Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Knowledge production at boundaries : an inquiry into collaborations to make management plans for European fisheries
Stange, Kari - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove, co-promotor(en): Judith van Leeuwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430623 - 160
fishery management - european union - stakeholders - european union countries - fishery policy - multi-stakeholder processes - knowledge - knowledge transfer - environmental policy - fisheries - companies - europe - visserijbeheer - europese unie - landen van de europese unie - visserijbeleid - multi-stakeholder processen - kennis - kennisoverdracht - milieubeleid - visserij - kapitaalvennootschappen - europa

This thesis addresses how knowledge is used and produced in stakeholder-led collaborations to make long-term management plans for European fishery management. Boundary object theory is applied and developed to explain how stakeholders from the fishing industry interact with each other, and with fishery scientists and managers, in initiatives to produce management plans. Using a qualitative case study approach, two initiatives were investigated in-depth: the North Sea Advisory Council’s development of a long-term management plan for North Sea Nephrops fisheries, and the Pelagic Advisory Council’s development of a long-term management plan for a new boarfish fishery in the Northeast Atlantic. A conceptual framework with emphasis on boundary spaces was developed to analyse knowledge exchange and the interaction between actors, objects and activities. The findings point to the importance of entry points for actors to become directly involved in knowledge-production processes. Direct stakeholder engagement in management plan production created a sense of ownership of the problems identified and triggered solution-oriented ways of working. The findings highlight the multiple roles played by fishery scientists in the diverse settings where management plans for European fisheries are produced, and draw attention to the need for clear procedures to ensure that different roles are acted out transparently.

The politics of environmental knowledge
Turnhout, E. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573796 - 20 p.
milieuwetenschappen - milieu - kennis - biodiversiteit - ecosysteemdiensten - natuurbescherming - politiek - environmental sciences - environment - knowledge - biodiversity - ecosystem services - nature conservation - politics
Kansen voor regionale innovatieprojecten, verkenning voor de vollegrondsgroentesector in Zuidoost Nederland
Haan, J.J. de; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Stichting DLO (PPO/PRI-rapport 3750302800 ) - 26 p.
akkerbouw - groenteteelt - groenten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - limburg - ondernemerschap - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - kennissystemen - kennis van boeren - kennis - subsidies - arable farming - vegetable growing - vegetables - small farms - entrepreneurship - innovations - knowledge transfer - knowledge systems - farmers' knowledge - knowledge
The Dutch province of Limburg has asked Wageningen UR to develop an initial knowledge- and innovation agenda for the outdoor vegetable production sector, including three concrete project ideas for the POP3 framework. Besides this, Wageningen UR was asked to evaluate three innovation projects with farmers and SMEs to make recommendations to optimise the POP3 framework. Recommendations for POP3 Based on experiences in three different subsidy projects, recommendations are formulated for POP3. The main conclusion is that subsidy schemes do not match with the situation of agricultural businesses and small SMEs, although the schemes aim to support such companies with innovation. It is recommended to leave the ownership of the innovation with the companies, but without the full project management responsibility. Moreover, it is important to make the conditions more suitable for small enterprises, e.g. the minimum subsidy sum and the required contribution in cash. Second problem is the inflexibility of subsidy schemes, limiting the dynamics of innovation projects or forcing them to start procedures for acceptance of changes in the plan and budgeting. It is recommended to make schemes more flexible, e.g. asking less detailed plans and creating more room for changes in partners, activities and budgets. Third problem is the limitation for consortium partners to get their full costs paid, affecting research and advisory partners. This is often solved through very complicated constructions (outsourcing, secondary partnership), causing inequalities in the project (some partners are fully paid, others are not). Recommendation: allow projects to involve the right partners for the project, with the possibility to pay real costs and without complicated constructions. Last common problem is the artificial distinction between knowledge development and knowledge use/uptake, causing problems within projects when necessary research activities are not accepted by the subsidy scheme. Recommendation: allow projects to do all activities they believe are necessary for the innovation process.
"Geld voor natuuronderzoek komt beschikbaar voor de belangrijkste beheeronderwerpen"
Arts, Bas - \ 2016
nature management - financing - scientific research - scientists - nature conservation policy - knowledge - forest administration
Het lijkt er op dat de grote beheerorganisaties zich een beetje terugtrekken en niet meer mee doen aan de cofinanciering van onderzoek voor natuur. Onderzoek is te duur voor hen, zeggen ze. Nu bepalen dus de onderzoekers welke onderwerpen het meest belangrijk zijn. Klopt dit, ervaren mensen dat zo? Vinden ze dat er voldoende sturing is van het onderzoek op onderwerpen waar beheerders mee zitten? Komt het geld voor natuuronderzoek beschikbaar voor de belangrijkste beheeronderwerpen?
Proeftuinen voor Wageningse waterkennis
Verdonschot, Ralf - \ 2016
water management - streams - knowledge - polder boards - biodiversity - floodplains
Designing hybrid learning configurations at the interface between school and workplace
Cremers, P.H.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder; Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576322 - 156 p.
intermediate vocational training - education - education programmes - higher education - organization of education - practical education - postsecondary education - vocational training - firms - companies - knowledge transfer - knowledge - netherlands - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - onderwijs - onderwijsprogramma's - hoger onderwijs - onderwijsorganisatie - praktijkonderwijs - vervolgonderwijs - beroepsopleiding - firma's - kapitaalvennootschappen - kennisoverdracht - kennis - nederland

In today’s knowledge society there is a demand for professionals who are able to create knowledge across boundaries of disciplines, professions and perspectives. Increasingly, challenges have to be addressed by experts from different fields who collaborate across different contexts. In addition, given the fast pace with which society changes, experts must continually construct and reconstruct their expertise in a process of lifelong learning. Institutions for higher and vocational education are challenged to educate these ‘knowledge workers’. They are responding, among others, by developing novel hybrid practices at the interface between school and workplace, the so-called hybrid learning configurations. By connecting education, research and professional practice they aim to address complex problems in society by fostering interprofessional collaboration and learning. We define a hybrid learning configuration (HLC) as ‘a social practice around illdefined, authentic tasks or issues whose resolution requires transboundary learning by transcending disciplines, traditional structures and sectors, and forms of learning’.

While many educational institutions and other organizations are co-developing and experimenting with HLCs, the process followed is often one of trial and error. Practical expertise is becoming available but only in an ad hoc and fragmented way. Although research on situated and social learning offers relevant theories and concepts that are useful when designing an HLC, not much research has addressed the design of HLCs in a comprehensive way. This PhD research aims to address this lacuna. We investigate HLCs from an educational design research (EDR) perspective, which involves framing the HLC as a complex intervention. We are interested not only in the features or designed elements of such interventions, but also in the underlying principles or conjectures that are embodied in those features. In addition, we intend to provide support for interprofessional HLC design teams, which consist of, for instance, educational consultants, researchers, lecturers and other practitioners. In order to address these aims we studied six HLCs in the context of Dutch higher vocational education. One of the cases is a joint project of two Dutch institutions for senior secondary vocational educational (which are called ‘MBO’ in Dutch) and two universities of applied sciences (‘HBO’ in Dutch) in collaboration with two companies. The other cases are HLCs in different settings within the context of a university of applied sciences in the Netherlands.

The aims mentioned above led to the following general research questions: 1. Which heuristics can underpin the design of a hybrid learning configuration? 2. In which ways can interprofessional teams be supported when designing hybrid learning configurations? Chapters 2 and 3 address the first research question and chapters 4 and 5 address the second question.

Design principles for HLCs

Chapter 2 focuses on the HLC as a whole. The central research question is: “Which set of principles can underpin the design of a hybrid learning configuration for educating the knowledge worker?” Based on a literature search and designers’ craft knowledge, a set of initial design principles was developed for an HLC at the interface between school and workplace. The intention was that four learning processes would be enabled by the HLC: self-directed learning, authentic learning, the development of a professional identity and collaborative creation of knowledge across the boundaries of disciplines, professions and perspectives.

These initial design principles were evaluated from the perspective of the participants by analysing interview data from students, lecturers, educational consultants and business representatives. This resulted in the following set of seven refined principles that underpin the design of an HLC: fostering authenticity; creating a learning community; utilizing diversity; inter-linking of working and learning; facilitating reflexivity; enabling organization; enabling ecology. These principles can be used as heuristics for guiding the design and development of hybrid learning configurations in contexts that have similar goals and aligned tenets.

Fostering self-directed lifelong learning in HLCs

Chapter 3 elaborates further on the design principle ‘facilitating reflexivity’. Since knowledge workers have to redefine and reconstruct their own expertise in an on-going fashion, they should be able to reflect on and pro-actively develop their professional competence. This capacity for self-directed lifelong learning is an essential asset for them and should therefore be developed or enhanced in an HLC. The main research question in this chapter is: “Which design guidelines underpin an intervention that would foster students’ capacity for self-directed lifelong learning while working on ill-structured, authentic professional tasks?”

An intervention was designed, implemented and evaluated during two iterations of a hybrid learning configuration, which was embedded in a one-semester elective course at a university of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Evaluation methods included interviews with students and the course facilitator, questionnaires, and students’ logs and reports. This resulted in the following five intervention design guidelines: provide opportunities to engage in two or more cycles of self-directed learning; provide educational support; pay attention to emotional and motivational aspects; treat self-directed lifelong learning as a social learning process; position self-directed lifelong learning as a self-evident and integrated part of the course.

The intervention appeared to be usable and effective. At a basic level, the students developed their capacity for self-directed lifelong learning. We concluded that further research is needed to investigate conditions for realizing higher levels of proficiency in self-directed lifelong learning throughout the curriculum and beyond.

Utilization of design principles for HLCs

The focus of chapter 4 is the utilization of the set of design principles that was generated in chapter 2. Research has shown that while knowledge of design heuristics can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of design work, design teams often have difficulty articulating the rationale for their design. In addition, it is important to facilitate ideation and nourish creative spirit while utilizing the design heuristics to create a novel learning environment. In this study we explored an intervention for supporting the creative utilization of the set of design principles for HLC. The intervention was based on boundary-crossing theory and design thinking methods, with a particular focus on prototyping. It consisted of a ‘guidebook’ in which the design principles were explained, and a workshop. The corresponding research question was: “What is the perceived effectiveness of a boundarycrossing intervention (based on a set of research-based design principles) for (re)designing hybrid learning configurations?”

Four design teams of different HLCs in the context of a university of applied sciences used the guidebook and attended the workshop while (re)designing their HLC. The intervention was evaluated by way of questionnaires that were filled out by members of the design teams. The results show that the design teams perceived this intervention as being relevant, consistent, practical and effective. The intervention appeared to provide a conceptual framework for understanding and designing features of a hybrid learning configuration and a vocabulary to communicate design ideas. It, thereby, supported the creative utilization of the design principles. Further research could explore other, complementary ways of facilitating the design of hybrid learning configurations.

Cross-boundary learning during the design and implementation of an HLC

Chapter 5 concerns cross-boundary collaboration and learning processes within an interprofessional design team of an HLC. These teams often consist of actors from different educational institutions and other organizations, such as companies or (non) governmental institutions. When team members bring their different perspectives into the collaboration, they are likely to experience boundaries. Boundaries can be defined as ‘discontinuities in action or interaction’. They can hinder cooperation, but they can also provide opportunities for learning. This led to the following research question: “In which ways could a better understanding of boundaries enhance learning?”

In this study, transcripts of interviews with members of an HLC-design team were analysed using concepts of boundary crossing theory. This theoretical framework provided a lens through which different ways of boundary crossing, learning mechanisms and processes became visible. We established that boundaries are highly personal and subjective constructs. We found that if boundaries are detected and if the related practices are made explicit, this allows for further analysis of these boundaries. Our analysis yielded a number of possible ways to enhance trans-boundary learning in HLC design teams. We also concluded that boundary objects and brokers can play an important role in transboundary learning processes.

Conclusions in a broader perspective

In chapter 6 we frame our conclusions from the four studies in a broader perspective. The first aim of our research was the development of heuristics for the design of HLCs. Given this aim, we developed a set of design principles for an HLC and guidelines for an intervention that fosters the capacity for self-directed lifelong learning. We positioned these principles and guidelines in a ‘conjecture map’ (Sandoval 2014), which shows the relationships between design heuristics, their embodiment in features of an intervention, the intended mediating processes, and the desired outcomes. Our overall conclusion is that framing the set of design principles or guidelines in multiple conjecture maps, rather than representing them as causal chains of design propositions, can provide guidance and support for designing and researching complex educational interventions such as HLCs.

Our second aim was to provide support or ‘design knowledge’ for interprofessional HLC design teams. We addressed that aim by developing and testing an intervention that supported the creative utilization of a set of design principles for HLC. In addition, we provided guidance for enhancing learning across boundaries that could be experienced in an interprofessional design team. We positioned this design knowledge in a broader framework, the ‘ecological framework for conceptualizing teacher knowledge for technology-enhanced learning design’. This framework seems to be useful in contexts beyond technology-enhanced learning, and, so, we consider it relevant to the design of HLCs. We conclude that design teams of HLCs can be supported by using an appropriate framework for design knowledge and by adjusting or expanding this framework for the design of complex interventions by interprofessional design teams.

Further research and practical implications

Our studies led us to the following recommendations. While we focused mainly on learning processes that should occur within HLCs, further research could be directed towards the students’ learning outcomes. Moreover, our findings suggest that selfdirected lifelong learning should be developed and practiced throughout an education programme. To achieve this, curricula in higher education should offer opportunities for students to experiment and follow their own path, alongside prescribed activities with fixed learning outcomes. In the six HLCs that we studied, student learning was foregrounded. However, an HLC also involves other stakeholder types, such as lecturers, researchers, citizens, and entrepreneurs. Therefore, further research could shed light on supporting and evaluating multi-stakeholder learning processes and learning outcomes of all types of stakeholders. Our research on supporting interprofessional design teams focused on the utilization of design knowledge in early stages of (re)design of an HLC. Further research and development could yield ways of support in further stages of the design. In light of this we recommend crossing the boundaries of areas of design science outside the educational context. This will allow us to learn from each other and capitalize on what is already known.

In our study, design principles for HLC were ‘reified’ and disseminated by way of a guidebook. Further investigations could reveal other ways of documenting and communicating design knowledge, for instance via the construction of a database containing principles or guidelines and their associated features in different contexts. Boundary crossing theory appeared to provide a lens through which boundaries and related learning processes became visible. The elements of boundary crossing theory can be translated into guidelines or tools for enhancing cross-boundary learning in interprofessional HLC design teams and, perhaps, for other types of ‘hybrid teams’ as well.

This thesis intends to contribute to the knowledge base for designing hybrid learning configurations. This is done with the intention that this contribution will be utilized and developed further by researchers and practitioners who are committed to educating future professionals in an ever-changing world.

Geleerde lessen ontwikkeling kennis- en innovatiesystemen in 7 Greenportregio’s: syntheserapportage 2012-2015
Geerling-Eiff, F.A. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - 58 p.
kennisoverdracht - kennis - kennisvalorisatie - kennismanagement - nederland - knowledge transfer - knowledge - knowledge exploitation - knowledge management - netherlands
Het rapport ‘Geleerde lessen ontwikkeling kennis- en innovatiesystemen in 7 Greenportregio’s: syntheserapportage 2012-2015’ is een publicatie van onderzoeksthema Methodieken Kennisoverdracht. Het thema levert bouwstenen voor het verbeteren van kennisvalorisatie, het tot waarde brengen van kennis, middels integrale kennisketens en een effectieve en efficiënte inzet van kennismiddelen door en voor kennispartners en ondernemers in Greenportregio’s. Dit met als doel dat de keten van kennis naar kunde, naar kassa structureel wordt.
Management Summary: Geleerde lessen ontwikkeling kennis- en innovatiesystemen in 7 Greenportregio’s
Geerling-Eiff, F.A. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - 9 p.
kennisoverdracht - kennis - kennisvalorisatie - kennismanagement - nederland - knowledge transfer - knowledge - knowledge exploitation - knowledge management - netherlands
De management summary ‘Geleerde lessen ontwikkeling kennis- en innovatiesystemen in 7 Greenportregio’s’ is een publicatie van onderzoeksthema Methodieken Kennisoverdracht. Het thema levert bouwstenen voor het verbeteren van kennisvalorisatie, het tot waarde brengen van kennis, middels integrale kennisketens en een effectieve en efficiënte inzet van kennismiddelen door en voor kennispartners en ondernemers in Greenportregio’s. Dit met als doel dat de keten van kennis naar kunde, naar kassa structureel wordt.
Natalia Moreno: 'Inzicht in cel die bol gaat vormen'
Dwarswaard, A. ; Moreno Pachón, N.M. - \ 2015
BloembollenVisie (2015)301. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 18 - 18.
bloembollen - lelies - landbouwkundig onderzoek - tulpen - kennis - ornamental bulbs - lilies - agricultural research - tulips - knowledge
Bijna twee jaar geleden werd prof.dr.ir. Richard Immink voor een dag in de week benoemd tot 'bollenprof'. Samen met twee assistenten in opleiding voert hij fundamenteel onderzoek uit aan tulp en lelie. Tijd voor een tussenbalans in drie afleveringen. In deze derde aflevering licht assistent in opleiding Natalia Moreno toe waarom het moment waarop een cel besluit bolletjes te gaan vormen zo belangrijk is.
Factors impeding the acceptability and use of malaria preventive measures: implications for malaria elimination in eastern Rwanda
Ingabire, C.M. ; Rulisa, A. ; Kempen, L. van; Muvunyi, C. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Vugt, M. van; Mutesa, L. ; Borne, B. van den; Alaii, J. - \ 2015
Malaria Journal 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2875
management - knowledge - district - uganda
Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering the acceptability and use of available malaria preventive measures to better inform area specific strategies that can lead to malaria elimination. Methods Nine focus group discussions (FGD) covering a cross-section of 81 lay community members and local leaders were conducted in Ruhuha, Southern Eastern Rwanda in December 2013 to determine: community perceptions on malaria disease, acceptability of LLIN and IRS, health care-seeking behaviours and other malaria elimination strategies deployed at household and environmental levels. Discussions were recorded in Kinyarwanda, transcribed into English and coded using Nvivo 10 software. Results Participants ranked malaria as the top among five common diseases in the Ruhuha sector. Participants expressed comprehensive knowledge and understanding of malaria transmission and symptoms. The concept of malaria elimination was acknowledged, but challenges were reported. Sleeping under a bed net was negatively affected by increase of bedbugs (and the associated irritability) as well as discomfortable warmness particularly during the dry season. These two factors were reported as common hindrances of the use of LLIN. Also, widespread use of LLIN in constructing chicken pens or as fences around vegetable gardens was reported. Participants also reported that IRS appeared to lead to an increase in number of mosquitoes and other household bugs rather than kill them. Prompt health centre utilization among participants with presumed malaria was reported to be common particularly among subscribers to the subsidized community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme. In contrast, the lack of CBHI and/or perceptions that health centre visits were time consuming were common reasons for the use of over-the-counter medicines for malaria management. Conclusion In this study, identification of behavioural determinants in relation to LLIN use, IRS acceptability and health care seeking is a critical step in the development of effective, targeted interventions aiming to further reduce malaria transmission and elimination in the area.
Ethics, Risk and Benefits Associated with Different Applications of Nanotechnology: a Comparison of Expert and Consumer Perceptions of Drivers of Societal Acceptance
Gupta, N. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2015
NanoEthics 9 (2015)2. - ISSN 1871-4757 - p. 93 - 108.
repertory grid methodology - food-production - united-states - public acceptance - gm foods - attitudes - trust - technologies - knowledge - science
Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of nanotechnology in a way which is meaningful to consumers. This requires elicitation of attitudinal constructs from consumers, rather than measuring attitudes assumed to be important by the researcher. Psychological factors influencing societal responses to 15 applications of nanotechnology drawn from different application areas (e.g. medicine,agriculture and environment, food, military, sports, and cosmetics) were identified using repertory grid method in conjunction with generalised Procrustes analysis. The results suggested that people differentiate nanotechnology applications based on the extent to which they perceive them to be beneficial, useful,necessary and important. The benefits may be offset by perceived risks focusing on fear and ethical concerns. Compared to an earlier expert study on societal acceptance of nanotechnology, consumers emphasised ethical issues compared to experts but had less concern regarding potential physical contact with the product and time to market introduction. Consumers envisaged fewer issues with several applications compared to experts, in particular food applications.
Knowledge with impact
LEI Wageningen UR, - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
onderzoeksinstituten - universiteiten - kennis - onderzoek - economie - landbouw - economisch beleid - agrarische economie - nederland - research institutes - universities - knowledge - research - economics - agriculture - economic policy - agricultural economics - netherlands
Kennis voor impact
LEI Wageningen UR, - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
onderzoeksinstituten - universiteiten - kennis - economie - landbouw - economisch beleid - agrarische economie - nederland - onderzoek - research institutes - universities - knowledge - economics - agriculture - economic policy - agricultural economics - netherlands - research
Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability
Pereira, L. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Doshi, S. ; Frantzeskaki, N. - \ 2015
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12 (2015)6. - ISSN 1660-4601 - p. 6027 - 6044.
transitions - innovation - framework - systems - perspective - governance - complexity - knowledge - responses - pathways
The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world’s growing population whilst keeping human societies within a ‘safe operating space’ has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes that guide human responses in areas such as urban ecology, public health, resource security (e.g., food, water, energy access), economic development and biodiversity conservation. However, such systemic transformations necessitate experimentation in public arenas of exchange and a deepening of processes that can widen multi-stakeholder learning. We argue that there is an emergent potential in bridging the sustainability transitions and resilience approaches to create new scientific capacity that can support large-scale social-ecological transformations (SETs) to sustainability globally, not just in the West. In this article, we elucidate a set of guiding principles for the design of a ‘safe space’ to encourage stronger interactions between these research areas and others that are relevant to the challenges faced. We envisage new opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that will develop an adaptive and evolving community of practice. In particular, we emphasise the great opportunity for engaging with the role of emerging economies in facilitating safe space experimentation.
Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action
Aschemann-Witzel, J. ; Hooge, I.E. de; Amani, P. ; Bech-Larsen, T. ; Oostindjer, M. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015). - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 6457 - 6477.
climate-change - behavior - consumption - households - separation - emissions - knowledge - attitude - impacts - system
In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.
The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public
Fallaize, R. ; Macready, A.L. ; Butler, L.T. ; Ellis, J.A. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Walsh, M.C. ; Gallagher, C. ; Stewart-Knox, B.J. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Lovegrove, J.A. - \ 2015
British Journal of Nutrition 113 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1271 - 1279.
nutrigenomics - communication - disease - information - consumer - medicine - intervention - acceptance - knowledge - attitudes
Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the ‘framework approach’ described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.
The knowledge management arena: agent-based modelling of the pig sector
Osinga, S.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Adrie Beulens, co-promotor(en): Gert Jan Hofstede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572270 - 218
kennismanagement - informatiemanagement - varkenshouderij - besluitvorming - boeren - kennis - knowledge management - information management - pig farming - decision making - farmers - knowledge

Abstract belonging to PhD thesis:
The knowledge management arena: agent-based modelling of the pig sector
Sjoukje A. Osinga
Wageningen University, Information technology group

To be defended on 22nd of April, 2015
Promotor: Em. Prof. ir AJM (Adrie) Beulens, Information technology group
Co-promotor: Dr ir GJ (Gert Jan) Hofstede, Information technology group

Complex adaptive systems are characterized by multiple levels of behaviour: the behaviour of individual components and the behaviour of the entire system. In this thesis we study this relationship by means of agent-based models. By modelling individuals (agents) and their behaviour only, and simulating this behaviour over time, we generate emerging patterns: we did not explicitly put them in. We try to understand these patterns by reasoning back to individual level (multi-level analysis).

Our application domain is knowledge management in the pig sector. Through a series of cases, we study the relationship between farmers' decision outcomes and their implications for the sector (bottom-up), and, vice versa, the relationship between sector-wide interventions and their effect on farmers' decision outcomes (top-down). Farmers make decisions based on knowledge, which diffuses through the population. We develop our agent-based models and the representation of knowledge throughout the thesis. Our final model is applicable to not only the pig sector, but to any sector with autonomous suppliers who need to make decisions based on criteria to be matched. A secondary aim of this thesis is methodological: to convey the merits of applying agent-based modelling to this type of multi-level research problem.

Our cases concern each farmer's decision of which quality market to supply his pigs to (agent level). As outcome, we observe the spectrum of emerging quality market shares (sector level). Knowledge is assumed to be a prerequisite for market entry, and defined as everything a farmer needs to know to match the entrance criteria set by a market segment, as perceived by that farmer. Knowledge management refers to both the individual farmer's activities to coordinate a market's criteria with his own options, and the activities at sector level to influence all farmers' decision behaviour.

One case addresses reproducing a well-known sector-level phenomenon (the pork cycle) by modelling individuals only. Other cases study the effect on emerging market shares of experimenting with agent-level properties: the amount of available knowledge and the conditions under which knowledge can be exchanged, and knowledge quality. The last case investigates the effect of experimenting with sector-level properties on individual farmer behaviour: two different policy interventions, and variations in demand. We apply multi-level analysis to seek explanations for emergent patterns in terms of individual farmer behaviour. Expert validation is used to evaluate the plausibility of model outcomes and explanations with respect to the real world.

Results show that (1) the presence of sufficient knowledge in the system is more important than the network structure between knowledge exchanging agents for emerging quality market shares; (2) efficient knowledge management increases quality, but there is a limit to that efficiency; and (3) imposing policies on a sector the hard way is not necessarily more effective than making gradual changes, while the latter is more friendly for the individuals. Multi-level analysis proves to give added value to the results: in two cases, an unexpected pattern in model outcomes occurred, for which multi-level analysis could provide an explanation in model terms. Judged by the experts, the explanation for one of the patterns was deemed plausible in reality.

In conclusion we can say that both varying individual properties and varying system-level properties result in responsive behaviour that can be explained in model terms, and that is to some extent plausible in reality. Knowledge representation power appears to differ per model. Dependent on the aim of the model, representation power can be kept deliberately modest (as in the pork cycle model), or can be rich (as in the final model, that allows representing different types of knowledge). We believe that the representation power of agent-based models make them sufficiently suitable to represent a real-world case, as long as the model has a well-defined purpose. We recommend agent-based modelling as a method, with multi-level analysis providing added value. We believe that extending this line of research is promising for any discipline where complex adaptive systems are object of study, of which knowledge management is an example.

Rural development : knowledge and expertise in governance
Assche, K.A.M. van; Hornidge, A.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862566 - 396
plattelandsontwikkeling - kennis - governance - rural development - knowledge
This book offers a perspective on rural development, by discussing the most influential perspectives and rendering their risks and benefits visible. The authors do not present a silver bullet. Rather, they give students, researchers, community leaders, politicians, concerned citizens and development organizations the conceptual tools to understand how things are organized now, which development path has already been taken, and how things could possibly move in a different direction. The authors pay special attention to the different roles of knowledge in rural development, both expert knowledge in various guises and local knowledge. Crafting development strategies requires understanding how new knowledge can fit in and work out in governance. Drawing on experiences in five continents, the authors develop a theoretical framework which elucidates how modes of governance and rural development are inextricably tied. A community is much better placed to choose direction, when it understands these ties.
Development and exchange of knowledge on Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture : report of the workshop on 30 November 2014, on the preparations for a Community for Development and Exchange of Knowledge (CDEK) on Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) with brackish water
Wolters, W. ; Sadek, S. ; Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Roest, C.W.J. ; Wagieh, H. El; Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Schram, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2625) - 33
kennis - kennisoverdracht - landbouw - aquacultuur - knowledge - knowledge transfer - agriculture - aquaculture
Groeiend inzicht kan leiden tot versnelling levenscyclus bollen : de bloembol: van black box naar open boek
Immink, G.H. ; Kierkels, T. ; Heuvelink, E. - \ 2015
Onder Glas 12 (2015)2. - p. 15 - 17.
glastuinbouw - bloembollen - plantenfysiologie - plantkunde - levenscyclus - landbouwkundig onderzoek - methodologie - kennis - greenhouse horticulture - ornamental bulbs - plant physiology - botany - life cycle - agricultural research - methodology - knowledge
Eigenlijk is een bol gewoon een plant met een wat eigenaardige vorm. De meeste processen verlopen hetzelfde. Maar waarom gaat die vermeerdering zo langzaam? En hoe kan het, dat een prachtige bol toch een slechte bloei geeft? Tijd voor meer inzicht in de fysiologie van de bloembol.
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