Reports, the low CPPI scores were attributed to gaps in reporting and limited choices per dimension.

In response to the second sub-objective, namely, to establish the extent to which spatial information is used in EIA in Kenya, survey methods similar to those used to address the first sub-objective were employed, where a sample of 434 EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed for the presence/absence of spatial presentations, levels of visual realism exhibited, and content presented in the spatial presentations. Almost all (95%) of the EIA Study Reports sampled displayed a variety of spatial presentation types, with preference for the combined use of spatial presentations with low and high levels of visual realism. On the content, information depicting a combination of project location and project activities/details was most popular.

In response to the third sub-objective, namely, to evaluate, using case studies, the use of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya, two case studies were conducted, the first in Katani, in the Eastern Province of Kenya, and the second in Kericho, in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Both case studies were based on a conceptual framework developed in this research to assess the interplay between EIA, public participation, spatial information and type of participants. In both studies, EIA stages was limited to the EIA Study stage, levels of public participation was limited to ‘inform’, and categories of participants was limited to ‘affected persons’. Seven aspects of spatial information were deemed relevant to public participation, namely: availability, accessibility, content, appropriateness, language, translation, and technical support. In the first case study, all the seven aspects were evaluated, using a cadastral map, where it was established that the requirements for accessibility, language, translation and technical support were met, but those for availability were unsatisfactory, and unconfirmed for content and appropriateness. Out of the 7 aspects of spatial information that were deemed relevant to public participation, the second case study was limited to the aspect of ‘content’, and specifically distance perception. It was argued that distance perception is critical when determining potential benefits or threats from a proposed project. Three types of spatial presentations with different levels of visual realism were used, namely a topographic map, overlay map and aerial map. From this case study, preference was noted for topographic maps, indicating that higher levels of visual realism in spatial presentations were not always preferred. On whether maps improve distance perception, the results indicated that they encourage Euclidian distance perception. The unique point of the case studies was that they were conducted in ‘real-life’ settings, similar to those in which actual EIAs are carried out, as opposed to highly controlled and laboratory-like set ups.

Two main innovations are evident: the consultation and public participation index (CPPI) and the conceptual framework developed in this research. The CPPI brought together, for the first time dimensions that are specifically relevant to public participation within EIA, that is, notification, participation methods, venue, language used, and type of participants. These dimensions offer the opportunity for deeper and more structured analysis of public participation within EIA, and the opportunity to improve practice. The second innovation, the conceptual framework, brought together the elements of EIA, public participation, spatial information and types of participants. The novelty of this conceptual framework was the combination of these elements and their placement within the framework of EIA, which will encourage in-depth investigation on their quality and effectiveness to EIA. Still related to the conceptual framework was the emphasis on ‘affected persons’, who often face direct impacts from development projects, yet are often not included in EIA public participation activities due to their low socio-economic status and challenges in accessing them, e.g. poor infrastructure and insecurity. It is due to their increased stake in any decision made that we specifically sought their opinions in this research.

Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya
Ngeno, K. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth van der Waaij; A.K. Kahi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572775 - 154
kippen - pluimvee - inheems vee - dierveredeling - veredelingsprogramma's - genetische diversiteit - ecotypen - genomen - genetische verbetering - kenya - fowls - poultry - native livestock - animal breeding - breeding programmes - genetic diversity - ecotypes - genomes - genetic improvement


Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the development of an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding program for enhanced productivity and improved human livelihood in Kenya. The initial step was to review five questions; what, why and how should we conserve IC in an effective and sustainable way, who are the stakeholders and what are their roles in the IC breeding program. The next step of the research focused on detecting distinctive IC ecotypes through morphological and genomic characterization. Indigenous chicken ecotypes were found to be populations with huge variability in the morphological features. Molecular characterization was carried out using microsatellite markers and whole genome re-sequenced data. The studied IC ecotypes are genetically distinct groups. The MHC-linked microsatellite markers divided the eight IC ecotypes studied into three mixed clusters, composing of individuals from the different ecotypes whereas non-MHC markers grouped ICs into two groups. Analysis revealed high genetic variation within the ecotype with highly diverse MHC-linked alleles which are known to be involved in disease resistance. Whole genome re-sequencing revealed genomic variability, regions affected by selection, candidate genes and mutations that can explain partially the phenotypic divergence between IC and commercial layers. Unlike commercial chickens, IC preserved a high genomic variability that may be important in addressing present and future challenges associated with environmental adaptation and farmers’ breeding goals. Lastly, this study showed that there is an opportunity to improve IC through selection within the population. Genetic improvement utilizing within IC selection requires setting up a breeding program. The study described the systematic and logical steps in designing a breeding program by focusing on farmers’ need, how to improve IC to fit the farming conditions, and management regimes.

Information networks that generate economic value: A study on clusters of adopters of new or improved technologies and practices among oil palm growers in Mexico
Aguilar-Gallegos, N. ; Muñoz-Rodríguez, M. ; Santoyo-Cortés, H. ; Aguilar-Ávila, J. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 135 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 122 - 132.
agricultural innovation systems - sustainable agriculture - conservation practices - knowledge systems - land management - adoption - farmers - exchange - africa - kenya
The area under cultivation of oil palm has undergone considerable growth in Mexico, but yields are far below their potential. This is related to the low rate of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices in areas such as plantation management and farm administration. This study determines the factors that have an influence on adoption of new or improved technologies and practices and their relationship with the generation of economic value of oil palm. A cluster analysis of 33 key new or improved technologies and practices adopted by 104 growers was performed, and the main adoption categories and the variables influencing adoption are described. The results indicate that three clusters of growers can be discerned that differ in terms of their levels of adoption. The highest level of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices is related to higher yields and vice versa. The new or improved technologies and practices that differentiate the cluster of the advanced adopters from the cluster of the basic adopters are those related to plantation health, grower associations and production unit management. The cluster of the intermediate adopters is outstanding for their levels of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices in the aspects of plant nutrition, harvest, and genetics and reproduction. The advanced adopters set up better links for getting information, generally fromtheir extensionists. The three clusters each exhibit a great degree of homophily, indicating little information flow between the different clusters of growers, while these can learn from each other. These results make it evident that better articulation among different clusters of growers and other actors should be encouraged, and that diversified and tailor-made extension strategies should be designed to optimally support different clusters of growers.
Contesting control : land and forest in the struggle for Loita Maasai self-government in Kenya
Kronenburg García, A.J.N. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): S.W.J. Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572720 - 311
landgebruik - autonomie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - grondrechten - bosbezit - bosbeheer - governance - leiderschap - pachtstelsel - regering - staat - interventie - kenya - land use - autonomy - rural communities - land rights - forest ownership - forest administration - leadership - tenure systems - government - state - intervention


Contesting Control: Land and Forest in the Struggle for Loita Maasai Self-government in Kenya

Angela Kronenburg García

Contesting Control is about the Loita Maasai in Kenya who, faced with increasing outside interventions and pressure from neighbouring communities, the state and other agencies, have been struggling to maintain access and control over the land they inhabit and the forest they use. They have been on the losing side in territorial struggles with neighbouring Purko Maasai and (non-Maasai) Sonjo. However, with regard to the state, NGOs and environmental organizations, the Loita have successfully navigated policies and projects and retained access and control of their land and forest. Interventions have, nevertheless, changed the way people engage with the land and forest and with each other on these issues. This study investigates the (in)direct effects of interventions and how they have articulated with existing relations, practices, processes and struggles in Loita. It considers the state-led land adjudication programme of the 1960s that sought to convert Kenya’s pastoral lands into privately owned group ranches, the attempt by Narok County Council to turn the Naimina Enkiyio Forest into a nature reserve for tourism in the 1990s, and a forest co-management project carried out by IUCN in the early 2000s. This volume captures the process of property-in-the-making and socio-political change among the Loita Maasai as they struggle for autonomy and self-government.

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