Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Greenery and Education : A summary of the positive effects of greenery on well-being in educational environments
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
learning - children - universities - climate - educational institutions - education - social welfare - well-being - health - pupils - students - schools - leren - kinderen - universiteiten - klimaat - onderwijsinstellingen - onderwijs - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - gezondheid - leerlingen - studenten - scholen
Greenery in and around schools, childcare centres and on campuses is good for the climate at education institutions, both inside and out. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of students and staff alike, improving student performance and their ability to concentrate, as well as fostering the social climate. This document provides information on the benefits of greenery in relation to education and well-being, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
Monitoringsonderzoek Gezonde Schoolpleinen : monitor van het proces Gezonde Schoolpleinen van 70 Icoonscholen, inspiratie voor een gezond schoolplein en landelijke bekendheid van het proces Gezonde Schoolpleinen
Goossen, Martin ; Pleijte, Marcel ; Langers, Fransje ; Donders, Josine ; Vries, Sjerp de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2814) - 89
basisscholen - kinderen - gebiedsontwikkeling - campus - gezondheid van kinderen - architectuur - ontwerp - sociale gevolgen - cognitieve ontwikkeling - lichamelijke activiteit - gezondheid - elementary schools - children - area development - child health - architecture - design - social impact - cognitive development - physical activity - health
Interventiestudie Gezonde Schoolpleinen : Het effect op leerlingen van het herinrichten van schoolplein tot gezond schoolplein
Vries, S. de; Langers, F. ; Goossen, C.M. ; Rijn, S.E.M. van; Vlasblom, E. ; Sterkenburg, R.P. ; Pierik, F.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2830) - 113
kinderen - scholen - basisscholen - gebiedsontwikkeling - campus - gezondheid van kinderen - speelterreinen - spel - kwaliteit van het leven - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - vragenlijsten - beweging - concentreren - concentratie - children - schools - elementary schools - area development - child health - playgrounds - play - quality of life - social welfare - well-being - questionnaires - movement - concentrating - concentration
Groen en leren : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
- 7 p.
beplantingen - onderwijs - leren - schoolterrein - leerprestaties - openbaar groen - klimaat - temperatuur - gezondheid - sociaal welzijn - luchtkwaliteit - lichamelijke activiteit - lichamelijke fitheid - stressfactoren - kinderen - plantations - education - learning - school site - educational performance - public green areas - climate - temperature - health - social welfare - air quality - physical activity - physical fitness - stress factors - children
de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
Duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek bij kinderen 2014 : eerste resultaten
Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Alewijn, M. ; Top, H.J. van den; A, D.L. van der; Roos, A.M. ; Drijvers, J.J.M.M. ; Etemad, Z. ; Ocké, M.C. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Briefrapport 2015-0170) - 40 p.
voedselconsumptie - schadelijke stoffen - voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - besmetters - voedingsonderzoek - food consumption - noxious substances - nutrition and health - food safety - children - child health - contaminants - nutrition research
This report describes the consumption of children who participated in a
duplicate diet study. Furthermore it provides additional information on
the collected duplicate diets, for example if a child had followed a
specific diet. Duplicate diet studies are conducted periodically since 1976
in the Netherlands and provide the opportunity to monitor the quantities
of certain substances people ingest daily over time (chemicals,
mycotoxins). Moreover, it can be assessed if these quantities remain
within the safety limits.
This duplicate diet study was conducted during the spring and autumn of
2014 by RIVM and RIKILT and was commissioned by the Dutch Food and
Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). Parents/ carers of 126
children aged 2 to 6 years in the region of Wageningen participated in
the study. They collected duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of all foods
and beverages their child consumed over a 24-hour period. They also
kept food diaries to record what the child had consumed during the day.
The duplicate diets were processed into freeze-dried samples and stored
at RIKILT.
The results of this study showed that for many children less duplicate
diet was collected than what they probably consumed. This should be
taken into account when interpreting the results of dietary exposure to
harmful substances.
Meer groen, minder ADHD maar alleen in arme buurten
Vries, S. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2672) - 2
aandachtstekort hyperactiviteitstoornis - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - milieu - openbaar groen - buurten - stadsomgeving - lagere klassen - sociaal-economische positie - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - children - child health - environment - public green areas - neighbourhoods - urban environment - lower classes - socioeconomic status
Er zijn steeds meer aanwijzingen dat groen in de woonomgeving goed is voor de gezondheid. Vooral het rustgevende en herstellende vermogen van contact met groen lijkt daarbij van belang. Voorbeelden uit onderzoek zijn: sneller herstel van een stressvolle gebeurtenis, beter concentratievermogen en meer zelfbeheersing. Het meeste onderzoek kijkt echter alleen naar volwassenen; onderzoek onder kinderen is relatief schaars. Een nieuwe studie heeftving gekeken naar de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeen het gebruik van ADHD-medicatie door kinderen.
Groen en gebruik ADHD-medicatie door kinderen : de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeving en de prevalentie van AD(H)D-medicatiegebruik bij 5- tot 12-jarigen
Vries, S. de; Verheij, R. ; Smeets, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra 2672) - 23
kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - aandachtstekort hyperactiviteitstoornis - natuur - omgevingspsychologie - milieu - lichamelijke activiteit - welzijn - gezondheid - beweging - children - child health - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - nature - environmental psychology - environment - physical activity - well-being - health - movement
In deze studie is gekeken naar de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeving en het gebruik van ADHD-medicatie door kinderen. De gegevens over het medicijngebruik zijn afkomstig uit de Achmea Health Database. Uit deze database zijn kinderen die in 2011 tussen de 5 en 12 jaar waren, geselecteerd, ongeacht of ze ADHD-medicatie gebruikten of niet. Hieraan zijn middels de 6-positie postcode van het woonadres gegevens over het groen in de woonomgeving (250 m en 500 m) gekoppeld alsmede enkele buurtkenmerken. Van de 274.698 kinderen in de database waren voor 248.270 kinderen alle gegevens beschikbaar. De uitval werd voornamelijk veroorzaakt door tussentijdse verhuizingen. Middels multilevel logistische regressieanalyse is de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeving en het al dan niet gebruiken van een ADHD-medicijn geanalyseerd.
Children and vegetables: strategies to increase children’s liking and intake of vegetables
Wild, V.W.T. de - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574953 - 157
kinderen - kindervoeding - groenten - voedselvoorkeuren - peuters en kleuters - voedselopname - borstvoeding - children - child nutrition - vegetables - food preferences - preschool children - food intake - breast feeding

Background and aim

Children’s vegetable intake is far below that recommended. Despite increased awareness of the importance of vegetable consumption for health, it remains challenging to improve children’s vegetable intake. Since food preferences are central to food intake, it is important to understand how they are shaped and which factors play a role in this. So far, research on the formation of vegetable preferences has focused mainly on infants and school age children but is not elaborately investigated in toddlers/pre-schoolers. Therefore the aim of this thesis was to investigate the underlying mechanisms and modifying factors that play a role in developing 2–5-year-old children’s acceptance of vegetables. Effects of different learning mechanisms, strategies, and modifying factors were explored by diverse studies, including four intervention studies in ecological settings (day-care centres and at home). In another study, we compared 10 intervention studies across Europe.

Methods

We conducted a series of day-care and in-home interventions. Healthy toddlers and pre-school children participated in the studies. Vegetable liking was measured by relative preference, and consumption was measured by (ad libitum) intake. First, we studied the underlying mechanisms – flavour–nutrient learning, flavour–flavour learning, and repeated exposure – involved in the development toddlers’ food preferences in the short and long term. Novel products like green vegetable soups and vegetable crisps were used as test products, using within-subject designs. The soups differed in energy density to test flavour–nutrient learning (n=28), and the crisps were offered with different dips to test flavour–flavour learning (n=39). Next, we investigated the efficacy of other strategies like taste modification (n=103) and choice-offering (n=70) on 2–5-year-old children’s vegetable liking and intake, using between-subjects designs. Children consumed different vegetable products at home at dinnertime and therefore we used more familiar vegetables as test products. Finally, we combined the results of 10 intervention studies across Europe to explore the influence of individual child characteristics such as breastfeeding history and breastfeeding duration, age, gender, and food neophobia on 2– 6-year-old children’s (n=750) actual vegetable intake.

Results

We found a clear and persistent effect of repeatedly offering novel and/or disliked vegetables on 2–5-year-old children’s intake. Results for preferences were inconsistent across the studies. We found no strong evidence that strategies such as flavour–flavour learning, flavour–nutrient learning, diluting/hiding a vegetable were more effective in changing vegetable preference than repeated exposure alone. We observed a small positive effect of choice-offering; this strategy could possibly be effective in somewhat older children who already like vegetables, to increase their consumption volume. Factors like breastfeeding duration, vegetable liking, and food neophobia were important for children’s vegetable intake. Children who were more reluctant to try novel food had lower vegetable intake and were not responsive to strategies like repeated exposure, blending, mixing, or hiding vegetables. Longer breastfeeding duration was positively associated with a higher vegetable intake by 2–6-year-old children across three European countries. Gender and age had no influence.

Conclusions

This thesis demonstrates that repeatedly offering a novel or disliked vegetable in a trusted positive environment is highly effective in promoting toddlers’ and pre-school children’s vegetable intake. Repeated exposure seems to be the way to teach young children to accept novel or disliked foods. Other strategies such as flavouring, adding energy, or taste modification may be helpful in promoting young children’s willingness to try and taste vegetables. Additional strategies such as choice-offering are needed to promote intake of already liked/familiar vegetables when children get older. Individual differences in child characteristics such as food neophobia, breastfeeding duration, and age play a role in shaping food preferences and therefore should get more attention in strategies to promote children’s vegetable acceptance. These results can be used by parents, caregivers, and public health organizations to stimulate children’s vegetable consumption to maintain a more balanced diet.

Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards
Wijnhoven, T.M.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): Joop van Raaij. - Wageningen - ISBN 9789462574656 - 265
overgewicht - obesitas - quetelet index - lichaamsgewicht - schoolkinderen - kinderen - kwantitatieve analyse - who - gezondheid van kinderen - risicoschatting - kindervoeding - lichamelijke activiteit - kleding - overweight - obesity - body mass index - body weight - school children - children - quantitative analysis - child health - risk assessment - child nutrition - physical activity - clothing

Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.

Background

As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity convened in 2006 in Turkey, the European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was launched by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO). COSI, a collaboration between WHO and interested Member States, aims to monitor the magnitude of overweight and obesity among primary-school children in European countries, to allow intercountry comparisons and to identify regional differences for informed policy-making. It collects at regular intervals data on weight and height of primary-school children and on their nutrition and physical activity behaviours, as well as on school environmental characteristics supportive to healthy nutrition and physical activity.

Methods

The research described in this PhD thesis is based on the data collected in the first two COSI rounds by 12 European countries in school year 2007/2008 and by 13 European countries in school year 2009/2010. Nationally representative samples of children aged 6–9 years were drawn, whereby a majority of the countries applied a two-stage school-based cluster sampling approach.

A total of 168 832 children in school year 2007/2008 and 224 920 children in school year 2009/2010 were included in the anthropometric intercountry data analyses. Children's weight and height were measured by trained examiners using standardized procedures. Participating countries were allowed to adhere to their local legal requirements by specified deviations from standardized procedures, such as in types of clothing worn by the children during weight and height measurements. For each country, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were computed.

The characteristics included in the analyses on the school environment referred to the frequency of physical education lessons, the availability of school playgrounds, the possibility to obtain food items and beverages on the school premises, and the organization of school initiatives to promote a healthy lifestyle. The school form was usually completed by the school principal or the teachers involved with the sampled classes. Data from 1831 schools in school year 2007/2008 and from 2045 schools in school year 2009/2010 were used. For each school, a school nutrition environment score (range: 0–1) was determined whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment and the mean of the children's BMI-for-age Z-scores calculated.

Five countries in school year 2007/2008 provided children's data on 13 health-risk behaviours related to breakfast and food consumption frequency, physical activity, screen time and sleep duration (n = 15 643). These data were reported by the caregivers alone or jointly with their child. For each country, the prevalence of the risk behaviours was estimated, and associations between them and overweight and obesity examined by multilevel logistic regression analyses.

Results

In both school years, a wide range in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates was found that differed significantly by country, as well as by European region. In all countries, the percentage of overweight children was about 20% or more (range: 18–57%), and the percentage of obese children was 5% or more (range: 5–31%). The findings suggest the presence of a north–south gradient with the highest overweight and obesity prevalence estimates found in southern European countries. Furthermore, changes in mean BMI-for-age Z-scores (range: from –0.21 to +0.14) and prevalence of overweight (range: from –9.0% to +6.2%) from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010 varied significantly among countries, whereas a period of two years is considered too short to identify these developments. The clothes-adjusted overweight prevalence estimates were lower by as much as 12% than the unadjusted estimates. Monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values within countries did not show systematic seasonal effects.

Large between-country differences were observed in both school years in the availability of food items or beverages on the school premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12–95% of schools) and in the organization of initiatives to promote a healthy lifestyle in the selected classes (range: 42–97%). The provision of physical education lessons and the availability of school playgrounds were more uniformly present across the countries (range: 76–100%). A large variation was also seen in school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30–0.93) whereby countries with a low score (< 0.70) graded less than three out of five characteristics as supportive. High-score countries showed more often than low-score countries a combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks on the school premises.

The prevalence of all 13 health-risk behaviours differed significantly across countries. For instance, the percentage of children who ate ‘foods like candy bars or chocolate’ > 3 days/week ranged from 2.2% to 63.4%; this figure ranged from 1.1% to 46.5% for those who ate ‘foods like potato chips (crisps), corn chips, popcorn or peanuts’ > 3 days/week. The range for children who did not have breakfast every day was between 4.4% and 32.5%, and from 4.8% to 35.0% for those who did not play outside ≥ 1 hour/day. Not having breakfast daily and spending screen time ≥ 2 hours/day were clearly positively associated with obesity. The same was true for eating ‘foods like pizza, French fries, hamburgers, sausages or meat pies’ > 3 days/week and playing outside < 1 hour/day. While a combination of multiple less favourable physical activity behaviours was clearly positively associated with obesity, a combination of the presence of multiple unhealthy eating behaviours did not lead to higher odds of obesity.

Conclusions

The results found in both COSI school years show that overweight and obesity among 6–9-year-old children are a serious public health concern, especially in southern European countries, and show the need for accelerated efforts to prevent excess body weight early in life by all participating countries. It was possible to detect relevant changes within a period of two years but to identify clear trends within countries, a longer time interval is necessary. The data on the school nutrition environment and the children's health-risk behaviours may assist policy-makers in monitoring their national policies targeting school settings and childhood obesity. In particular, promoting physical activity-related and discouraging sedentary behaviours among schoolchildren in the context of obesity preventive interventions seem to be essential.

Aantafel! helpt tegen kinderobesitas
Ramaker, R. ; Hoek, E. van - \ 2015
Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR (2015). - ISSN 1389-7756
overgewicht - obesitas - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - voeding en gezondheid - programmaeffectiviteit - gezondheidsbevordering - gezondheidsprogramma's - overweight - obesity - children - child health - nutrition and health - program effectiveness - health promotion - health programs
Steeds vaker komt overgewicht voor bij kinderen. Doelgroepen bereiken is grote uitdaging.
The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency
Cepeda López, A.C. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; I. Herter Aeberli; S. Osendarp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574465 - 158
obesitas - overgewicht - ijzergebrekanemie - gebreksziekten - slechte voeding - ontsteking - ijzerabsorptie - ascorbinezuren - ascorbinezuur - vrouwen - kinderen - kindervoeding - bloedvolume - mens - obesity - overweight - iron deficiency anaemia - deficiency diseases - malnutrition - inflammation - iron absorption - ascorbic acids - ascorbic acid - women - children - child nutrition - blood volume - man

Background: The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking them remain largely unknown.

Objectives: To investigate possible mechanisms that link obesity and iron status through the following specific objectives: a) reviewing the existing literature; b) investigating the coexistence of obesity and iron deficiency at the national level in Mexico; c) assessing and comparing iron absorption and blood volume (BV) in healthy, non-anemic women from different body mass index (BMI) categories, and evaluating if ascorbic acid improves iron absorption in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) women; d) evaluating if differences in BV explains reduced iron status in OW/OB women; and e) evaluating whether fat loss in obese subjects decreases inflammation and serum hepcidin and thereby improves iron absorption.

Methods: a) A literature review was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines; b) data from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey, which included 1174 children (aged 5–12 y) and 621 nonpregnant women (aged 18–50 y), was used to assess the relationship between BMI, dietary iron, and dietary factors affecting iron bioavailability, iron status, and inflammation; c & d) healthy, non-anemic Swiss women (n=62) (BMI 18.5-39.9 kg/m2) consumed a stable-isotope labelled wheat-based test meal, without (-AA) and with (+AA) 31.4 mg ascorbic acid. We measured iron absorption, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), blood volume by carbon monoxide (CO)-rebreathing method, iron status, inflammation and serum hepcidin; e) We performed a 6-month, prospective study in OB (BMI, ≥35<45 kg/m2) adults from Mexico (n=..), who had recently undergone laparoscopic sleeve-gastrectomy (LSG). At 2 months and 8 months post-LSG, subjects consumed a test drink with 6mg 57Fe as ferrous sulfate and were intravenously infused with 100 μg 58Fe as iron citrate and we measured body composition by DXA, iron status, hepcidin and inflammation.

Results: a) Obesity-related subclinical inflammation and its effects on hepcidin levels seem to be the most plausible explanation for the link between ID and obesity; b) the risk of iron deficiency in OB women and children was 2-4 times that of normal-weight individuals at similar dietary iron intakes. In addition, we found that C-reactive protein but not iron intake was a strong negative predictor of iron status, independently of BMI (P < 0.05); c) dietary iron absorption was lower in OW/OB versus normal weight subjects (Geometric mean (95%CI): 12.9 (9.7, 16.9)%) vs 19.0 (15.2, 23.5)%, P=0.049). Moreover, the enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption in overweight/obese (28%) was only half that in normal weight women (56%); d) OW/OB women presented higher absolute blood volume and lower serum iron compared to the normal weight group. BV (r2=0.22, β=-0.29, P=0.02) was a negative predictor for serum iron when adjusted for body iron stores. We developed an equation to calculate BV in OW and OB women considering weight, height and lean body mass; e) Fat loss lead to a reduction of inflammation (Interleukin-6) and hepcidin concentrations. In iron-deficient subjects (n=17), iron absorption significantly increased after fat loss (Geometric mean (95%CI): 9.7% (6.5-14.6) to 12.4% (7.7-20.1) (P=0.03), while in iron sufficient subjects (n=21), it did not change (Geometric mean (95%CI): 5.9% (4.0-8.6) and 5.6% (3.9-8.2)) (P=0.81)).

Conclusion: Increased hepcidin concentrations, along with subclinical inflammation, limits dietary iron absorption in subjects with excessive body fat, especially in iron deficient individuals. Due to a dilutional effect of blood volume, ‘true’ hypoferremia might be overestimated in populations with a high prevalence of obesity when using serum iron as an indicator. OW/OB individuals may require: higher dietary iron intake combined with iron absorption enhancers to keep their iron status in balance; and a reduction of the obesity-related inflammatory process in order to ensure adequate iron absorption.

Young children and obesity : development and evaluation of familiy-oriented treatment
Hoek, E. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): A.J. Janse; Laura Bouwman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574540 - 182
obesitas - overgewicht - kinderen - peuters en kleuters - pediatrie - behandeling - kinderziekten - medische behandeling - lichaamssamenstelling - kwaliteit van het leven - vetweefsel - hart- en vaatziekten - kwantitatieve methoden - voeding en gezondheid - obesity - overweight - children - preschool children - paediatrics - treatment - childhood diseases - medical treatment - body composition - quality of life - adipose tissue - cardiovascular diseases - quantitative methods - nutrition and health

Thesis: Young Children and Obesity – Development and Evaluation of Family-oriented Treatment, Esther van Hoek

Introduction

The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last decades. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease with serious consequences such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, obese children have a decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

The age interval of 3 to 7 years is a critical growth period. Fast increase of weight in this period is associated with obesity later in life. Furthermore, starting treatment at younger age is associated with a larger reduction in overweight. At the start of this project in 2009, there was no evaluated treatment program available for young obese children (defined as 3 to 8 years).

The risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes (i.e. cardiometabolic risk) can be assessed by measuring conventional risk factors (for example blood pressure). Other markers, such as pro-inflammatory markers, are part of the cardiometabolic risk profile. Epicardial adipose tissue is a metabolically active cardiac fat depot. In obese adults, the epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) is increased, this is correlated to atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether young overweight children have already increased EATT.

The aim of this thesis is to develop, implement and evaluate a treatment program for obese young children. Furthermore, it aims to assess whether EATT is increased in obese young children and is correlated with the cardiometabolic risk profile, and with treatment.

Methods

The treatment program for obese young children is developed based on a review of the clinical guidelines, a literature review (including a systematic review with meta-analysis and an extended literature review) and target group interviews. The findings were integrated with professional judgement. To evaluate the resulting program called AanTafel!, a pilot study was performed (n=7 children), including a process evaluation based on parental interviews and questionnaires with the therapists. The effectiveness of AanTafel! was evaluated with a pre-post-test design including 40 children with a median BMI z-score of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.0) in secondary care. The BMI-z-score was the main outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were components of the metabolic syndrome, markers of cardiometabolic risk, and HRQoL. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at the end of treatment (1 year). The BMI z-score was also evaluated 3 years after baseline in the first 23 children who finished treatment. EATT was measured by echocardiography in 25 obese, 8 overweight, and 15 normal weight young children. In the obese and overweight children the EATT, as well as cardiometabolic risk factors, and the markers adiponectin and high sensitive CRP (hsCRP) were measured at baseline and after treatment.

Results

Meta-analysis showed that multicomponent treatment programs of moderate or high intensity (> 26 hours) were the most effective and resulted in a decrease of BMI z-score of 0.5. During the development of the treatment program, the gaps in evidence in clinical guidelines for childhood obesity treatment were overcome by insights from an additional literature review, target group interviews and professional judgement. The resulting treatment program AanTafel! has the following key characteristics: multicomponent, multidisciplinary, family-based with focus on parents, age-specific, tailored to individual children and families, a duration of one year and a combination of individual and group sessions and a web-based learning module. The pilot study showed that to improve parental involvement, peer support, family tailoring, and highly participative elements (such as self-monitoring) are important. The treatment program AanTafel! resulted in a change of mean BMI z-score of -0.5 directly after finishing treatment. This clinical relevant result persisted 2 years after baseline. Furthermore, a significant increase in HDL cholesterol and a reduction in the number of components of metabolic syndrome were found. Regarding markers of cardiometabolic risk, an overall significant decrease was seen in IL18, e-selectin, and sICAM. The HRQoL showed a non-significant improvement in most domains, with a clinically relevant improvement in the physical summary score. EATT was higher in overweight and obese young children compared to their normal weight peers. EATT was inversely correlated with adiponectin, but correlations with other cardiometabolic risk factors were not statistically significant. EATT did not change during treatment (n=17).

Conclusion

During the development process of an obesity treatment program, it was important to add the views of the target group and therapists to the evidence from clinical guidelines and literature review. The resulting treatment program AanTafel! is effective with a clinically relevant decrease of BMI z-score, an improvement of cardiometabolic risk profile, and a clinically relevant increase in the physical summary score of HRQoL. EATT is increased in obese young children; this is inversely correlated with adiponectin.

Duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek bij kinderen 2014: opzet en uitvoering
Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Top, H.J. van den; A, D.L. van der; Roos, A.M. ; Drijvers, J. ; Ocké, M.C. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Briefrapport 2015-0053) - 31
voedselconsumptie - schadelijke stoffen - besmetters - voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - kinderen - food consumption - noxious substances - contaminants - nutrition and health - food safety - children
Sinds 1976 wordt in Nederland periodiek gemeten in welke mate mensen via voeding schadelijke stoffen binnenkrijgen, zoals metalen en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Hiervoor verzamelt een representatieve groep deelnemers in een gekoelde box de equivalenten van alles wat zij gedurende een etmaal hebben gegeten en gedronken (duplicaatvoeding). Het RIVM en het RIKILT voeren dit zogeheten duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek uit in opdracht van de Nederlandse Voedsel-en Warenautoriteit (NVWA). In dit rapport is beschreven hoe het onderzoek in 2014 is opgezet en uitgevoerd.
Breakfast benefits for children and adolescents
Vingerhoeds, M.H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR Food &amp; Biobased Research 1564) - ISBN 9789462575158 - 26
kinderen - kindervoedering - adolescenten - voedingsgewoonten - ontbijt - gezondheid - voeding en gezondheid - voedselconsumptie - overgewicht - children - child feeding - adolescents - feeding habits - breakfast - health - nutrition and health - food consumption - overweight
This literature review aimed to give some insight in the benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents, with a focus on overweight, food intake and cognition. In addition, we explored the magnitude of skipping breakfast in the Netherlands and factors associated with this behaviour.
Website Voedseleducatie Platform
Meester, H.J. ; Top, R. van den - \ 2014
Steunpunt Smaaklessen & EU-Schoolfruit
voedingseducatie - kinderen - voeding en gezondheid - smaaklessen - lesmaterialen - onderwijsprogramma's - nutrition education - children - nutrition and health - tasting lessons - teaching materials - education programmes
Website van het Voedseleducatie Platform
Occurrence of tropane and ergot alkaloids in cereal-based products for young children: a survey in The Netherlands
Mulder, P.P.J. ; Pereboom- Fauw, D. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2014
voedselveiligheid - kindervoeding - kinderen - tropaanalkaloïden - ergotalkaloïden - koekjes - ontbijtgranen - food safety - child nutrition - children - tropane alkaloids - ergot alkaloids - cookies - breakfast cereals
The objective of this research was: to gain insight on the actual exposure of young children (4-36 months) to Tropane alkaloids (TAs) and Ergot alkaloids (EAs) via the diet, with a focus on cookies and breakfast cereals for young children.
Children and sublime landscapes
Roncken, P.A. - \ 2014
TOPOS
landschap - landschapsbeleving - kinderen - esthetische waarde - landscape - landscape experience - children - aesthetic value
TOPOS asked researcher Paul Roncken for a contribution to the topic of contemporary landscape aesthetics. As assistant professor he is connected to the landscape architecture group of Wageningen University and works on several topics involving aesthetics and design education and research. He shares his view on the development of sublime landscape experiences during childhood.
Groen dichterbij : Wat maakt groene buurtprojecten tot een succes?
Luttik, J. ; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Langers, F. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2571) - 34
openbaar groen - ontwerp - kinderen - natuur- en milieueducatie - projecten - evaluatie - provincies - public green areas - design - children - nature and environmental education - projects - evaluation - provinces
'Groen Dichterbij' is een campagne van IVN, het Oranje Fonds, Buurtlink.nl en SME Advies die groene buurtprojecten ondersteunt met geld en advies. Alterra heeft voor Groen Dichterbij een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar succes- en faalfactoren en sociale effecten van deze groene buurtprojecten. De effecten van groene buurtprojecten gaan verder dan de vergroening van de buurt alleen. Ze gaan ook over elkaar ontmoeten, begrip tonen, samenwerken en het uitwisselen van kennis en ervaring over de natuur.
Focusgroepdiscussies over pizza en groentesalade met kinderen van 10-12 jaar: resultaten en aanbevelingen voor productontwikkeling
Janssen, A.M. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Zeinstra, G.G. ; Vrijhof, M.N. - \ 2014
Wageningen : FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food &amp; Biobased Research 1449) - ISBN 9789461739858 - 86
kinderen - perceptie - pizza's - groenten - salades - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voeding en gezondheid - productontwikkeling - nederland - children - perception - pizzas - vegetables - salads - food consumption - consumption patterns - nutrition and health - product development - netherlands
In the Netherlands, the consumption of fruit and vegetables is too low among children. One of the main reasons is that children often do not like to eat vegetables. The focus in the project Healthy food for kids - Kids University was to measure children’s product experience of (more) healthy vegetable foods and to translate gained knowledge into food concepts high in vegetable content developed for children aged 10-12 years. In this report, results of the research aiming to better understand factors that are important for children when eating pizza and vegetable salad, is described. Another goal was to determine what choices children make when they compose their own pizza or vegetable salad.
"The bullets sound like music to my ears" : socialization of child soldiers within African rebel groups
Vermeij, L. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): S.G. Gates; Gemma van der Haar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737700 - 292
socialisatie - identiteit - kinderen - soldaten - strijdkrachten - opstand - groepen - sociale integratie - oorlog - conflict - revolutie - afrika - socialization - identity - children - soldiers - armed forces - rebellion - groups - social integration - war - revolution - africa
Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.
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